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or mistress too often undergoes a very material chanc
instances of the child having been starved, beaten,
by cruel treatment, and, on enquiry, we have learn
premium has gone into the Gazette. My opinior
do wrong in giving any apprentice fee at all;
with finding the child in good clothing during
tude. The sort of education given in the wor
ciation of ideas, and the contact with pauper
really disinterested and generous for any of
fall to the lot of gin-shop keepers, and pe
can afford to keep servants. That such p
denied, but they should not have the w
fare in life should be the peculiar care
oath to do their duty as guardians of t

With such testimony of the ar
Brenton determined to found
but the prevention of delinqu
opened at Hackney-Wick f
wick, where a number of
undergone wholesome and
in labour, in economy,
by gently training a
by the excellent state o
haviour of the child
industrious habits, e
apprenticed to trade

ng kniv
ray'
11

of e erlin a n made ry, and still is are in this res er with marks of seliSermon on the Mount; London to York; follow her she respects their authority, ing of the fifth commandment, conduct will be a sad commentary

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d, instructed, and trained, not only to of the virtues of temperance, forbearance, other, the forgiveness of injuries; such a her practised, nor to be expected at our public oasts of the number of boys he has flogged in a anner boast of the floggings they can take without reflect on the shameful, the indecent exposure, the deof ladies for the giling of self-respect and youthful modesty; and thus are bro senators rendered callous to the claims of humanity, life they are called to legislate.

used with the stupid apathy of men, when lamenting the wc young persons are treated: 'Poh! Poh! these are all flogged when I was a boy, and it did me good.' occasions, when I have represented the enormity of putting the workhouse two in a bed, or binding an apprentice where he the bed with a man, I have been answered with a

laugh; or 'I te sleep with a man when I was an apprentice.' Or, I used to

are en

it was not decent, it was not cleanly; and decency and cleanliness a bed when I was at school.'--This no doubt was true, but it was Again, if young noblemen, or the sons of our great landholders, gouraged to fight at school, for such is really the fact, by the intentional sence of the master or teachers, or by the voluntary blindness of both, how What passage of Scripture justifies the practice? how many forbid it! Yet are we to correct the ferocious and brutal propensity in the lower classes? of body and mind, saying, that he gave another as good a drubbing as he we hear of a young nobleman of highly-cultivated talent, and superior powers the resentment of it, were disgraceful only to the masters of the school and ever had in his life, for calling him a d-d atheist.' Both the expression and assistants; boys and children should never be out of the presence of a teacher, until their bad habits are cancelled, and their good ones confirmed. Omission in the want of constant inspection of the pupils, by night as well "In our public Schools, we have the crimes of omission and commission. bed in a cold frosty winter's night, and placed under the pump, there to be drenched with water till he was nearly dead; this would prevent boys

this would prevent the tyranny of a child being dragged from his

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irgil,
of Ulyss
that he h
r is the detest

r a warrior, to be

of the valiant, the amia

disgraceful and horrible pic

and I blush to think that the name,

infamous Achilles, should ever be given. cold-blooded and savage murder of Turn

another instance of barbarity rendered palatable

Jude

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7, 1834. sted to

y of classic language, and the celebrity of the poet. T rforce has justly reprobated other and still more exceptionale writings of Virgil, which pious and learned men are not ashame commend to the study of youthful senators.

cause

"Too much of the time at school is usually occupied in acquiring the dent languages, too little in learning the living ones, or in manly exercise, jrue.

ols.

of

tical knowledge, and virtuous habits; every boy should have his garden
rood or one perch, according to his strength and power; in this he should he
instructed to dig, to hoe, to plant: he should "know the times and the
sons;" he should visit and inspect other gardens, and learn to emulate the
florist in the production of those rare specimens of Nature's bounty, the rose,
the dahlia, the carnation, or the cactus. I like to see young people cheer
fully employed: a boy who is fond of birds, and flowers, and rabbits, has
generally an innocent mind. The use of the spade will expand the chest,
enlarge the muscles, and fortify the frame; they will know from their own
experience what their servants ought to do, and will treat them accordingly.

In every School where I have a voice, whether for males or females, virtue must be taught and practised-it must coexist with manual labour; no matter how high in rank the pupils, The field and the garden should be the school, where the works of God should be studied and lectured on."

