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should protect him. I would pursue him through the whining piety of a Methodist. We had realife, and try the last exertion of my abilities to pre-son to expect that notice would have been taken serve the perishable infamy of his name, and make of the petitions which the King has received from it immortal.
the English nation; and, although I can conceive What then, my Lord, is this the event of all some personal motives for not yielding to them, the sacrifices you have made to Lord Bute's pat- I can find none, in common prudence or decency, ronage, and to your own unfortunate ambition ? for treating them with contempt. Be assured, Was it for this you abandoned your earliest friend. my Lord, the English people will not tamely ships—the warmest connections of your youth, submit to this unworthy treatment. They had and all those honorable engagements, by which a right to be heard; and their petitions, if not you once solicited, and might have acquired, the granted, deserved to be considered. Whatever esteem of your country? Have you secured no be the real views and doctrine of a court, the recompense for such a waste of honor? Un- Sovereign should be taught to preserve some happy man! What party will receive the com- forms of attention to his subjects, and, if he will mon deserter of all parties? Without a client not redress their grievances, not to make them to flatter, without a friend to console you, and a topic of jest and mockery among the lords and with only one companion from the bonest house ladies of the bedchamber. Injuries may be of Bloomsbury, you must now retire into a dread. atoned for and forgiven; but insults admit of no fal solitude, (which you have created for your compensation. They degrade the mind in its self]. At the most active period of life, you own esteem, and force it to recover its level by must quit the busy scene, and conceal yourself revenge. This neglect of the petitions was, howfrom the world, if you would hope to save the ever, a part of your original plan of government; wretched remains of a ruined reputation. The nor will any consequences it has produced acrices never fail of their effect. They operate count for your deserting your Sovereign in the like age-bring on dishonor before its time, and, midst of that distress in which you and your new in the prime of youth, leave the character broken friends (the Bedfords) had involved him. One and exhausted.
would think, my Lord, you might have taken Yet your conduct has been mysterious as well this spirited resolution before you had dissolved as contemptible. Where is now that firmness, the last of those early connections which once, or obstinacy, so long boasted of by your friends, even in your own opinion, did honor to your and acknowledged by your enemies? We were youth-before you had obliged Lord Granby to taught to expect that you would not leave the quit a service he was attached to-before you ruin of this country to be completed by other had discarded one Chancellor and killed another.5 hands, but were determined either to gain a decisive victory over the Constitution, or to perish,
throwing it in the teeth of the Duke, especially as
the petitions and remonstrances of London, Westbravely at least, in the last dike of the preroga-minster. Surrey. York, and other parts of the king. tive. You knew the danger, and might have
dom, respecting the most urgent political concerns, been provided for it. You took sufficient time were passed over in silence, and thus treated with to prepare for a meeting with your Parliament, contempt. to confirm the mercenary fidelity of your de Lord Granby had resigned his office as Com. pendents, and to suggest to your Sovereign a mander-in-chief aboat a month before, affirming that language suited to his dignity, at least, if not to
he had been wholly misled under the administration his benevolence and wisdom. Yet, while the
of the Duke of Grafton as to the affair of Wilkes, and
declaring that he considered his vote on that subject whole kingdom was agitated with anxious ex
as the greatest misfortune of his life. pectation upon one great point, you meanly
When Lord Camden was discarded and compelled eraded the question, and, instead of the explicit to resign, for saying in Parliament that he had long firmness and decision of a King, you gave us disapproved the measures of the cabinet, but had nothing but the misery of a ruined grazier,* and been unable to resist them, the King found it diffi
| cult to induce any one to accept the office of Lord The words in brackets were contained in the Chancellor. He applied to Mr. Charles Yorke, son Letter as it originally appeared in the Public Ad of the celebrated Lord Hardwicke, but could not vertiser, but were struck out by Junius in bis re- prevail with him, because an acceptance would vised edition. As they add an important idea, and have been a virtual abandonment of his principles. give the period an easier cadence, it may be doubt. After trying in other quarters, the King again re. ed whether the author did wisely to omit them. It quested a private interview with Mr. Yorke, and is annecessary to remark on the animated flow and made such appeals to him (it is believed) as no moncondensed energy of this paragraph. An able critic arch ought ever to address to a subject, declaring has said, in rather strong terms, "No language, an- | that, if he would only accept the seals, "an admin. cient or modern, can afford a specimen of impressive istration might soon be formed which the nation eloquence superior to this."
