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nouns substantive is given; there are several highly important tables, showing some of the peculiarities of the language, and a selection of idiomatical sentences are superadded, of the highest service to those who wish a perfect acquaintance with the language. We observe, that through the whole of the publication, the imperfect and conditional tenses of the verbs have been spelt with ais instead of ois. This, in the eyes of grammarians of the old school, would be nothing less than rank heresy. The reason assigned by them for retaining the o in preference to the a is, that the adherence to this orthography better explains the etymology. We agree with M. Martin on the point, and cordially recommend his work to the French teacher and the English learner.
A Manual of English Grammar. By the Rev. J. M. M'Culloch, A. M.
Oliver and Boyd.
This book is calculated not so much for the child as for the man. To him who has acquired sufficient information to look at grammar as a science, it will afford many valuable hints to the teacher, but few that can be applied to the young pupil. The definitions are by far too elaborate; the illustrations, in many cases, too far fetched; indeed the author seems to have fallen into the common error of writing a book for other grammarians to be pleased with; than for the use of a child. The derivations introduced will be found useful, but there cannot be a greater error in supposing that the present meaning of words can be ascertained by going into their roots and derivations. It is from established usage, from custom, not from etymology, that the precise meaning of words must be acquired. The instances in which etymology furnishes effectual aids to guide us in fixing the exact signification of ambiguous terms, or in drawing the line between expressions which seem to be nearly equivalent, are very few. To define our words and our terms precisely, would be the way to prevent much treachery in the world. This little work will be serviceable in this object, and therefore we recommend it, not, however, as a school book, but as an interesting work on language.
23, Dover-street, 26th Jan. 1835.
SIR,-I think the inclosed account of the Savings' Bank, at Tunbridge Wells, will be an interesting matter for your Periodical. The interest allowed to depositors in Savings' Banks is so small, that the chief advantage those establishments seem to possess is security. It appears from the transactions of the Loan-Fund Society at Tunbridge Wells, the borrower finds that security. therefore, persons in any locality could be found willing to deposit their per sonal security to a given amount, say from 107. to 500l., with a responsible individual, known to the bulk of the people as a safe and correct person, the confidence of the public would thus be gained. Then the Loan Fund Society might give notice that they would receive deposits to the extent of that security so lodged. I would recommend the Society to borrow at 4 per cent., and lend at 5 per cent. They should have a table made out, shewing what sum should be charged when any loan is made, so as to cover just that rate of interest, and no more. For shortness, suppose a sum of 101. lent at 5 per cent., to be repaid by weekly instalments of 5s. in 20 weeks. I will calculate interest at 24d. a week for 10 weeks; the result will be 1s. 10d. which should be paid with the first instalment. It may not be the exact sum, but it is sufficiently near the truth.
The borrowers know that they are only paying a fair rate of interest; the lenders know they are getting a fair rate, and considerably higher than that
obtained from the Savings' Banks. The security being satisfactory, and arranged as I said, then there is no doubt that much that is now lodged in the Savings' Bank would be withdrawn, and deposited in the District Loan Fund; where the parties, besides obtaining a higher rate of interest, would know that they were serving their neighbours, who had happened to be in distress.
But unless the transactions were considerable in the course of the year, the per cent. would not pay the expense of rooms, and books, and clerks; therefore, the committee must, until the transactions shall become considerable enough to cover that expense, raise subscriptions to a small amount, from the benevolent, to meet it. But government might very well enact that such trifling expense shall be deemed a charge on the rates, and collected with them. Thinking these remarks may be of use as they are here set forth, or more likely as amended by others, and being most anxious to have extended the benefit of the Loan Fund system, to the full extent of the money now deposited in the Savings' Banks, and thinking it can be equally well secured in the way I have pointed out, I beg you will make use of this communication.
I am, Sir,
NOTES ON THE MONTH, AND MISCELLANEOUS
THE following is a statement, taken from the "Manchester Guardian," of the number of prisoners that were tried for felony at the Salford Assizes, stating their respective ages, from ten to sixty. As it is calculated to show clearly the period of life with which crime is mostly connected, it may excite those who are wishful to reclaim our youth, to seek out the most suitable means for this purpose.
