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pression on public opinion ; its leading doctrines rested rather on metaphysical than on physical considerations; its fundamental positions were found to be gratuitous ; and many of the illustrations, although ingenious, were conceived to be inapplicable and inconclusive. It is now seldom referred to, except as a splendid monument of fruitless labour and misapplied learning. With the name of Darwin, we must close our consideration of the very interesting subject before us. Dr. Bostock has given us an account of the state of medicine subsequent to that time, in France and other nations of Europe, to which we refer our readers. Much improvement has taken place in the method of practice, in the skilfulness of operations, and in the materials of pharmacy. Many diseases of an epidemic nature, as Cholera or Influenza, that have assumed an alarming form, and swept with frightful devastation over every part of the globe, have been examined with an anxious care that has not always been crowned with proportional success. Journals have been established for the
purpose cording and more widely circulating the interesting events of individual practice. Medical education has been supplied by the establishment of King's College and the London University, with a course of instruction complete in all its parts. Many most ingenious inventions have been formed for allaying the torments of disease, and lessening the evils which accompany a long .confinement. The present treatment of the gout, compared with that which existed even thirty or forty years since, may be called the triumph of modern skill. That terrific disease the stone has lost much of its former power. The small-pox will soon be known only as one of those scourges of nature that has passed away; and with the improved cure of disease, the important subject of the preservation of health is far better understood; and not only does the authority of the medical world, but the undeniable proof of the tables of the annuity offices makes evident, that the result of the improvement of medical knowledge has been crowned with the great object wbich it sought to attain--the more frequent alleviation of disease, and the increased duration of human life. But there is one essential requisite,' Dr. Bostock concludes his work by saying,' without which the best means of improvement can be of no avail-a mind disposed to the reception of truth, determined to follow it, wherever it may lead the inquirer, united to a high sense of moral obligation which may induce the medical practitioner to bear in mind that his profession is a deposit placed in his hands for the benefit of mankind, and that he incurs an awful degree of moral responsibility who abuses this sacred trust, or diverts it to a base or selfish purpose.'
ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES OF NORMANDY. MR. URBAN,
western suburb of Rouen, and is, with IN continuation of my former pa- the exception of its nave, the oldest pers on the Antiquities of Normandy, structure still existing, and one of the I shall in this give some account of earliest religious foundations of which the Churches of St. Gervais at Rouen, the ancient capital of the Velocassian and St. Vandrille near Caudebec; for Gauls can boast. The crypt and apsis, the purpose, principally, of corrobo- or east end, are its most interesting rating the opinion now so generally portions. The former is figured and and, I think, truly entertained, that described in Cotman's splendid work;* the distinguishing features of Saxo
res of Saxo. but the editor, without assigning to it Norman architecture may certainly be any positive date, merely states that traced to Roman prototypes.
it was built before the eleventh cen. The church of St. Gervais is situated on a gentle eminence, in the north
* Vol. i. p. 56.
tury. There is no reason, however, Even in the grave was this ambitious why we should not boldly advocate, prince exposed to ignominy; for in for this reverend remain, a higher date, 1562, when Caen was sacked by the and deem it really the holy workman- Protestant troops of Chastillon, the ship of St. Victrix, Archbishop of tomb of William was violated, and his Rouen, A. D. 386, who, having re- bones so widely scattered, that some ceived from St. Ambrose some reliques of them were again brought to the of the martyred St. Gervais, then theatre of his grand oppression, Engfounded and personally assisted (as
land. he himself informs us, in his discourse But we must now proceed with the “ de laude Sanctorum”) in carrying architectural description of our subthe stones for its construction on his ject, from which its interesting history own proper shoulders, a method of has, perhaps, too long detained us. mortifying the flesh to which he sub- Its largest portion is quite modern, in .mitted, with a view, no doubt, of add- bad taste, or rather without any taste ing, at the same time, to the sanctity at all, being as plain and as insipid as of this his favourite endowment. Mr. Blates and whitewash can render it. Rickman says this crypt was construct- The semicircular wall of the east end ed A.D. 350.
