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P. Virgilii Maronis Bucolica; containing an Ordo and Interlinear Translation accompanying the Text, &c. By P. Austin Nuttall, LL.D. Simpkin and Marshall.
THE Bucolics of Virgil exhibit, perhaps, the finest specimens of Latin composition, and are certainly the most finished productions of antiquity. And it may be said, in a manner, as was said of the fair characters and correct conduct of certain atheists-their virtues do us much mischief. The exquisite expressions and adaptation of language to beautiful ideas found in the ten eclogues of Virgil, blind us to much that is hurtful. We know well the unnatural habits of the Romans; nor all the arguments of classical blindness will convince us that the second eclogue was not written by one who was no enemy to those iniquities. We look upon the retention of this eclogue in books for the young, with the mass of iniquity with which Horace is also stuffed, to be a disgrace to Christianity. We know well the conversations and the remarks which boys make to each other, when they are at work on such things, and the baneful effect of them upon the mind; and we think that we should not be performing our duty to the public, did we not reprobate them in the severest terms of which unqualified censure is capable. With interlinear translations we agree, and the work before us is one of the highest use in teaching Latin; the treatise which it contains on Latin versification is excellent, and the scanning table serviceable; but these are excellencies applied to subjects utterly unworthy.
Henry Stilling. Part I. His Childhood, Youthful Years, and Wanderings. Translated from the German. Hamilton, Adams, & Co.
THIS is a biography of no every-day character, but of one who, from the lowest ranks of society, rose to a state of eminent usefulness; and exhibits such a beautiful and indubitable guidance of Providence as must put unbelief to the blush, and prove highly encouraging to all who are placed in similarly trying circumstances. Stilling was a teacher, and had to endure all the poverty, the mortification, and degradation of that kind of life; but, by unremitting perseverance, he rose above his grade, and was enabled to serve his country in a higher, if not in a more useful capacity. As a book full of interest, of high moral force, it is more calculated to enchant the well-ordered mind than a romance, and he who reads it, we are quite certain, will rise up from its perusal both wiser and better.
The Eton Latin Grammar, with the addition of many useful Notes and Observations; also the Accents of Quantity, &c. By T. W. C. Edwards, M.A. Simpkin and Marshall.
THIS is at once the most perfect, the most useful, and the most intelligible edition of the Eton Latin Grammar. It consists of the common Eton text, with very slight alterations, but with the addition of accents on all English words of more than one syllable throughout, and of the quantities of the several syllables of all the Latin words; and also of the acute accents on the syllable to be accented. The vast utility of this plan, its diminution of labour to those engaged in tuition, and the accuracy it affords, we have felt; and to the progress the pupils make under it we can testify.
The Sacred Star. James Paul, Paternoster-row.
A PRETTY little monthly publication, fit for the young, embellished with plates of a religious character. It is admirably adapted for circulation in families and Sunday Schools; and, considering its low price, contains an abundance of well-selected and interesting matter, both of a general, a literary, and a religious nature.
How shall I Provide for My Family. Fourth Edition. Ward and Co. A TWOPENNY tract; which ought to be distributed to every family in the kingdom. It is a decided improvement upon the tracts in general circulation, and appeals to the understanding and to the heart.
Ireland, and the Source of Her Troubles. By Lenio. Kelly, Vigo-street; and Simpkin and Marshall.
Ir the knowledge of a disease is half its cure, Ireland may be said to be half cured by this pamphlet; as the source of her evils is here eloquently and powerfully set forth. There is a stern force, resulting from a conviction of truth, apparent in the style, which abundantly testifies the sincerity of the writer. Those who are interested in the affairs of the Sister Kingdom, and who feel for that fine yet degraded people, will do well to read with attention the observations of Lenio.
Verses for a Christian Child. Edmund Fry, Hounsditch.
A PRETTY little volume, studded with sacred gems, admirably adapted for the "little ones.' The Scripture references are useful and important, and have a tendency to create a practice of fulfilling the divine command,"Search the Scriptures." A plan of interrogation on the hymns is prefixed to the work, of great service in leading a child to reflect on what he has committed to memory.
To the Editor of the Educational Magazine.
I have often thought it a very great pity that the Central Schools of the National British and Foreign School Society are closed on the same day as those of the schools in union with them: such an arrangement precludes the possibility of the masters of the schools on these systems, in the metropolis, taking lessons in teaching, and becoming acquainted with improvements which are continually taking place. I would therefore suggest the propriety of making some arrangement, by which the Central Establishment might be open to the inspection of teachers from time to time, either by altering the holidays of the schools in connection, or of the Central Schools of the Parent Establishment. I am, Sir, your's,
A MEMBER OF A SCHOOL COMMITTEE.
To the Editor of the Educational Magazine.