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With these remarks we can scarcely express how cordially we agree. Like the philosopher, we would almost shout "Eurica.' Like all other good things, these principles have been branded with the names of Utopian schemes, of dangerous experiments. But here we have no longer shadows but substances, not vapoury visions, but real solid demonstrations. We can add but little, except to express our hope, that the excellent views entertained by the projectors of the Children's Friend Society, may be abundantly realized. We shall from time to time make it a pleasure to record the progress of the Society, and having visited the establishment, and made a personal inspection of their discipline and modes of tuition, further report to the public the result of our observations.

William,' said I, 'how came you so employed?' 'I am cleaning knives and forks for my master's breakfast table,' replied the boy; and pray,' said I, 'William, what are you to get by this drudgery?' 'Oh, get all that which my master leaves, to be sure-a very nice breakfast I assure you.' I mentioned this incident in such a way that I knew it must reach the ears of his parents, but I was told, ‘it was always so; fagging was a good thing, it taught a boy to rough it.' So it may, it also teaches him to be a tyrant, and to ride rough-shod over others.

"It seems, indeed, but too obvious that the real secret of education has hitherto been little understood, and still less practised. Oberlin and Fellenberg have led the way; and some few attempts have been made to follow them. Little, however, has yet been done in this country, and still less in Ireland, where it is much wanted. Our National Schools are in this respect alarmingly defective; the teachers look at each other with marks of selfgratulation when a poor girl can repeat a verse of the Sermon on the Mount; or tell you how many inches will reach from London to York; follow her home to her parents, and you shall hear how little she respects their authority, or cares for their censure; ask her the meaning of the fifth commandment, she will repeat it by rote, but her general conduct will be a sad commentary upon it.

"Children must be at once amused, instructed, and trained, not only to bodily labour, but to the exercise of the virtues of temperance, forbearance, abstemiousness, the love of each other, the forgiveness of injuries; such a system as this, I own, is neither practised, nor to be expected at our public schools, where the master boasts of the number of boys he has flogged in a day; the boys in like manner boast of the floggings they can take without crying; and none ever reflect on the shameful, the indecent exposure, the destruction of every feeling of self-respect and youthful modesty; and thus are the minds of our embryo senators rendered callous to the claims of humanity, on which in after life they are called to legislate.

"I have been amused with the stupid apathy of men, when lamenting the severity with which young persons are treated: 'Poh! Poh! these are all new-fangled notions. I was flogged when I was a boy, and it did me good.'

"On other occasions, when I have represented the enormity of putting great boys at the workhouse two in a bed, or binding an apprentice where he is to share the bed with a man, I have been answered with a laugh; or 'I know I used to sleep with a man when I was an apprentice.' Or, I used to sleep two in a bed when I was at school.'-This no doubt was true, but it was not right, it was not decent, it was not cleanly; and decency and cleanliness cannot be taught too early.

"Again, if young noblemen, or the sons of our great landholders, are encouraged to fight at school, for such is really the fact, by the intentional absence of the master or teachers, or by the voluntary blindness of both, how are we to correct the ferocious and brutal propensity in the lower classes? What passage of Scripture justifies the practice? how many forbid it! Yet we hear of a young nobleman of highly-cultivated talent, and superior powers of body and mind, saying, that he gave another as good a drubbing as he ever had in his life, for calling him a d-d atheist.' Both the expression and the resentment of it, were disgraceful only to the masters of the school and their assistants; boys and children should never be out of the presence of a teacher, until their bad habits are cancelled, and their good ones confirmed.

"In our public Schools, we have the crimes of omission and commission. Omission in the want of constant inspection of the pupils, by night as well as by day; this would prevent the tyranny of a child being dragged from his warm bed in a cold frosty winter's night, and placed under the pump, there to be drenched with water till he was nearly dead; this would prevent boys

roasting an obnoxious companion, or exposing his naked skin to a scorching fire till it blistered; this would prevent a poor boy being compelled to sleep with a window open immediately over the head of his bed, by which he caught his death; all these atrocities I lay to the masters.

"The list of crimes might be extended to a large quarto. At one of our great public schools, I understand, the boys keep their mistresses; but I have done. Let us see what they learn,-Latin and Greek of course; all pay for it I know, but some few learn too much, and the greater part nothing at all, or nothing which they can ever remember, except, indeed, the objectionable parts of Homer, Horace, and Virgil, which they ought never to have known. The cruel and savage barbarity of Ulysses to the suitors, when he returns to his kingdom, although we admit that he had great provocation, is not a lesson for a young Christian; nor is the detested example of Achilles, either as a statesman, a moralist, or a warrior, to be held up to imitation. The dragging of the dead body of the valiant, the amiable Hector, round the walls of Troy, is the most disgraceful and horrible piece of brutal revenge ever recorded in poetry, and I blush to think that the name, even though perhaps fabulous, of the infamous Achilles, should ever be given to a British ship of the line. The cold-blooded and savage murder of Turnus by the hand of Eneas, is another instance of barbarity rendered palatable to our youth by the beauty of classic language, and the celebrity of the poet. The late Mr. Wilberforce has justly reprobated other and still more exceptionable parts of the writings of Virgil, which pious and learned men are not ashamed to recommend to the study of youthful senators.