is, however, nearly in its pristine state, The only part, however, of the pre- and highly instructive as a specimen sent church of St. Gervais that is at- of the first transition from the Roman tributable to the piety of St. Victrix, to the Gothic style of architecture. and probably the whole then intended This wall was formerly embellished to be built, is the above-named sub- with engaged columns, which time terraneous chapel; the Christian con- has partly worn away, but of which verts of that day and country not the capitals remain in sufficiently indaring to erect more lofty edifices. telligible preservation, and are of al. But by whom, and when the super. most pure Roman Doric and Ionic structure was raised, is not precisely forms. Some have the common volutes known. It was granted by Duke Ri. at their angles; one has, in place of chard II. A. D. 1020, to Fecamp Ab. these, two erected eagles with disbey, and was afterwards attached to played wings; and another has an upSt. Peter's at Chartres; but in the right foliaged capital, somewhat in thirteenth century it again passed to Corinthian, and somewhat in the Gothic the Abbots of Fecamp, who continued taste. These capitals, no doubt, orito be the Priors of St. Gervais, until it ginally had an horizontal architrave or eventually became itself an independ. cornice, as the eaves of the roof are ent abbey.
three or four feet higher than their This church, or one of its apart- abaci; and the intervening masonry, ments, was the death - place of the though much abraded, has every apmighty Conqueror of England, in the pearance of being coeval with the 61st year of his age, on the 9th Sept. shafts and capitals; but it affords no A.D. 1087. Having been dangerously traces of the arched forms which at a injured by the pommel of his saddle later period sprung directly from the at the burning of Mantes, when on
capitals, when a more complete decahis way to Paris with an intention of dence from pure Roman had ensued revenging an insult expressed toward than the subject now before us demonhim by Philip King of France, he
strates. caused himself to be conveyed to the
The crypt, though less illustrative Church of St. Gervais, “ ad ecclesiam of Gothic architecture than the wall Sancti Gervasii ;” and there “ in domo just described, may be considered an non sua," in the house of another, example of a primitive Christian Ordericus Vitalis states, and not, as
church, and we shall therefore notice by some said, in a palace at the Mont it with the particularity it merits. It aux Malades, but in presence of the is immediately beneath the eastern sacred relics of Saint Gervaie, did this portion of the chancel, from which it most potent hero breathe his last, is entered through a trap-door and
down a narrow flight of eight-and" Deserted in his utmost need
twenty steps of stone. In length it is By those his former bounty fed." 35 ft.' by 14 in breadth, and 15 in
height; the roof being a plain semi- It consists of a nave and chancel, with circular vault of small sized rag-stones; north and south ailes, a short north and its east end is also semicircular, and south transept, and a low square It is divided into two unequal parts, tower at their intersection. The prinlike nave and choir, by a plain semi- cipal external ancient features of this circular and very massive arch, of building, are the plain flat chance! which the soffit stones are small and buttresses terminating in a plain pararough, badly joined, and without a pet, supported by a series of blocksregular key-stone, or any appearance the semicircular apsis of the south of stucco or the opus reticulatum so transept, and its large horizontal torus frequent in true Roman temples. This at the base of its window, which is arch springs from square projecting semicircularly headed with an archiabaci on great square pillars, about volt, embellished by the nail - head 8 feet high, which are made up of moulding. The windows of the chanRoman bricks and small rag stones. cel and of the west end are semicircu. A bench of large slab-stones is at- larly headed, those of the chancel betached to all the walls except where it ing the most spacious. The former is interrupted by the division pillars, door - way was
also semicircularly the altar, and the entrance at the centre arched; but the present entrance, and of the western end. This entrance is the eastern window, and the other a narrow, lofty, semicircular arch, windows, are innovations the fourcommunicating with the stair above. teenth century, and the buttresses of mentioned, and was apparently the the ailes are in the various forms and original access to this subterranean situations which the upholding of the church. On the north and south sides fabric has, from time to time, made near the west end, inarched in the necessary. thickness of the walls, are the tombs, The principal internal features of rude table monuments or altars, of the church at St. Vandrille, are strongly the two first Archbishops of Rouen, tinctured with a Roman origin, consiSt. Mellon and St. Avitien; and pro- dering that it must still be deemed a bably their bones still moulder under- Gothic structure. The columns of the neath, for these arches were piously nave are cylindrical and of classical blocked up during the period of Cal- proportions, being slenderer than those vinistic outrage, and re-opened to the of a subsequent era, although some faithful, A.D. 1723. The altar is of antiquaries have estimated the antione rough stone, about eight feet in quity of Gothic columns in the direct length, and covered with the dust of ratio of their comparative diameters many years, as are also the figures of with their height. The bases of these the Virgin and Child, and other rude columns have the claw ornament so embellishments of this hermitage-like characteristic of their style. The cachapel. The only light admitted to pitals closely resemble the Ionic order, this crypt is through a small window except that their volutes are much at its eastern end, above the altar, smaller, and their abacuses shallower, which, although much mutilated, was but they have a well-marked neck and once semicircularly headed and straight astragal of Roman form. The columns sided. So dark, however, must have of the tower are lower than the others, been this chapel, that artificial light and support pointed arches; but all was absolutely necessary for the per- the other arches are semicircular, and formance of its services, and possibly have their several soffits adorned with from this necessity arose, in some de- square sunk pannels, in each of which gree, the practice of employing lights are five rosettes. The columns of the in almost every ceremony of the Ro-chancel are similar to those of the man Catholic religion.