I have heard, with much pleasure, of the establishment of Agricultural Schools, for the children of the poor, and shall be glad to find them succeed. I would advise, as an experiment, not only the cultivation of esculent vegetables, but also others of a medicinal kind-liquorice root, rhubarb, lavender, peppermint, and camomile. These I have cultivated myself with much success, and have no doubt that they might be made to return a good profit. Mustard seed, for the preparation of mustard, and peas for boiling, would also be very profitable, and with the others, would be very interesting to the boys. I beg to subscribe myself,
Barnes, Feb. 20, 1835.
A sincere Friend to the objects of your Magazine,
NOTES ON THE MONTH, AND MISCELLANEOUS
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.-1832.
Education is open to all in this country, and all, or almost all, are educated. It was lately ascertained by reports accurately taken, that out of a population of about 60,000 persons in the state of Massachusets, only 400, beyond the age of childhood, could not read nor write. Also, in 131 towns, containing 12,393 inhabitants, there are only 58 between 14 and 21 who are unable to read or write. In the town of Hancock there are only three unable to read or write.
ESTABLISHMENTS FOR EDUCATION IN DENMARK.
Denmark cannot have less than two millions of inhabitants at the present day, among whom the number of children of all ages, fit to be instructed, may be estimated at 300,000; it possesses two universities, Copenhagen and Real, the former attended by 800 students, and the latter by 300; 27 grammar schools, containing 1400 pupils; and 4600 elementary schools, of which about 3000 are on the principle of mutual instruction, attended altogether by 278,500 pupils. Besides these establishments, there are two asylums for the deaf and dumb in Copenhagen and Schleswig; two seminaries for the education of teachers, and two academies for cadets. A general code of regulations for schools has existed since the year 1817. It appears also that the various school-houses are in general in a satisfactory condition, and that the remuneration paid to masters is, on the whole, sufficiently liberal.
THE ALLOTMENT SYSTEM.
We lately noticed that Sir C. E. Smith, Bart., of Nettleton Moor Lodge, near Caistor, has ordered a quantity of his grass land to be subdivided into roods, and subsequently advertised to be let and cultivated as garden land, under certain rules. The applications were numerous, and many have been disappointed. The produce in wheat, barley, rye, potatoes, &c. has been abundant; and many a poor man has, during the past Christmas, enjoyed, with his family, a good fat pig, and other comforts, on easy terms. Sir Culling's agents have for some time been engaged in paying regularly every week, upwards of £45 to poor persons, for all sorts of agricultural labour; in addition to which Sir Culling has ordered his agents to offer, in allotments of five acres each, the large piece of land, lately annually used as the Caistor race-ground, and containing 85 acres, for the particular accommodation of tradesmen and others of Caistor and Nettleton; and there are at present between 30 and 40 applications for them. Sir C. Smith contemplates allotting 23 acres, adjoining the race-course, to poor persons.
We extract the following from the Report of the Committee of the Labourers' Association at Iver, in Buckinghamshire:-"The social improvement and content which this system will introduce, will be the best protection to the stacks of the farmer. The Association have 70 tenants, occupying 98 allotments of 20 perches each; and admitting, that, on an average the family of each occupier consists of five persons, the Association will have benefited 350 persons, merely by the extension of the market of labour, and affording the means of occupying their otherwise idle hours. Now if the value of the produce of each allotment, for the year, is assumed to be on an average £1..10..0, it will appear that the value of the produce of all the allotments for the year is £147 (or £12 per acre) or if we divide this sum of £147 equally amongst the whole of the occupiers, each man's share will be found to be exactly £2..2..0; or the pay for rather more than one month's work, at the present rate of wages. Therefore, by proceeding further into detail, it will follow that the
association has been instrumental in providing one month's work for 70 labourers of the parish in addition to their regular labour.
ALLOTMENTS OF LAND IN THE WEST INDIES.
At a general meeting of the committee of the West Indian merchants, held in London, December 19, 1834, to consider the subject of emigration to the West Indies, the following interesting communications were made respecting allotments of land to labourers in the West India colonies.
An experiment has been made by Mr. Benjamin Greene, a proprietor of extensive estates in St. Kitt's. He sent out, in the autumn of 1833, six families of labourers, from his own neighbourhood in Suffolk, and placed four families on one of his estates in St. Kitt's, and two on an estate in Montserrat, in good cottages, with about half-an-acre of land, for raising provision. He selected the best description of agricultural labourers, men of good character for skill and attention to their work, and for general conduct, and who had never been pensioners on the parish funds. He entered into a bargain with them for six years, that they should perform all sorts of work, such as ploughing, carting, and what is called field-work, in the West Indies, and that if they got intoxicated, or absented themselves without leave, it should be a forfeiture of the bargain.
He agreed to give them good wages, viz. £25 sterling, for the head of the family, and £10 per annum, for every son above 10 years of age, provisions and beer for the first twelve months; after which, they were to raise their own provisions on the land attached to their cottages, both of which were to be rent free. The regulation for labour gives to the wife and daughters ample opportunity of employing themselves, either on hire, or in the domestic management of the cottage and garden.