"Too much of the time at school is usually occupied in acquiring the dead languages, too little in learning the living ones, or in manly exercise, practical knowledge, and virtuous habits; every boy should have his garden, one rood or one perch, according to his strength and power; in this he should be instructed to dig, to hoe, to plant: he should "know the times and the seasons;" he should visit and inspect other gardens, and learn to emulate the florist in the production of those rare specimens of Nature's bounty, the rose, the dahlia, the carnation, or the cactus. I like to see young people cheerfully employed: a boy who is fond of birds, and flowers, and rabbits, has generally an innocent mind. The use of the spade will expand the chest, enlarge the muscles, and fortify the frame; they will know from their own experience what their servants ought to do, and will treat them accordingly. "In every School where I have a voice, whether for males or females, virtue must be taught and practised-it must coexist with manual labour; no matter how high in rank the pupils, The field and the garden should be the school, where the works of God should be studied and lectured on."

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With these remarks we can scarcely express how cordially we agree. Like the philosopher, we would almost shout "Eurica.' Like all other good things, these principles have been branded with the names of Utopian schemes, of dangerous experiments. But here we have no longer shadows but substances, not vapoury visions, but real solid demonstrations. We can add but little, except to express our hope, that the excellent views entertained by the projectors of the Children's Friend Society, may be abundantly realized. We shall from time to time make it a pleasure to record the progress of the Society, and having visited the establishment, and made a personal inspection of their discipline and modes of tuition, further report to the public the result of our observations.

168

BRITISH SCHOOLMASTERS.

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It has been again and again asserted, that the "voluntary principle" is better than " compulsory measures" in the great work of Education; that it is better to let "well alone;" that "forcing pumps" are not required, where simple ones will do; that private benevolence is so great, that public care is totally unnecessary; with otherwise saws, of the like import. The "modern instances," however, which the state of the schools supported by "voluntary subscriptions" present, are by no means such as would give us a very high opinion of the efficiency of" private authorities. There is scarcely one instance in twenty where the funds of British schools are in a flourishing state; many are supported in a miserable way, by the paltry pence of the children, and where subscriptions are superadded, they generally form a sum very much too small to keep a teacher in that degree of respectability to which his important office entitles him. The effect of the pay system, where 2d. is charged, is to throw at least one-third of the children out of instruction; and the bare circumstance of a master being generally made to depend on the children's pence, is sufficient to show the estimation in which he is held: the principle being that upon which the Dutch culprit is treated, when he is placed in a pit of water which would drown him but for his incessant application to the pump. It is presumed that nothing but the absolute fear of starvation will induce a master to do his duty; he is, therefore, placed at the mercy of the parents for his support; he must listen to all their little whims, and put up with that abuse which, whether he be a good or indifferent master, is generally bestowed upon him. Such a mode of payment tends much to lower the master in his own estimation as of that of the public, and we much question whether it produces the effect intended. Hence the miserable payment which the masters generally receive, of which this system forms a part, is such as to render them unable to support themselves in a sufficient degree of respectability, at the same time it prevents men of superior attainments becoming teachers, or disgusts and removes them when they are. These are evils that have long been felt, and evils they are of no small magnitude; for their consequence is, that the schools suffer in a considerable degree, as also the cause in which they are the instruments; and nothing short of a fair remuneration, a remuneration such as, besides placing the teacher above absolute want, enables him to move in respectable society, will fix the schools on this system on a solid basis, and make them effectual and popular establishments. The public will be surprised when we inform them, that the average rate of the salaries does not amount to £70 per annum-a few reach £90, but a very large majority do not amount to more than £60, being below the wages of the commonest mechanic. Thus the teacher is too often obliged to fix his residence in a low neighbourhood, to go meanly clad, to engage himself in other occupations, which must necessarily interfere in his school duties; and above all, to go uninstructed himself; books he cannot purchase-to book societies he cannot subscribe; he knows little of the progress of mind; nor can he, to any extent, make progress in his own. In London, the facilities of infor-v

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