nave; but they have also, upon their Saint Vandrille is a little village chancel side or aspect, three shafts situated in a valley about a league attached, which run up higher than from Caudebec. The church is of the Ionic capitals, and support the that early Saxo-Norman style which transverse and diagonal ribs of the has been lately called, from its simila- chancel vaulting, which are embel. rity to that of many ancient Christian lished at their intersections with bosses churches in the holy city, Romanesque. of small human heads, and lambs.
The south transept is in similar style reducere. Medicandum, h. e. non sám to the nave and chancel; but the north- Vet. Schol. Egentem scilicet ern transept has pointed arches spring. Helleboro." ing from slender shafts attached to the In 1711, Dr. Bentley, that "first wall, and from brackets of a Roman critic wbom a scholar would wish to form which are adorned with ara- consult in adjusting the text of Hobesques. The font is probably coeval race," came out with his memorable with the Church, and stands upon one edition; and if I were set to justify stout central column, and eight sur- the splendid character here quoted of rounding slender shafts.
him from Dr Parr, I don't know that The ruined abbey of Fontenelle is a more decisive proof could by speciclose to the parish church just de- men be given of his critical superiority scribed. It has been despoiled long than in his note on this very passage. since for the erection of a palace of His masterly talent is devoted to the the Archbishops of Rouen, which was defence against Torrentius and the partially destroyed at the Revolution, complete illustration of the reading and is now a cotton manufactory. medicandum. The demonstration is to Much of its splendour yet remains, my mind as solid as it is luminous. and its history has been published by First of all then, let J. M. be adM. Langlois of Rouen, whose talents vised to bestow another perusal on as a draughtsman are equal to his that powerful note, and with increased learning and discrimination as an an- attention too; before he again speaks tiquary PLANTAGENET. of the passage in the reading approved
by Cruquius, Baxter, Bentley, Cun
ingham, and Gesner, as most corQUÆSTIONES VENUSINÆ.
rupt," and one " that has defied the No. V.
learning and ingenuity of all the comIN the Review department of the mentators." Gentleman's Magazine for June, pp. Secondly, as an improvement on the 637-8, the late edition of Professor old lection, mendosum et mendacem, bad Anthon's Horace from Doering's text we nothing else from any quarter proprinted in this country, has afforded posed, J. M. might take the compli. to the Reviewer, J. M., opportunity to ment due to his ingenuity for a very start his own idea for the restoration plausible emendation in ventosum et of what he terms a corrupt passage in mendacem ; that is, so far as ventosum Horace; and he calls on the author might contribute to abate the cacozelon of Horatius Restitutus to pronounce by Baxter justly condemned. his judgment on the passage so re- But thirdly, J. M. must not forget, stored.
that he proceeds per saltum over some The old reading stood thus, 1 E sixty years of interval or more, if Ivi. 39, 40.
from the meaning of a term like ven. Falsus honor juvat, et mendax infamia
tosus in Seneca he would pass back at terret,
once, and assume the similar accepQuem nisi mendosum et mendacem ? tation for when proposed ex ingenio
in Horace. As early as in the year 1578, Cruquius,
That poet has bimself used the word on the authority of MSS. scrupled not
ventosus four several times : let us see to substitute medicandum in the text instead of mendacem, supplying at the
In its literal sense, 4 C. iv. 45-6, same time a clear and sufficient expo
mare ventosum, wind-tost, liable with sition of the advantage of senseafforded by the new reading over the old.
every wind to change its state.