would entirely approve." Mr. Yorke was at length • The King's speech, wbich was drawn up by the overpowered; be sunk on his knees in token of Duke of Grafton for the opening of this session, went submission; and the King gave him his hand to by the pame of the “borned-cattle speech," because kiss, saluting him as Lord Chancellor of England. it commenced with referring to a prevalent distem. Mr. Yorke instantly repaired to the house of his per among the horned cattle of the kingdom, as a brother, Lord Hardwicke, to explain the step he matter of great importance, requiring the attention had taken, and, to his great surprise, found Lord of Parliament. This created universal merriment; Rockingham, and the other leaders of Opposition, and Janias could not deny himself the pleasure of I there, concerting with his brother the best means
To what an abject condition have you labored to make it contemptible. You will say, perhaps, to reduce the best of princes, when the unhappy that the faithful servants in whose hands you man, who yields at last to such personal instance have left him are able to retrieve his honor and and solicitation as never can be fairly employed to support his government. You have publicly against a subject, feels himself degraded by his declared, even since your resignation, that you compliance, and is unable to survive the dis-approved of their measures and admired their graceful honors which his gracious Sovereign conduct, particularly that of the Earl of Sandhad compelled him to accept. He was a man wich. What a pity it is that, with all this apof spirit, for he had a quick sense of shame, and pearance, you should think it necessary to sep. death has redeemed his character. I know your arate yourself from such amiable companions ! Grace too well to appeal to your feelings upon You forget, my Lord, that while you are lavish this event; but there is another heart, not yet, I in the praise of men whom you desert, you are hope, quite callous to the touch of humanity, to publicly opposing your conduct to your opinions, which it ought to be a dreadlul lesson forever. and depriving yourself of the only plausible pre
Now, my Lord, let us consider the situation tense you had for leaving your sovereign overto which you have conducted, and in which you whelmed with distress I call it plausible, for, bave thought it advisable to abandon your royal in truth, there is no reason whatsoever, less than master. Whenever the people have complained, the frowns of your master, that could justify a and nothing better could be said in defense of the man of spirit for abandoning his post at a momeasures of government, it has been the fashion ment so critical and important! It is in vain to to answer us, though not very fairly, with an evade the question. If you will not speak out, appeal to the private virtues of your sovereign. the public have a right to judge from appearan" Has he not, to relieve the people, surrendered ces. We are authorized to conclude that you a considerable part of his revenue ? Has he not either differed from your colleagues, whose measmade the judges independent by fixing them in ures you still aslect to defend, or that you thought their places for life ?” My Lord, we acknowl-the administration of the King's affairs no longer edge the gracious principle which gave birth to tenable. You are at liberty to choose between these concessions, and have nothing to regret but the hypocrite and ihe coward. Your best friends that it has never been adhered to. At the end are in doubt which way they shall incline. Your of seven years, we are loaded with a debt of country unites the characters, and gives you cred. above five hundred thousand pounds upon the it for them both. For my own part, I see nothcivil list, and we now see the Chancellor of ing insonsistent in your conduct. You began Great Britain tyrannically forced out of his of- with betraying the people—you conclude with fice, not for want of abilities, not for want of in betraying the King. tegrity, or of attention to his duty, but for deliv In your treatment of particular persons, you ering his honest opinion in Parliament upon the have preserved the uniformity of your character. greatest constitutional question that has arisen Even Mr. Bradshaw declares that no man was since the Revolution. We care not to whose ever so ill used as himself. As to the provision private virtues you appeal; the theory of such you have made for his family, he was entitled to a government is falsehood and mockery; the it by the house he lives in. The successor of practice is oppression. You have labored, then one chancellor might well pretend to be the rival (though I confess to no purpose), to rob your of another. It is the breach of private friendmaster of the only plausible answer that ever ship which touches Mr. Bradshaw; and, to say was given in defense of his government-of the the truth, when a man of his rank and abilities opinion which the people have conceived of his had taken so active a part in your affairs, he personal honor and integrity. The Duke of Bed- ought not to have been let down at last with a ford was more moderate than your Grace. He miserable pension of fifteen hundred pounds a only forced bis master to violate a solemn promise made to an individual (Mr. Stuart Mackenzie. This nobleman was notoriously profligate in his But you, my Lord, have successfully extended life. Such was the case also, to a great extent, with your advice to every political, every moral en-Gower, Rigby, and all the Bedford men in the Duke gagement that could bind either the magistrate
of Grafton's ministry.
