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vorite had some apparent influence upon every certain services to be performed for the Favoradministration; and every set of ministers pre- ite's security, or to gratify his resentments, served an appearance of duration as long as they which your predecessors in office had the wissubmitted to that influence. But there were dom or the virtue not to undertake. The mo
ment this refractory spirit was discovered, their ? If the reader wishes to understand the true state
disgrace was determined. Lord Chatham, Mr. of parties at this time, and the real merits of the soC
Grenville, and Lord Rockingham have success. much agitated question of favoritism, he will be aid. ed by a consideration of the following facts:
ively had the honor to be dismissed, for preferWilliam III. was placed on the throne in the rev. ring their duty, as servants ol the public, to those olution of 1689, by a union of the great Whig fami-compliances which were expected from their lies; and his successors were held there against the station. A submissive administration was at last efforts of the Jacobites by the same power. Hence gradually collected from the deserters of all parthe government of the country "on Revolution prin ties, interests, and connections; and nothing reciples," so often spoken of, was really, to a great mained but to find a leader for these gallant, extent, the government of the King himself as well
well-disciplined troops. Stand forth, my Lord, as the country, by a union of these families power
for thou art the man ! Lord Bute found no reful enough to control Parliament. Junius has very graphically described, in the preceding Letter, the
e source of dependence or security in the proud, process by which George II., « under the happy in- imposing superiority of Lord Chatham's abilities, fluence of a connection between his ministers, was the shrewd, inflexible judgment of Mr. Grenville, relieved of the cares of government.” When George nor in the mild but determined integrity of Lord III. came to the throne, be determined to break Rockingham. His views and situation required away from these shackles, and to rule according to a creature void of all these properties; and he his own views and feelings, selecting such men from was forced to go through every division reso all parties as he considered best fitted to adminis
lution, composition, and refinement of political ter the government. If he had thrown himself into the hands of Lord Chatham for the accomplishment
chemistry, before he happily arrived at the caput of this design, he would probably have succeeded. mortuum of vitriol in your Grace. Flat and inThat great statesman, by the splendor of his abili sipid in your retired state, but, brought into acties, and his unbounded influence with the body of tion, you become vitriol again. Such are the the people, might have raised up a counterpoise extremes of alternate indolence or fury which against the weight of those great family combina have governed your whole administration. Your tions in the peerage. But George III. disliked the
circumstances with regard to the people soon Great Commoner, and had no resource but his ear
becoming desperate, like other honest servants, ly friend, Lord Bute. But this nobleman had nei.
you determined to involve the best of masters in ther the abilities nor the political influence which
the same difficulties with yourself. We owe it were necessary for the accomplishment of such a scheme. As a Scotchman, particularly, he had to to your Grace's well-directed labors, that your encounter the bitterest jealousy of the English. sovereign has been persuaded to doubt of the asAfter a brief effort to administer the government, he fections of his subjects, and the people to suspect gave up the attempt in despair. Still, there was a the virtues of their sovereign, at a time when wide-spread suspicion that he maintained an undue both were unquestionable. You have degraded influence over the King by secret advice and inter
the royal dignity into a base, dishonorable comcourse. It seems now to be settled, however, that
petition with Mr. Wilkes, nor had you abilities to such was not the fact. The complaint of his con
carry even this last contemptible triumph over a tinuing to rule as Favorite, is now admitted to have been chiefly or wholly unfounded. But the King,
private man, without the grossest violation of if he persevered in his plan, must have some agents
the fundamental laws of the Constitution and and advisers. Hence, it was maintained by Mr. King's resolute determination to free himself from Burke, in his celebrated pamphlet entitled Thoughts the thraldom in which the great Revolution fami. on the Present Discontents, that there was a regu- lies' were prepared to bind him. They felt that the lar organization, a “cabinet behind the throne," reign of a haughty oligarchy was pot merely degradwhich overruled the measures of the ostensible mio. ing to the sovereign, but ruinous to the claims of istry. Sach, substantially, were the views of Junew men' endowed with genius and capacity for nius, though he chose to give prominence to Lord affairs." The King, however, had not the requisite Bute as most hated by the people. He represents largeness or strength of understanding to carry out one ministry after another to have been sacrificed the design, and he had rejected the only man who through the influence of his Lordship. He treats could have enabled him to do it. He therefore the Duke of Grafton as the willing tool of this sys- threw himself into the hands of the Tories. But his tem of favoritism. All this was greatly exagger- quarrel with Wilkes was the great misfortune of ated. Private influence did probably exist to a lim- his life. He seems at first to have been ignorant of ited extent; but the King's frequent changes of the law on the points in question, and his ministers ministers resulted partly from personal disgust, and had not the honesty and firmness to set him right. partly from his inability to carry on the government On the contrary, they went forward, at his bidding, without calling in new strength. The great Whig into the most flagrant violations of the Constitution. families, in the mean time, felt indignant at these The great body of the nation became alienated in attempts of the King to free himself from their con. their affections. On these points the attacks of Ju. trol. Junius represented the feelings of these men; nius were just, and his services important in defend. and there was much less of real patriotism in bis at- ing the rights of the people. The King was defeattack on the King than he pretends. It was a strug. ed; he was compelled to give up the contest; and gle for power. “There were many," says an able subsequent votes of Parliament established the prin. writer, “ among the Whig party, who rejoiced at the ciples for wbich Junius contended.