To the metaphorical sense, 1 E. xix. In 1701, our own Baxter was the first editor who followed Cruquius in
37, ventose plebis, fickle and change
able as if it shifted with every wind, adopting medicandum. The following is a very good sample of his better Tully may seem to have preluded in
the well known passage Pro Murenâ, style of criticism. “ Mendosum et Mendacem cacozelon
(Quod enim fretum ...... tot motus; est Horatio indignum: quare non du
tantas, tam varias habere putatis agibitavimus cum Cruquii MSS. et veteri
tationes fluctuum, quantas perturbainterprete medicandum in suam sedem
C the first letter of Carmina.
in what usage.
tiones et quantos æstus habet ratio however, many who regard the Porcomitiorum ?) as well as by the phrase traits on Medals as the least instrucpopularis aura, which, like many other tive, and, disdaining the effigy of the phrases belonging to civil life, Horace Emperor, turn to the reverse, which had in common with Cicero.
records his victories, his vanity, or his Again, we find the epithet in a sic munificence. milar application, 2 E. i. 177, ventoso Upon thèse designs we have many Gloria curru, where the fickleness of learned commentaries, whilst the obsuch Glory, is by an easy metonymy
verses have been frequently neglected attributed to her car.
by numismatic writers, although colBut Horace, in the notion of fickle, lections of portraits have been highly humorous, capricious, has also applied valued in all civilized countries, even the term personally, to himself. 1 E. by those who were not attached to viii, 12, Romæ Tibur amem, ventosus, antiquarian studies. Tibure Romam.
Some early authors give indifferent Now I assert that none of these ac. representations of the heads on the ceptations will suit that meaning of ven- coins of those Emperors of whom they tosus, combined with mendax in Seneca, furnish biographical notices, butscarcefor which J. M. ex emendatione would ly ever make any remarks on the feainto the text of Horace introduce it ; tures exhibited. It will, however, be inasmuch as the use of ventosus so com
found that the countenance of the debined is to mark the specific character spot, as delineated on his medals, geof the braggard alone, comprehending nerally accords with the descriptions no other whatsoever. Ventosus as a furnished by the ancient historians. personal attribute in the sense of loud, Visconti, in his “ Iconographie Ro. noisy, boastful, is elsewhere unknown maine,” (a work which, unfortunately to Horace; and in the passage before for the antiquary, he did not live to us, it is a general, not a specific charac- complete,) has devoted some chapters ter, that is demanded by the context. to the portraits found on consular
Let the reader therefore judge, from coins ; but his attributions appear to the sentence of Seneca here more me to be sometimes fanciful; for infully quoted, how little relevant the stance, he tells us that the head on quotation of J. M. can be considered the remarkable coins of the Gens Memto any purpose of illustrating Horace. mia, recording the celebration of the
Fugere itaque debebit [iracundus] first Cerialia, is that of Romulus ; but omnes, quos irritaturos iracundiam there does not appear to exist any sciet. Qui sunt, inquis, isti? Multi sufficient authority for such an hypoex variis causis idem facturi; offendet thesis. The same writer attributes to te superbus contemptu, dives contu- the founder of Rome the head on a meliâ, petulans injuriâ, lividus malig- coin or rather medalet, of, probably nitate, pugnax contentione, ventosus the time of the Antonines. It bears et mendax vanitate. Non feres a sus
a bearded head crowned with waterpicioso timeri, a pertinace vinci, a de
weeds, and is doubtless intended for that licato fastidiri," &c. &c. Seneca de of a river god--perhaps for the Tiber. Irâ, I. iii. c. viii. ex ed. J. Fr. Gro.
On the coins of Roman families, we novii. Elzevir, 1649, V. i. pp. 65, 66.
have, however, several portraits of un16th June.
H. R. doubted authenticity, although some
of them are so rude as to leave a
to their being very IT has been observed by a favourite
accurate likenesses. Of these the English author,* that the first and
head of Tatius Sabinus and the Con. most obvious use of Ancient Medals, is
sul Postumius may be cited as exthe showing us the Portraits of indi- amples; but the heads of Ancus and viduals who are conspicuous in his
of Numa may be considered accurate tory; and that the principal charm in
portraits of the Roman monarchs. numismatic studies, consists in the
The Denarii of Pompey bear a porcontemplation of the features of those trait which agrees with the descripwho are celebrated for their virtues or
tion of Plutarch ; though on some of notorious for their vices. There are,
them the features are very clumsily,
and indeed grotesquely executed; but * Addison.
these may have been the performance