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to be introduced into the instruction of children of all classes, when time and opportunity allow. They should receive some idea of the earth on which we live: for this purpose, they should be taught the leading facts of Geography. In a country like ours, in which navigation and commerce are of such general importance, there can be few in any class of society who have not relations or friends dispersed over different parts of the globe, in whose voyages and travels a lively interest must be felt; and whom it must be gratifying to trace and follow in imagination through their wanderings; as well as to comprehend when, on their return, they speak of the continents and islands, the cities and towns, which they have visited. Moreover, in the present day, emigration to distant colonies becomes a subject of more general interest than at any former period, and whilst the poorest families are laudably contemplating to seek a more promising field in which to employ their exertions, it is right that they should have a just idea of the situation and distance of the region to which they may be directing their wishes and hopes.

"The productions of almost every climate and country are brought home to us for our use or enjoyment; and it must be interesting to all, and useful to many, to possess a knowledge of these various productions, whether they be derived from the animal, the mineral, or the vegetable kingdoms. This kind of knowledge is comprehended in the very extensive science of Natural History, which is subdivided into several branches, each of which, in its minutest details, would furnish matter sufficient to occupy the longest life of the most industrious of men. The general outlines may, however, be easily understood and acquired by all. One branch of natural history, called Zoology, teaches the kinds and natures of animals, whether beasts, who give suck to their young; birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, or worms: even sponges and coral belong to this branch of natural history. Another, called Botany, treats of the species of plants or vegetables, from the mightiest oaks and cedars, down to the smallest pot-herb, and even the mould which sprouts upon our bread, when it has been kept too long. The earth itself, on which plants grow, and man and other animals live, contains many objects of interesting research; the knowledge of which belongs to the science of Mineralogy: all the metals and earths, the most precious stones, and the most durable granite, as well as every variety of soil, come under the attention of the Mineralogist.

"The workmen of every craft, operate on materials, which form the subjects of one or the other of these branches of natural history; and is it not desirable that they should know something more than the outside appearance of the materials with which they are constantly occupied? Many of the productions with which natural history makes us acquainted, set forth in an eminent degree the wondrous works of Him who is perfect in knowledge; and are therefore peculiarly calculated to excite our humble admiration. The very air which we breathe, and which supports the clouds over our heads, exhibits a great variety of interesting or awful phenomena. Some of these, which terrify and amaze the ignorant, afford matter of curious research to those who are better informed. Such as the northern-lights, mock suns, and meteors, or falling stars. Others have repaid the attention which has been given to them, by the assistance which they render to commerce. Thus, the prevailing winds in different parts of the globe are now so well understood, that our navigators rely upon them with perfect confidence, and give them the name of trade-winds. The science which treats of these phenomena, and which has already explained the causes of many of them, is called Meteorology. To this science also are referred the accounts of whirlwinds, tornadoes, waterspouts, and meteoric stones.

"When we look at the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and sometimes at comets when they appear, we see that there is something besides the earth on which we live, and we naturally feel curious to know something about these

bodies. It is desirable that this curiosity should be gratified by something better than the idle notions of the vulgar; and for this purpose children should be taught a little Astronomy, the rudiments of which are not difficult, but very interesting. This will teach them the cause of summer and winter, of day and of night; and let them know why we see sometimes an eclipse of the sun, and sometimes of the moon; also, why we sometimes have a new moon, and sometimes a full moon.

"It is not only with what is now existing upon the earth and beneath its surface, and with what is known about the heavenly bodies, that we should seek to have the rising generation made in some degree familiar. They should be led to take an interest in knowing what has happened in former times. This branch of study is called History. Some of the oldest and most interesting, as well as most important history, is contained in the Bible, and on this account is called Sacred History; but the history of many countries has been preserved by the Greeks, Romans, and others; and the history which they have handed down to us is called Profane History, by way of distinction, and not because it is particularly vicious or immoral. On the contrary, much of it is highly valuable, and sometimes very usefully confirms or explains Sacred History.

"All history of events which happened before the year of our Lord 1453, is considered as belonging to Ancient History; and all that relates to what has happened since, is called Modern History. The year 1453 is chosen as the time when the one begins and the other ends, because in it the Turks took Constantinople, and by so doing finished the Eastern, Greek, or last division of the Roman empire. History is sometimes called after the country of which it treats; as Grecian History, Roman History, English History, &c. It is very desirable for every one to be especially acquainted with the history of his own country.