rights of the people. But these are rights, my | House of Commons must declare themselves not Lord, which you can no more annihilate than only independent of their constituents, but the deyou can the soil to which they are annexed. termined enemies of the Constitution. Consider, The question no longer turns upon points of na- my Lord, whether this be an extremity to which tional honor and security abroad, or on the de- their fears will permit them to advance; or, if grees of expediency and propriety of measures their protection should fail you, how far you are at home. It was not inconsistent that you should authorized to rely upon the sincerity of those abandon the cause of liberty in another country smiles, which a pious court lavishes without re(Corsica), which you had persecuted in your own; luctance upon a libertine by profession. It is and in the common arts of domestic corruption, not, indeed, the least of the thousand contradicwe miss no part of Sir Robert Walpole's system tions which attend you, that a man, marked to except his abilities. In this humble, imitative the world by the grossest violation of all cereline you might long have proceeded, safe and con- mony and decorum, should be the first servant temptible. You might probably never have risen of a court, in which prayers are morality, and to the dignity of being hated, and you might even kneeling is religion. Trust not too far to aphave been despised with moderation. But, it pearances, by which your predecessors have been seems, you meant to be distinguished ; and to a deceived, though they have not been injured. mind like yours there was no other road to fame Even the best of princes may at last discover but by the destruction of a noble fabric, which that this is a contention in which every thing you thought had been too long the admiration may be lost, but nothing can be gained; and, as of mankind. The use you have made of the you became minister by accident, were adopted military force, introduced an alarming change in without choice, and continued without favor, be the mode of executing the laws. The arbitrary assured that, whenever an occasion presses, you appointment of Mr. Luttrell invades the founda- will be discarded without even the forms of retion of the laws themselves, as it manifestly gret. You will then have reason to be thanktransfers the right of legislation from those whom ful if you are permitted to retire to that seat the people have chosen to those whom they have of learning, which, in contemplation of the sysrejected. With a succession of such appoint- tem of your life, the comparative purity of your ments, we may soon see a House of Commons manners with those of their high steward (Lord collected, in the choice of which the other towns Sandwich), and a thousand other recommending and counties of England will have as little share circumstances, has chosen you to encourage the as the devoted county of Middlesex.
growing virtue of their youth, and to preside Yet I trust your Grace will find that the peo- over their education. Whenever the spirit of ple of this country are neither to be intimidated distributing prebends and bishoprics shall have by violent measures, nor deceived by refinement. departed from you, you will find that learned When they see Mr. Luttrell seated in the House seminary perfectly recovered from the delirium of Commons by mere dint of power, and in di- of an installation, and, what in truth it ought to rect opposition to the choice of a whole county, be, once more a peaceful scene of slumber and they will not listen to those subtleties by which meditation. The venerable tutors of the unievery arbitrary exertion of authority is explained versity will no longer distress your modesty by into the law and privilege of Parliament. It re- proposing you for a pattern to their pupils. The quires no persuasion of argument, but simply the learned dullness of declamation will be silent; evidence of the senses, to convince them, that to and even the venal muse, though happiest in fic. transfer the right of election from the collective tion, will forget your virtues. Yet, for the bento the representative body of the people, contra-efit of the succeeding age, I could wish that your dicts all those ideas of a House of Commons retreat might be deferred until your morals shall which they have received from their forefathers, happily be ripened to that maturity of corruption and which they had already, though vainly, per- at which, philosophers tell us, the worst examhaps, delivered to their children. The principles cease to be contagious.