Mr. Bradshaw, a dependent of the Duke of Grafor the man. The condition of a King is often
ton, received a pension of £1500 a year for his own miserable; but it required your Grace's abilities
life and the lives of all his sons, while Sir Edward
Hawke, who had saved the state, received what of carrying on their attack upon the government. was actually worth a less sum. Junius, alluding to When he told his story, they all turned upon bim Bradshaw's complaints, sneeringly says that he was with a burst of indignation, and reproached him as certainly entitled to a large pension on account of guilty of a flagrant breach of honor. He returned the house he lives in," referring to a fact which to his house overwhelmed with grief, and within occasioned considerable speculation, viz., that Brad. two days his death was announced. There was a shaw had just taken a very costly residence, pregeneral suspicion of suicide, and it has never yet viously occupied by Lord Chancellor Northington. been made certain that he died a natural death. The whole passage is obviously a sneering one, Well might Junius say, in reference to the King, though Heron takes it seriously, and then repre. “There is another heart not yet, I hope, quite cal. sents Junius as inconsistent with himself, because lous to the touch of humanity, to which it ought to he alludes, in a note, to the largeness of Bradshaw's be a dreadful lesson forever."
pension as compared with Admiral Hawke's.
year. Colonel Luttrell, Mr. Onslow, and Mr. fold recrimination, and to set you at defiance. Burgoyne were equally engaged with you, and The injury you have done him aflects his moral have rather more reason to complain than Mr. character. You knew that the offer to purchase Bradshaw. These are men, my Lord, whose the reversion of a place which has hitherto been friendship you should have adhered to on the sold under a decree of the Court of Chancery, same principle on which you deserted Lord however imprudent in his situation, would no Rockingham, Lord Chatham, Lord Camden, and way tend to cover him with that sort of guilt the Duke of Portland. We can easily account which you wished to fix upon him in the eyes for your violating your engagements with men of of the world. You labored then, by every spehonor, but why should you betray your natural cies of false suggestion, and even by publishing connections? Why separate yourself from Lord counterfeit letters, to have it understood that he Sandwich, Lord Gower, and Mr. Rigby, or leave had proposed terms of accommodation to you, the three worthy gentlemen above mentioned to and had offered to abandon bis principles, his shift for themselves? With all the fashionable party, and his friends. You consulted your own indulgence of the times, this country does not breast for a character of consummate treachery, abound in characters like theirs; and you may and gave it to the public for that of Mr. Vaughan. find it a difficult matter to recruit the black cat. I think myself obliged to do this justice to an inalogue of your friends.