By this it appears that the greater number of crimes are committed in early life; of how much importance then is it to keep an anxious watch over youth at its entrance upon manhood. The most dangerous period is, without doubt, between the ages of 16 and 20; at 16 the child begins to throw off the authority of his parents, and, unless his education happens to have been of a highly religious and careful kind, launches into the ocean of life madly, and as it were without chart, compass, or rudder
"Reason's the card, but passion is the gale;"
and thus too often he is wrecked at the very commencement of his voyage. The formation of societies which would in some way exercise a wholesome influence over young lads of the age we speak, would perhaps confer as great a benefit on society as any that could be established. Let the friends of human improvement look to it!
(Taken from the Quarterly Extracts of the British and Foreign School Society.) "The following communication, from the Royal commission appointed at Madrid, for the purpose of establishing a system of general education, will show the spirit in which the present government of that country is disposed to undertake this important duty. Two gentlemen deputed by the commission are now in attendance at the Borough Road, and from the talent and aptitude they display in acquiring a knowledge of the system, there is every reason to hope they will be eminently successful in promoting it throughout Spain.
"To the General Committee of the British and Foreign School Society.
"Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, amongst the many benefits she has already conferred upon the Spanish people, has taken every measure allowed by the situation of the kingdom, in order to improve all the branches of public instruction. Her attention has been called to the present state of elementary learning, and anxious to put on a fair footing, and extend as much as possible, this most important part of general education, she has thought proper to appoint a commission, of which we have the honour to be members, not only to prepare a plan of elementary instruction suited to the wants and state of the Spanish nation, but also to establish at Madrid, a Normal or central school, founded upon the British system. Desirous of properly fulfilling our important duty, we have determined to send to London, Don Angel Villalobos and Don Diego Leonardo Gallardo, to learn practically the method of elementary instruction as now practised in your Model School, in order that they may afterwards teach that method in the Normal School, which is to be established at Madrid.
"We take therefore the liberty of recommending these two young men to your Society, relying on the importance of their mission, and more perhaps on the support that you have always liberally given to all the friends of education, throughout the world, and we hope that not only they may find in you that kindness which the British people has always shown to Spaniards, but also that they will do every thing in their power to deserve it.
"They will present themselves to offer to you the respectful feelings of our admiration and respect for your exertions in behalf of mankind, and we shall be most happy if the Society would be so kind, as to take the trouble of giving them every advice, instruction, or order, which may facilitate the object of their mission, and which they are enjoined to obey with the utmost punctuality.
"We also hope that the Society will be so kind, as to lend us the valuable assistance of their wisdom and experience, for the fulfilment of the very Christian and most useful undertaking which we are called to perform; and we should consider it a mark of high favour to be reckoned among your correspondents.
"We are, with the greatest consideration and respect,
AMERICAN SYSTEM OF DISCIPLINE.
The prisoners, from the time of their entrance to their departure, are not allowed to speak to any one; and at several of the workshops, where sometimes fifty or sixty are at work, not only the strictest silence prevails, but so well disciplined are they, that not the slightest notice is taken of the entrance of a stranger. A monitor presides over each room, with a slate, who takes down the name of every man who offends, with the nature of his offence; this is exhibited to the superintendent, who awards the punishment of each offence and enrols the name of the person so offending in a book kept for that purpose, and which is produced to the magistrates at their visit to the prison. The prisoners attend prayers every morning, and the seats are so contrived, radiating from a circle, the pulpit being in the centre, that though separated in classes and unable to see each other, yet all are open to the view of the clergyman. The great cleanliness in the prison throughout, and the admirable manner in which the discipline is kept up, is highly creditable to the governor and officers; and so effectual is the new system, that, since it was adopted, there has been a great diminution in the number of the prisoners, who take care when released not to commit any thing that is likely to bring them to another residence within those walls, where the human voice is so rarely heard.
HOLBECK YOUTHS' GUARDIAN SOCIETY.