JUNIUS. ples on which this violent measure has been defended have added scorn to injury, and forced us
3 This attack on the moral and religious character to feel that we are not only oppressed, but in
of the King was wholly unmerited. A sovereign sulted.
can not always find ministers able to carry on the With what force, my Lord, with what protec
government, whose private character he approves.
C | George III. had no grimace in bis religion; he was tion, are you prepared to meet the united detest
detest- sincere and conscientious; and be at last wrought a ation of the people of England? The city of surprising change in the outward morals of the
porals of the higher London has given a generous example to the classes, by the purity of his own household. All En. kingdom, in what manner a King of this country gland has borne testimony to
gland has borne testimony to the wide-spread and ought to be addressed; and I fancy, my Lord, it powerful influence of his reign in this respect. is not yet in your courage to stand between your
4 The Duke of Grafton had recently been installed
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge with great sovereign and the addresses of his subjects. The
pomp. The poet Gray, who owed his professorship injuries you have done this country are such as
to the unsolicited patronage of the Duke, had comdemand not only redress, but vengeance. In
posed his Ode for Music, to be performed on that ocvain shall you look for protection to that venal casivn, commencing, vote which you have already paid for: another
Hence! avaunt! 'tis holy ground ! must be purchased; and, to save a minister, the Comus and his nightly crew, &c.
L E T T E R
TO HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BEDFORD.1 My Lord,-You are so little accustomed to of your established character, and perhaps an receive any marks of respect or esteem from the insult to your understanding. You have nice public, that if, in the following lines, a compli- feclings, my Lord, if we may judge from your ment or expression of applause should escape resentments. Cautious, therefore, of giving of. me, I fear you would consider it as a mockery fense, where you have so little deserved it, I 1 Dated September 19th, 1769. The Bedford fam.
shall leave the illustration of your virtues to ily was at this time the richest in England, and,
other hands. Your friends have a privilege to through its borough interest and wide-spread alli.
play upon the easiness of your temper, or posances, stood foremost in political influence. The sibly they are better acquainted with your good present Duke was now sixty years old, and had qualities than I am. You have done good by spent half his life in the conflicts of party. He first stealth. The rest is upon record. You have held office under Lord Carteret, then under Mr. Pels | still left ample room for speculation, when pan. ham, and was made Viceroy of Ireland by Lord Chat
egyric is exhausted. ham in his first administration. Thus far he had act
You are indeed a very considerable man. The ed as a Whig. But when Lord Bute drove out Lord Chatham in 1761, he took the office of Privy Seal,
highest rank, a splendid fortune, and a name, glomade vacant by the resignation of Chatham's broth. rious till it was yours, were suflicient to have super-in-law. Lord Temple, and was now considered as
ported you with meaner abilities than I think you uniting his interests to those of the Favorite. When possess. From the first, you derived a constituLord Bute resigned in 1763, the influence of the tional claim to respect; from the second, a natuDuke became ascendant in the cabinet, and the ad. ral extensive authority; the last created a partial ministration, though ostensibly that of Mr. Gren expectation of hereditary virtues. The use you ville, has often been spoken of as the Duke of Bed- I have made of these uncommon advantages might ford's. It was extremely unpopular, from the gen.