"The history of the lives of particular persons is called Biography. This is a very interesting and useful kind of history. It affords us examples which, if properly studied and reflected upon, may guide, and animate, and encourage us in the pursuit of what is good, desirable, and praiseworthy, and warn us against what is bad, dangerous, or even of doubtful advantage. The lives of so many good, wise, and illustrious persons of both sexes, and of every age and station, have either been written in our own language, or translated into it from other languages, that there never need be any lack of valuable reading of this description, nor any excuse for having recourse to novels and romances, which are a kind of imaginary biography, sought after by the idle and the giddy, because they require no exertion of the mind, and therefore do not improve it; or, because they relate marvellous or incredible stories, which actual life can seldom if ever realize; and which, to say the best of them, can be of no use in the way of example to those who read them; or, because they represent the passions and vices of men with less of what is hateful and disgusting than belongs to them; and, at times, even in an amiable and attractive form. They first deprive vice of its hideous and repulsive appearance; next, render its form familiar; and, lastly, unless the evil be turned aside, bring it home as a fatal associate.

"Much of the knowledge at which I have been pointing, is calculated to interest, enlarge, and improve the mind-to afford the means of rational amusement, from reading, contemplation, or study, when we are alone; and to render us more comfortable in ourselves, and more agreeable and useful to others, when we are in company. To many they may prove useful attractions from less innocent amusements, such as plays, cards, dances, fairs, and

the like.

"Some of the branches of knowledge which I have been recommending, bear directly on our prosperity, and may be continually had recourse to, either

to facilitate, or increase our means of acquiring property, or to enable us to employ that which we may have, to the greatest advantage and economy.

"It is not sufficient to teach children the mere rudiments of knowledge, even if we strive to do this to the extent which I have just sketched. It is essential that they should early be brought to reflect upon what they learn; that they should be taught to look to the principles with which these rudiments are connected; that they should be directed to look to tendencies and consequences; not merely with respect to their school lessons, but the same course should be followed with respect to their words and actions, and the various circumstances which inay occur within their observation. It is this essential part of education in which parents are the most concerned, and in which, though they may be assisted by an able and conscientious schoolmaster, there is much which they alone can perform. It is, however, very important, in acting upon this principle, not to press the minds of children too much, lest in seeking to avoid the error of negligence on the one hand, there should be, on the other, the no less serious error of producing disgust and aversion, or an untimely development of the mental faculties, which would be very likely to injure the bodily powers, and possibly cramp those of the mind also, and prevent them from ever attaining the strength which they might otherwise acquire. The object is not to make them men in minds whilst children in age, but to insure the development of their moral and intellectual faculties, in correspondence with that of those of their bodies; so that they may grow up a useful, thinking, and reflecting generation; displaying all the advantages which in my last Lecture I pointed out, as resulting from the cultivation of a sound judgment."

The author is further led to remark, the great want that exists of the schools for girls. There is a lamentable proof of this in the statistical returns of schools. In many places where there are one or more schools for boys, there are none for girls; and where there are girls' schools, the number of girls is always much less than in the boys' schools; and more than this, there exists among the patrons of girls' schools, a greater degree of that unfeeling, deadly, and wicked prejudice which would shut the door on intellectual and useful improvement. In a vast number of schools writing is not allowed to be taught the girls, who sit nearly the whole day at needle-work: in others, writing in books is prohibited, and arithmetic is by common consent so little regarded, either through the deficiencies of the female teachers, or the express wish of the patrons of the schools, as to be scarcely entered upon. While all that vast fund of knowledge which a girl might be taught to apply in her relations as a wife and a mother, is kept from her with the most studious anxiety. There is scarcely a public meeting held in which a compliment is not paid to the female sex. Lord Brougham, at a late public meeting, complimented them highly: would that some such men as Lord Brougham may come forward to vindicate those intellectual rights which are indisputably theirs, and which are of vital importance to the right exercise of their influence upon society.