jured man, because I was deceived by the apThe recollection of the royal patent you sold pearances thrown out by your Grace, and have to Mr. Hine obliges me to say a word in defense frequently spoken of his conduct with indignaof a man (Mr. Vaughanwhom you have taken tion. If he really be, what I think him, honest, the most dishonorable means to injure.% I do though mistaken, he will be happy in recovering not refer to the sham prosecution which you af- his reputation, though at the expense of his unfected to carry on against him. On that ground, derstanding. Here, I see, the matter is likely I doubt not he is prepared to meet you with ten- to rest. Your Grace is afraid to carry on the
prosecution. Mr. Hine keeps quiet possession This allades to the patent of an office granted
of his purchase; and Governor Burgoyne, refor the benefit of Mr. Burgoyne, who, with the Duke of Grafton's permission, sold out the annual income
lieved from the apprehension of refunding the for a gross sum to a person named Hine. The pros
money, sits down, for the remainder of his life, ecution mentioned in the next sentence is thus spo INFAMOUS and CONTENTED. ken of by Woodfall, in his Jupius, vol. i., 322: “Mr. I believe, my Lord, I may now take my leave Samuel Vaughan was a merchant in the city, of hith- of you forever. You are no longer that resoluto erto anblemished character, and strongly attached minister who had spirit to support the most vioto the popular cause. The office he attempted to
lent measures; who compensated for the want procure bad at times been previously disposed of for
of good and great qualities by a brave determina pecuniary consideration, and had, on one particu. lar occasiou, been sold by an order of a Court of
ation (which some people admired and relied on) Chancery, and consisted in the reversion of the to maintain himself without them. The reputaclerkship to the Supreme Court in the island of Ja. tion of obstinacy and perseverance might have maica. A Mr. Howell was, in fact, at this very time supplied the place of all the absent virtues. You in treaty with the patentee for the purchase of bis have now added the last negative to your charresignation, wbicb clearly disproved any criminal in- acter, and meanly confessed that you are desti. teption in Mr. Vaughan. He was, however, pros- tute of the common spirit of a man. Retire ecuted, obviously from political motives, but the
then, my Lord, and hide your blushes from the prosecution was dropped after the affair of Hine's patent was brought before the public." Mr. Heron
world; for, with such a load of shame, even states, however, that “the office itself had never
BLACK may change its color. A mind such as been directly or avowedly sold by the Crown, though yours, in the solitary hours of domestic enjoythe life-interest had been, under a decree of Chance ment, may still find topics of consolation. You ry." It is not surprising (if this were so) that Mr. may find it in the memory of violated friendVaughan, not being a professional man, should have ship, in the aMictions of an accomplished prince, failed to discern the difference. His application,
o the difference. His application, whom you have disgraced and deserted, and in therefore, may have been made without any crim
the agitations of a great country, driven by your inal intention. To prosecute in such a case does
councils to the brink of destruction. seem a very severe measure; and, as the prosecu. tion was dropped from this time, it would seem that
The palm of ministerial firmness is now transthe Duke himself considered it a bad business. | ferred to Lord North. He tells us so himself,
It may be added, that Sir Dennis Le Marchant, in with the plenitude of the ore rotundo ;' and I am bis edition of Walpole's Memoirs of George III., ready enough to believe that, while he can keep says. “Junias's - account of the prosecution of his place he will not easily be persuaded to reVaughan) is fair-making the usual deductions." sign it. Your Grace was the firm minister of Walpole censures the prosecution as foolish. As vesterday. Lord North is the firm minister of to Hine's patent, he says, " It was proved that he
to-day. To-morrow, perhaps, his Majesty, in (the Duke) had bestowed on Colonel Burgoyne a
e us a rival for you both, place, which the latter ras to sell to reimburse him. / self for the expenses of bis election at Preston." 19 Note by Junius. “This eloquent person has go Vol. u. 400. This was the statement made by Jul as far as the discipline of Demostenes De Constant.
prove his D10s; and it is not, therefore, wonderful that, after I ly speaks with pebbles in his mouth, to the exposure of such a transaction, the Duke thought articulation."--This refers to appearany o Lord best to say as little as possible about Mr. Vaughan. North, whose “tongue was too large for luis mouth."