We are informed that a society of this kind has existed for some time in the village of Holbeck, Yorkshire, having for its object the dissemination of useful knowledge, and the protection of the morals of the youthful population of both sexes. This society commenced its operations under the management of a few persons in humble spheres of life, who, impressed with the importance of the subject, were anxious to afford other attractions to the notice of the working classes, than those to which they have so long been directed. These individuals met; they summoned public meetings by means of the bellman, and afterwards issued a prospectus of their plan, the substance of which is, the establishment of a library, to which sixpence entrance-money is contributed, and a half-penny per week afterwards; the reading of papers and lectures on useful subjects, attendance at Sabbath schools, both adult and adolescent; and more particularly the enforcement both by parents and overlookers in mills, and all persons having authority over the rising generation, of moral and religious discipline, both by practice and precept. We are informed, that, although, in the beginning of the year a single penny was all they had to begin with; they have by the liberality of Messrs. Marshall, Pitley, Tather, and Watkin Williams Ogle, and the other inhabitants of the place, been able to raise £25 and 600 volumes of books; that 185 young men are subscribers to the library, and that 130 parents, heads of families, have signed their names to assist in accomplishing the great work. A meeting was held in its behalf at Mr. Marshall's, on Monday, Feb. 23, at which some able and illustrative speeches were delivered; and we hope that the promotion of the society will meet with all the success which so useful and excellent an Institution deserves.
"The Bishop of Durham has forwarded to the Rev. L. Yarker, Vicar of Chillingham, the sum of £100 towards the building of schools, in that parish, for the education of the poor. The Right Honourable the Earl of Tankerville has also contributed the sum of £25 to the same object, and has generously given a piece of ground and stone for the erection of a suitable building. In addition to these munificent gifts the Rev. Vicar has received, towards the same object, the sum of £50 from the executors of the late Bishop Barrington."-Newcastle Journal.
VOL. I.-April, 1835.
DURATION OF LIFE IN AGRICULTURAL AND MANUFACTURING
In England there is a remarkable difference between the mean duration of life in the Agricultural and Manufacturing districts; a fact which proves that the mode of life, and the various physical circumstances connected with the different pursuits and occupations of men, have more influence than the mere effects of climate; indeed, it is one of the evils of civilization, that it forces a nation to earn wealth by the too-often debilitating employments of manufacturing districts. However great and powerful, in a commercial or political point of view, manufactures may render a nation, it is established beyond all doubt, that the combining of people into large masses, which the perfection of manufacturing arrangements requires, has a strong tendency to spoil the race. Go into Manchester, or any of the large manufacturing towns, where men, women, and delicate children are confined, for 10, 12, or 14 hours, to the heated and unwholesome air of a factory, and consider for a moment what the result of such a mode of life must naturally be, and what effects it must produce on the physical qualities of the race. Could you expect, that such a mode of life as this, continued for several generations, should have any other effect than giving rise to another race of men, characterized by degenerated stature, impaired energies, and premature decrepitude. Formerly, few large cities were able to maintain their own population, the number of deaths exceeded the births, and they would have dwindled away, in point of inhabitants, had they not received, from time to time, a fresh supply from the country. This, however, is not the case at present; the numerous and important improvements in ventilation, watering, and other matters of the police, as well as the more general diffusion of the comforts of life and the more successful treatment of disease, enable our large cities not only to maintain their own population, but even to increase it.
THE FACTORY SYSTEM, IMPROVABLE AND IMPROVING.
"It were earnestly to be wished that master-manufacturers were generally alive to the great influence which they possess, and to the great responsibility which consequently rests upon them. On their regulations much of the health, the morals, and the comfort of the workpeople depend. If a medical man would engage to pay a weekly visit to every mill, which would be a trivial expense, it would be impossible for any child to grow deformed, or for a person of any age to work himself into disease; because the evil would be checked in its origin. If immorality were punished by dismissal, as it might be with great propriety, a most powerful check to vice would be established. If the children were encouraged to attend Sunday Schools, they would generally attend them. The Factory System is not to be judged as though it were insusceptible of improvement. Much has been done to improve it of late years, more may still be done. There are not a few mills in Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire, and in Scotland, where ventilation, cleanliness, and even neatness are enforced, much to the advantage of the master as well as the workmen; where strict regulations exist against immorality of conduct or language: where schools are established, and where every child in the manufactory receives instruction, and where the girls learn sewing and knitting; where there are libraries for the use of the workpeople, and rewards for the children who attend Sunday Schools; where there are Benefit Societies, which afford relief to the subscribers in sickness or in misfortune, and where medical men are employed to inspect the workpeople weekly. No man can reflect on the matter without perceiving that a humane, religious, and intelligent manufacturer has the power of bringing to bear on his workpeople a variety of strong inducements to virtue and industry; that by an apparatus of means like those above-mentioned, by the appointment of steady overlookers,