We are sorry our space will not allow us to enter more largely upon the work before us, which abounds with useful information, and which has still a higher recommendation-namely, the pure spirit of Christian philanthropy, which pervades every page. As a book for the million, it is written in a spirit that cannot fail to interest, to im

prove, and to edify. A book which every poor man ought to have in his house, and in which the rich one would be equally interested. It would form an admirable addition to circulating and itinerant libraries, and if generally read, as it must and ought to be, would tend much to abridge the practice of the excellent Doctor himself, and do incalculable injury to the profession. To use a homely phrase, Dr. Hodgkin has given the public a stone to break his own head; and, much as we value the author's high reputation as a physician and a pathologist, we heartily wish it success.

The Historical Keepsake. Illustrated with 15 Engravings. T. Hurst, St. Paul's Church-yard.

THIS is an elegantly bound little volume, admirably adapted to impress some of the more striking incidents of English history upon the youthful mind. It not only appeals to the imagination, but to the heart; it not only gives merely historical knowledge, but has a direct and important tendency of cultivating the moral feelings. One of the most beautiful tales is that relating to the Patriot, Lord William Russell, from the powerful pen of J. W. Dalby, a writer whose productions ever display a deep knowledge of the workings of human nature, and who delights in those "records of woman "which lead to her moral exaltation, and show her influence upon society. Among the other chapters, we may direct attention to those entitled King Alfred, the History of Boadicea, Sir Cloudsley Shovel, Queen Catherine, and Anna Bullen; which admirably illustrate the principle of teaching, by means of a tale instead of a lecture, and which show the workings and consequence of a truth. The plates are some of them really gems in the art of cutting on wood, and we may instance that of the trials of Lord William Russell and Queen Catherine, from the celebrated pictures of Hayler and Harlow, cut by Walker. The volume is worthy the attention of those who are fond of the utile dulci, and as a midsummer present is excellent.

History of England. By William Pinnock. With Embellishments. Cumberland, Camden Town.

THIS is one of the best of the elementary histories really written, by Mr. Pinnock, and what has been said of the cuts of the preceding work equally applies to those of this publication. It also contains the heads of all the kings of England, engraved in a beautiful style of outline, while the principles upon which the work is written, ought to entitle it to the patronage of that portion of the public at least, who are desirous of having their children taught a love of honest action and of virtue. We observed, that instead of the usual plan of placing questions at the end of every chapter, the author has introduced them at the end of the work. These questions, amounting to nearly a thousand, are expressed in concise terms, and the general character of the work is such as to enable us heartily to recommend it.

The Gradual Primer: Gradations in Reading and Spelling: And the Etymological Spelling-Book and Expositor. By Henry Butter.

THE Gradual Primer is arranged upon a plan calculated to divest the teacher of much trouble, and to take away a great deal of the difficulty of learning felt by the child. It has been the plan of the author to keep the words within the apprehension of children, and to lead them, by easy and progressive steps, from the simple to the most difficult words. To show the nature of this progression, we here subjoin a specimen of the lesson containing words of three letters, which is formed from the lessons of words of one letter, by prefixing a letter:

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Again, the same lesson is made further useful by adding a letter :

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Words with the short sounds of the vowels then follow:

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To these succeed words with the long sounds of the vowel, words ending with double consonants, and words with dipthongs.

In connection with all these spelling words, reading lessons are introduced, and immediately after them spelling lessons of the easier words of two syllables, such as baby, lady, fuel, duel, sago, aloe; instead of the usual plan of lessons of four and five letters in a word, which are usually the most difficult to a child. To these succeed words of two syllables, composed of three letters in each syllable, as tinman, barley, teapot, Sunday; with reading lessons adapted to the same number of letters, which concludes the Gradual Primer, and introduces the second work at the head of this page, or rather the second part of the gradation.

Words of three letters, having the short sound of the vowel, which, by the addition of e final, become words of four letters, with the long sound of the vowel, as :

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Words of four letters are also formed by prefixing a letter to a word of three letters; and words of four letters are arranged also in rhymes, the vowel short and the vowel long. To these follow words of two syllables, each syllable being a word of not more than four letters— such as rat-trap, head-ache, sea-fish, glow-worm. From these the pupil passes to the common two syllable words, and afterwards to such words as, wrong, drudge, clock, service, pledge, strength, &c. To these succeed words of two syllables, each being a word, and one or both of them having five or more letters, such as, child-hood, plumbline, cork-screw, pack-thread: the whole being accompanied by reading lessons, drawn up in the same careful and judicious manner. We cannot but look upon this arrangement as one well calculated to facilitate the progress of the pupil; and we speak this advisedly and as

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