You are too well acquainted with the temper of | ment was immature, and his strength of purpose your late allies to think it possible that Lord unequal to the control of his passions. He was North should be permitted to govern this coun- only thirty-four years old when he was driven try. If we may believe common fame, they from power. During a long life which followed, have shown him their superiority already. His he retrieved his character. He showed himself, Majesty is indeed too gracious to insult his sub- as Sir Dennis Le Marchant states, to be “by no jects by choosing his first minister from among means the insignificant or worthless personage the domestics of the Duke of Bedford. That that he appears in the pages of Walpole and would have been too gross an outrage to the Junius. A genuine love of peace, and hatred of three kingdoms. Their purpose, however, is oppression, either civil or religious, marked his equally answered by pushing forward this un-whole political life; and great as were the erhappy figure, and forcing it to bear the odium rors which Walpole and Junius have justly deof measures which they in reality direct. With nounced in his private conduct, it is only just to out immediately appearing to govern, they pos. say, that from the date of these Memoirs (1771) sess the power, and distribute the emoluments to his death, which comprises a period of near of government as they think proper. They still forty years, there were few individuals more adhere to the spirit of that calculation which highly and more generally esteemed."-Note to made Mr. Luttrell representative of Middlesex. Walpole's Memoirs of George III., vol. iv., p. 73. Far from regretting your retreat, they assure us very gravely that it increases the real strength In leaving Junius, the reader will be gratified of the ministry. According to this way of rea- to see the following estimates of his character soning, they will probably grow stronger, and and writings from the two most distinguished more flourishing, every hour they exist ; for I literary men of that day, Mr. Burke, a Whig, think there is hardly a day passes in which some and Dr. Johnson, a Tory. one or other of his Majesty's servants does not leave them to improve by the loss of his assist
| Estimate of Junius, By Mr. Burke.' ance. But, alas! their countenances speak a How comes this Junius to have broke through different language. When the members drop the cobwebs of the law, and to range uncontroloff, the main body can not be insensible of its led, unpunished through the land ? The myrapproaching dissolution. Even the violence of midons of the Court have been long, and are their proceedings is a signal of despair. Like still, pursuing him in vain. They will not spend broken tenants, who have had warning to quit their time upon me, or you, or you. No; they the premises, they curse their landlord, destroy disdain such vermin, when the mighty boar of the fixtures, throw every thing into confusion, the forest, that has broken through all their toils, and care not what mischief they do to the estate. is before them. But what will all their efforts
JUNIUs. avail? No sooner has he wounded one than he
lays another dead at his feet. For my part, The character of the Duke of Grafton, as given when I saw his attack upon the King, I own my by Horace Walpole in his Memoirs of George blood ran cold. I thought that he had ventured III., accords in most respects with the represent too far, and there was an end of his triumphs. ations of Junius. " His fall from power was Not that he had not asserted many truths. Yes, universally ascribed to his pusillanimity; but sir, there are in that composition many bold whether betrayed by his fears or his friends, he truths, by which a wise prince might profit. It had certainly been the chief author of his own was the rancor and venom with which I was disgrace. His haughtiness, indolence, reserve, struck. In these respects the North Briton is and improvidence, had conjured up the storm ; as much inferior to him, as in strength, wit, and but his obstinacy and fickleness always relaying | judgment. But while I expected in this daring each other, and always mal à propos, were the flight his final ruin and fall, behold him rising radical causes of the numerous absurdities that still higher, and coming down souse upon both discolored his conduct and exposed him to de- houses of Parliament. Yes, he did make you his served reproaches—nor had he a depth of un- quarry, and you still bleed from the wounds of derstanding to counterbalance the defects of his his talons. You crouched, and still crouch, betemper."--Vol. iv., 69. His love of the turf neath his rage. Nor has he dreaded the terrors brought him into habits of intimacy with low of your brow, sir ;? he has attacked even youand unprincipled men, whose wants he was com- he has—and I believe you have no reason to pelled to supply, and whose characters often re- triumph in the encounter. In short, alter carryflected dishonor upon his own. His immorali- ing away our Royal Eagle in his pounces, and ties, though public, appeared less disgraceful at dashing him against a rock, he has laid you pros. that day, when the standard of sentiment on this trate. Kings, Lords, and Commons are but the subject was extremely low; and in this respect sport of his fury. Were he a member of this he was so far outdone by Lord Sandwich and House, what might not be expected from his others of "the Bloomsbury gang," with whom
From a speech delivered in the House of Comhe was connected, that his vices were thrown
mons. comparatively into the shade. It ought to be a Sir Fletcher Norton, Speaker of the House, was stated, in justice to the Duke of Grafton, that he distinguished for the largeness of his overhanging entered very early into public life, when his judg. 1 eyebrows.