have been more honorable to yourself, but could eral belief that Lord Bute still ruled as Favorite ; and in 1765 it gave way to the administration of
not be more instructive to mankind. We may Lord Rockingham, which threw the Duke of Bed
trace it in the veneration of your country, in the ford wholly into the back-ground. The Duke of Graf choice of your friends, and in the accomplishton, when he became minister in 1767, through the ment of every sanguine hope which the public illness of Lord Chatham and the death of Charles might have conceived from the illustrious name Townsend, found it necessary to call in new strength, of Russell. and opened negotiations, as already mentioned, with The eminence of your station gave you a comLord Rockingham on the one hand and the Duke of manding prospect of your duty." The road, Bedford on the other. The Rockingham Whigs had
which led to honor, was open to your view. the strongest hopes of prevailing in these new ar
You could not lose it by mistake, and you had rangements, and of being made virtual masters of the government. But the influence of the Duke of no temptation to depart from it by design. ComBedford prevailed. Three of his dependents, Lords pare the natural dignity and importance of the Weymouth, Gower, and Sandwich, were received richest peer of England; the noble independinto the ministry; and the Duke of Bedford drew ence which he might have maintained in Parlia. upon himself the bitterest resentment of the Rock- ment; and the real interest and respect which he ingham Whigs for thus depriving them of power, and might have acquired, not only in Parliament, but becoming, as they conceived, the savior of Lord Bute
through the whole kingdom ; compare these gloand the Tories, and thus re-establishing the system
rious distinctions with the ambition of holding a of secret influence in the closet. These events, as stated above, were the immediate cause which
share in government, the emoluments of a place, led the writer of these Letters to come out under a
the sale of a borough, or the purchase of a cornew signature, and in a bolder style of attack. Aft- poration ; and, though you may not regret the er assailing the Duke of Grafton, as we have seen virtues which create respect, you may see, with in the preceding letters, he now turns upon the Duke anguish, how much real importance and authorof Bedford in a spirit of still fiercer resentment. He ity you have lost. Consider the character of an reviews the whole public and private conduct of his l independent, virtuous Duke of Bedford: imagine Grace, and endeavors to call up all the odium of past transactions to enkindle new jealousies against him, ? This and the next three paragraphs are among as about to give increased effect to a system of fa- the finest specimens of composition to be found in voritism in the closet; and seeks at the same time Junius. Nowhere has he made so happy a use of to overwhelm the Duke himself with a sense of discontrast. Commencing with a natural and express. honor, baseness, and folly, which might make him ive image, be first sketches with admirable discrim. sbrink from the public eye. There is nothing in all ination the character and conduct to be expected in the writings of Junius that is more vehemently elo. the first peer of England, and then sets off against quent than the close of this letter. It is proper to it an artful and exaggerated representation of the add, that this eloquence is, in far too many cases, un political errors and private weaknesses of the Duke supported by facts.
I of Bedford during the preceding thirty years.
what he might be in this country, then reflect | long life, have invariably chosen his friends from one moment upon what you are. If it be possi- among the most profligate of mankind. His own ble for me to withdraw my attention from the honor would have forbidden him from mixing his fact, I will tell you in theory what such a man private pleasures or conversation with jockeys, might be.
gamesters, blasphemers, gladiators, or buffoons. Conscious of his own weight and importance, He would then have never felt, much less would his conduct in Parlianient would be directed by he have submitted to the dishonest necessity of nothing but the constitutional duty of a peer. engaging in the interests and intrigues of his deHe would consider himself as a guardian of the pendents—of supplying their vices, or relieving laws. Willing to support the just measures of their beggary at the expense of his country. government, but determined to observe the con- He would not have betrayed such ignorance or duct of the minister with suspicion, he would op- such contempt of the Constitution as openly to pose the violence of faction with as much firm. avow, in a court of justice, the purchase and sale ness as the encroachments of prerogative. He of a borough. He would not have thought it would be as little capable of bargaining with the consistent with his rank in the state, or even minister for places for himself or his dependents, with his personal importance, to be the little tyas of descending to mix himself in the intrigues rant of a little corporation. He would never of Opposition. Whenever an important ques have been insulted with virtues which he had tion called for his opinion in Parliament, he would labored to extinguish, nor suffered the disgrace be beard, by the most profligate minister, with of a mortifying defeat, which has made him rideference and respect. His authority would ei-diculous and contemptible, even to the few by ther sanctify or disgrace the measures of govern- whom he was not detested. I reverence the ment. The people would look up to him as to afflictions of a good man-his sorrows are satheir protector, and a virtuous prince would have cred. But how can we take part in the disone honest man in his dominions, in whose in tresses of a man whom we can neither love nor tegrity and judgment he might safely confide. esteem, or feel for a calamity of which he him. If it should be the will of Providence to afflict self is insensible? Where was the father's him with a domestic misfortune, he would sub- heart when he could look for, or find an imme. mit to the stroke with feeling, but not without diate consolation for the loss of an only son in dignity. He would consider the people as his consultations and bargains for a place at court, children, and receive a generous, heart-felt con- and even in the misery of balloting at the India solation in the sympathizing tears and blessings | House ?? of his country.