He sent out with these families four ploughs and carts, four pair of horses, and all the usual agricultural implements.
These six families have all enjoyed good health, up to the latest intelligence from the island, and are pleased with their situation, as appears from the letters of John Malby and George Banham (lately labourers at Euston, in Suffolk), who write "we never lived so well, or had so easy a berth." Three of the men have remitted four pounds each, for the purchase of watches which have been sent out to them by Mr. Greene.
The sons of the proprietor manage the estate, and write that the working hours of these people in the field, are from six to ten o'clock in the morning, and from three to six o'clock in the afternoon; and that one man, during these hours, with one plough and two horses, has done more work, and in a better manner, than was usually done by four negroes, with sixteen oxen. That six men and seven boys, with eight horses, can, in St. Kitt's, plant and carry on the cultivation of 100 acres of cane, until they are ripe for cutting, at an expense for wages of men and boys, and feeding the horses, of £300 sterling, per ann. exclusive of interest on capital, and tear and wear of horses and implements; and that it requires upwards of 100 negroes, including women and children, for every 100 acres of cane cultivation, who cannot be supported, under the most economical plan, for less than £500 sterling, per annum.
This estate in St. Kitt's, no doubt offers a more favourable situation for an experiment than many places in the West Indies, being in a temperate and healthy climate, the range of the thermometer seldom exceeding 70 deg. or 80 deg., and it is not near a town, or exposed to the opportunity or temptation of drinking rum; indeed, the supply of beer lessens that temptation.
It would appear from this experiment, that under proper arrangements, on almost every estate, a few families might be advantageously employed, say to the extent of three families for every hundred acres kept under cane cultivation. The labourers to be sent out should be married men, of steady habits
and good character; some skilful as ploughmen, and in other agricultural work, and others used to the rearing and care of horses, cattle, and sheep.
The advantages to be expected from European labourers, judiciously selected and spread in small numbers over every estate, are that their steady industry in field work, would have a beneficial effect on the habits of the negroes, and that their good example would lead to an economy of labour, by the introduction of better implements, and a more skilful mode of using them; and thus the labour of the negroes would become more efficient and productive, with less fatigue and less waste of strength to themselves, than is now consumed by their present mode of performing it.-Labourer's Friend Magazine.
CLERGY ORPHAN SOCIETY.
The Annual General Meeting of the Governors of the Incorporated Society for clothing, maintaining, and educating poor orphans of clergymen of the Established Church, was held on Tuesday, February 10, at the Freemasons" Tavern; the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of London presided. There were also present the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, and many other gentlemen of note.
The report stated that the Society was established in consequence of the inadequacy of the provision made for the married parochial clergy, nearly one half of whom, notwithstanding Queen Anne's Bounty and the occasional grants subsequently made by the Legislature, are not receiving an income sufficient to enable them to provide for their children after their decease. The Society was founded in the year 1749, to rescue the younger orphans of the clergy from the evils of poverty and a neglected education. In 1809 it was incorporated at the sole expense of the late Bishop (Barrington) of Durham. A new schoolhouse was erected at St. John's Wood, in which there are at present upwards of 130 children, making the whole amount who have enjoyed its benefits exceed 1000. Six of the boys and eight girls were elected, after which the usual routine of choosing officers for the ensuing year was gone through.
The Bishop of London took occasion to make known, that the trustees of the Cholmondeley Charity had a considerable sum in hand for exhibitions, in favour of young men at college, of limited means. He regretted that he could not give more assistance to this valuable Society, but he could assure the governors that he should be always ready to promote its welfare to the utmost of his power. (Applause.)-The meeting then adjourned.
THE HOUSE OF REFUGE IN PHILADELPHIA.
This establishment for the education and improvement of juvenile delinquents, is one of the most important institutions in Philadelphia. It is under the management of the people; and that the management in such hands tends materially to its prosperity, is proved by the flourishing situation of several institutions similarly circumstanced, and by their beneficial effect on young people.
When a child is sent hither by a judge, no time is fixed for the duration of the detention how, in fact, could this be done. It is not within the sphere of man to decide beforehand what period is required for the proper and suitable education of a child; it depends entirely on the difference of dispositions. On entering this school of reform, the child is informed of the rules which must be observed, and the two following maxims are deeply impressed upon his mind: never tell a falsehood; do the best you can. The name is then en
tered in a book, and the child is introduced into the first class. In 15 hours of the 24 he is instructed in various things, attends to work, &c. Four hours are allotted to school, and eight to the pursuit of some profession: for example, shoemaking, carpenter's work, tailoring, and so on. For each meal he is allowed half an hour, and the remaining hours are devoted to rest; a short time is granted for recreation and gymnastic exercises. The children have