knowledge, his firmness, and integrity ? He he has the art of persuading when he seconded would be easily known by his contempt of all desire; as a reasoner, he has convinced those danger, by his penetration, by his vigor. Noth- who had no doubt before; as a moralist, he has ing would escape his vigilance and activity. Bad taught that virtue may disgrace; and as a paministers could conceal nothing from his sagaci. triot, he has gratified the mean by insults on the ty; nor could promises nor threats induce him high. Finding sedition ascendant, he has been to conceal any thing from the public.
able to advance it; finding the nation combusti
ble, he has been able to inflame it. Let us ab. ESTIMATE OF Junius, By Dr. Johnson.3 stract from his wit the vivacity of insolence, and
This thirst of blood, however the visible pro-withdraw from his efficacy the sympathetic favor moters of sedition may think it convenient to
of plebeian malignity; I do not say that we shall shrink from the accusation, is loudly avowed by | leave him nothing ; the cause that I desend JUNIUS, the writer to whom his party owes much scorns the help of falsehood; but if we leave of its pride, and some of its popularity. Of Ju- him only his merit, what will be his praise ? Nius it can not be said, as of Ulysses, that he
| It is not by his liveliness of imagery, his pun. scatters ambiguous expressions among the vul- gency of periods, or his fertility of allusion, that gar :4 for he cries havoc without reserve, and en- he detains the cits of London and the boors of deavors to let slip the dogs of foreign and of Middlesex. Of style and sentiment they take no civil war, ignorant whither they are going, and cognizance. They admire him for virtues like careless what may be their prey.5 Junius has
their own, for contempt of order and violence sometimes made his satire felt; but let not in
of outrage, for rage of defamation and audacity judicious admiration mistake the venom of the of falsehood. The supporters of the Bill of shaft for the vigor of the blow. He has some. | Rights feel no niceties of composition nor dextimes sported with lucky malice; but to him terities of sophistry; their faculties are better that knows his company, it is not hard to be sar- proportioned to the bawl of Bellas or barbarity castic in a mask. While he walks like Jack the of Beckford; but they are told that Junius is on Giant Killer in a coat of darkness, he may do their side, and they are therefore sure that Jumuch mischief with little strength. Novelty Nius is infallible. Those who know not whither captivates the superficial and thoughtless ; ve- he would lead them, resolve to follow him; and hemence delights the discontented and turbulent. those who can not find his meaning, hope he He that contradicts acknowledged truth will al. | means rebellion. ways have an audience; he that vilifies estab- Junius is an unusual phenomena, on which lished authority will always find abettors. some have gazed with wonder, and some with
JUNIUS burst into notice with a blaze of im. terror; but wonder and terror are transitory paspudence which has rarely glared upon the world sions. He will soon be more closely viewed or before, and drew the rabble after him as a mon
more attentively examined, and what folly has ster makes a show. When he had once pro
taken for a comet, that from its flaming hair ided for his safety by impenetrable secrecy, he shook pestilence and war, inquiry will find to be had nothing to combat but truth and justice, en only a meteor formed by the vapors of putrefyemies whom he knows to be feeble in the dark. ing democracy, and kindled into flame by the Being then at liberty to indulge himself in all effervescence of interest struggling with convicthe immunities of invisibility-out of the reach tion, which, after having plunged its followers in of danger, he has been bold; out of the reach of a bog, will leave us inquiring why we regardshame, he has been confident. As a rhetorician,
Yet, though I can not think the style of JuFrom a pamphlet on the seizure of the Falkland Islands, published in 1771.
nius secure from criticism—though his expres
sions are often trite, and his periods feeble--I Hinc semper Ulysses Criminibus terrere novis ; hinc spargere voces
should never have stationed him where he has In vulgum ambiguas.- Virgil, Æneid, ii., 97.
placed himself, had I not rated him by his mors And Cesar's spirit, ranging for revenge,
als rather than his faculties. “What,” says With Até by bis side, come hot from hell,
Pope, "must be the priest, where the monkey is Shall in these confines, with a monarch's voice, a god ?” What must be the drudge of a party, Cry Havoc, and let slip the dogs of war.
of which the heads are Wilkes and Crosby, Saw. Shakspeare's Julius Cesar, Act iii., Sc. ii. I bridge and Townsend ?