Admitting, then, that you have mistaken or Your Grace may probably discover something deserted those honorable principles which ought more intelligible in the negative part of this il- to have directed your conduct; admitting that lustrious character. The man I have described you have as little claim to private affection as to would never prostitute his dignity in Parliament public esteem, let us see with what abilities, by an indecent violence either in opposing or de- with what degree of judgment you have carried fending a minister. He would not at one mo- your own system into execution. A great man, ment rancorously persecute, at another basely in the success, and even in the magnitude of his cringe to the Favorite of his sovereign. After crimes, finds a rescue from contempt. Your outraging the royal dignity with peremptory Grace is every way unfortunate. Yet I will not conditions, little short of menace and hostility, look back to those ridiculous scenes, by which, he would never descend to the humility of solicit in your earlier days, you thought it an honor to ing an interview with the Favorite, and of offer. be distinguished; the recorded stripes, the pubing to recover, at any price, the honor of his lic infamy, your own sufferings, or Mr. Rigby's friendship. Though deceived, perhaps, in his fortitude. These events undoubtedly left an imyouth, he would not, through the course of a
who had so basely betrayed him.” Horace Wal. * The Duke bad lately lost his only son, Lord Tav. į pole confirms this statement. istock, by a fall from his horse. There is great beau 5 This he did in an answer in Chancery, when ty in the turn of the next sentence," he would con- sued for a large sum paid him by a gentleman, whom sider the people as his children," which might well he had undertaken (but failed) to return as a membe done by a descendant of Lord William Russell, ber of Parliament. He was obliged to refund the wbose mergory was venerated by the people as a money. martyr in the cause of liberty. This thought gives The town of Bedford had been greatly exasper. double severity to the contrast that follows, in which ated by the overbearing disposition of the Duke. the character and conduct of the Duke are presented To deliver themselves from the thraldom in which in sach a light, that, instead of being able to repose he had held them, they admitted a great number of his sorrows on the bosom of the people, he had made strangers to the freedom of the corporation, and the bimself an object of their aversion or contempt. As Duke was defeated. ' to the justice of these insinuations respecting a want ? As to the justice of this cruel attack, see the of " feeling" and "dignity" under this calamity, see remarks at the end of the present Letter. the remarks at the end of this Letter.
& Note by Junius. “Mr. Heston Humphrey, a coun* It is stated in a note by Junius, "At this inter try attorney, horsewhipped the Duke, with equal view, wbich passed at the house of the late Lord Ego | justice, severity, and perseverance, on the course at lintonn, Lord Bute told the Duke that be was de- Litchfield. Rigby and Lord Trentham were also termined never to have any connection with a man cudgeled in a most exemplary manner. This gave
pression, though not upon your mind. To such character to think it possible that so many puba mind, it may perhaps be a pleasure to reflect, lic sacrifices should have been made without that there is hardly a corner of any of his Maj- some private compensation. Your conduct caresty's kingdoms, except France, in which, at one ries with it an interior evidence, beyond all the time or other, your valuable life has not been in legal proof of a court of justice. Even the cal. danger. Amiable man! we see and acknowl- lous pride of Lord Egremont was alarmed. He edge the protection of Providence, by which you saw and felt his own dishonor in corresponding have so often escaped the personal detestation of with you; and there certainly was a moment at your fellow-subjects, and are still reserved for which he meant to have resisted, had not a fatal the public justice of your country.
lethargy prevailed over his faculties, and carried Your history begins to be important at that all sense and memory away with it. auspicious period at which you were deputed to I will not pretend to specify the secret terms represent the Earl of Bute at the court of Ver- on which you were invited to support an adminsailles.' It was an honorable office, and executed istration which Lord Bute pretended to leave in with the same spirit with which it was accepted. full possession of their ministerial authority, and Your patrons wanted an embassador who would perfectly masters of themselves.10 He was not submit to make concessions without daring to in- of a temper to relinquish power, though he resist upon any honorable condition for his sover- tired from employment. Stipulations were cereign. Their business required a man who had tainly made between your Grace and him, and as little feeling for his own dignity as for the certainly violated. After two years' submission, welfare of his country; and they found him in you thought you had collected a strength suffi. the first rank of the nobility. Belleisle, Goree, cient to control his influence, and that it was Guadaloupe, St. Lucia, Martinique, the Fishery, your turn to be a tyrant, because you had been and the Havana, are glorious monuments of your a slave. When you found yourself mistaken Grace's talents for negotiation. My Lord, we in your opinion of your gracious master's firm. are too well acquainted with your pecuniary ness, disappointment got the better of all your rise to the following story: When the late King humble discretion, and carried you to an excess heard that Sir Edward Hawke had given the French of outrage to his person, as distant from true a drubling, lis Majesty, who had never received spirit, as from all decency and respect. After that kind of chastisement, was pleased to ask Lord robbing him of the rights of a King, you would Chesterfield the meaning of the word. 'Sir,' said not permit him to preserve the honor of a gen Lord Chesterfield, 'the meaning of the word-But tleman. It was then Lord Weymouth was nom. here comes the Duke of Bedford, who is better able
inated to Ireland, and dispatched (we well reto explain it to your Majesty than I am.'"
member with what indecent hurry) to plunder Soon after Lord Chatham was driven from office in the midst of his glorious ministry, Lord Bute sent
the treasury of the first fruits of an employment the Duke of Bedford to negotiate a treaty of peace, which you wen.
which you well knew he was never to execute.22 with France, which was signed November 3d, 1762. This sudden declaration of war against the FaThe concessions then made, which are here enumer-vorite might have given you a momentary merit ated by Junius, were generally considered as bighly with the public, if it had been either adopted dishonorable to the country. They were not, how-upon principle, or maintained with resolution. ever, chargeable to the Duke of Bedford personally, Without looking back to all your former servilthough he may have been liable to censure for consenting to negotiate such a treaty.
10 Junius here refers to the time when Lord Bute The insinuation which follows, respecting the resigned, April 8th, 1763, and the Duke of Bedford Duke's having received “some private compensa and his friends came into power in connection with tion," refers to a report in circulation soon after the Mr. George Grenville. It was at this period that treaty was signed, that the Duke had been bribed the Duke compelled the King, as mentioned in a by the French, in common with the Princess Dow. former letter, to displace Mr. Stuart Mackenzie, ager of Wales, Lord Bute, and Mr. Henry Fox. brother of Lord Bute, who had received the royal The story was too ridiculous to be seriously noticed, promise of never being removed. This arose out of but the matter was investigated by a committee of the Duke's jealousy of Lord Bate at that time, and the House of Commons, and found to rest solely on a determination to show that he was not governed the statement of a man named Musgrave, who had by him. “no credible authority for the imputations of treach 1Note by Junius. "The ministry having endeavery and corruption which he was willing to propa. ored to exclude the Dowager out of the Regency gate."-See Heron's Junius, i., 269. Still, Junius re- Bill, the Earl of Bute determined to dismiss them. vived the story at the end of six years, and, wben Upon this the Duke of Bedford demanded an audicalled upon for proof, had nothing to allege, exceptence of the King-reproached him in plain terms that the Dake was understood to love money. “I with his duplicity, baseness, falsehood, treachery, combined the known temper of the man with the ex- hypocrisy-repeatedly gave him the lie, and left travagant concessions of the embassador." There him in convulsions." How far there is any truth in was another and perfectly well-known reason for this statement, it is not easy pow to say. It is prob. these “concessions." Lord Bute could not raise able there was a rumor of this kind at the time; but funds to carry on the war. The moneyed men no one will believe that the King would ever have would not trust him. He was, tberefore, compelled invited the Duke of Bedford again into his service to make peace on such terms as he could obtain. (as he afterward did), if a tenth part of these indig. The downright dishonesty of Junius in this case nities had been offered him. naturally leads us to receive all his statements with ? He received three thousand pounds for plate distrust, unless supported by other evidence and equipage money,