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ment as the basis of the proceeding. Sir,sion of Naples, Venice, Istria, and DalI cannot find any ground for that assertion matia, as well as an alienation of some in the whole of this dispatch. True it is parts of the French emperor's Italian states that Mr. Fox desired dord Yarmouth to to forin a provision for the king of Sarrecall the French minister to his own origi- dinia, and at the same time had solemnly wal proposal: but he emphatically stales protested on the part of England against that

Sicily is the sine quæ non," and al- cessions in the West Indies, or elsewhere. though he argues with great warnith upon [No. 14, p. 111]. That lord Yarmouth did the conduct of the French government, not act without authority, in making these and even says that it was upon the faith of demands of France, if it could be ather, the uti possidetis baving been agreed to as wise supposed, is to be collected from the the basis of the uegociation that lord Yar- answer of Mr. Fox; who expressly directs mouth was then at Paris; be does not di- bim to “ mention the questions of Na. rect linn to break off the negociation un-“ ples and Istria again, but not to state less that basis was again recognized. He" them as conclusive reasons against agreesums up the whole of his reasoniog in one ing on preliminary articles.” [No. 15, remarkable paragraph: “ The result of p. 112.) Where then is this abstract basis “ what I have stated to your lordship is of the uti possidetis to be found, as indis* this, 1st, Tbat Sicily is a sine quâ non ; pensably necessary to further proceeding?

on which subject, if the French minister Not, sir, in any part of the papers, which * Tecedes from his former answer, it is in I have so carefully searched; not in the “ vain that any further discussion should narrative of lord Yarmouth, which he has * take place. It is clearly within his first so candidly given to the house; not in the " opinion delivered to your lordship; it is able reasoning, or eloquent speech of my " clearly within his last description of noble friend. After all I have read, and

places, which are reciprocally possessed all I have heard, I am bound to say I do " by the two countries, and cannot in alluot find that the uti possidetis was, up to " probability be recovered by war."-But, this period, the sine que non of negociasir, can my noble friend find in any part tion.-In a short time, sir, it will appear of this dispatch any other ground stated from the papers, that Sicily itself ceased upon which the discussions are to be finally to be the sine qua non of negociation. For and peremptorily closed? On the con- after the rejection of the absurd propotrary, is not lord Yarmouth told that the sition relative to the exchange of the moment the single poiut of Sicily is con- Hanse Towns for Sicily, a second propoceded, he may open the full powers (with sal having been made by the French gowhich he had been furnished, in conse- veroment, and an intimation held out, that quence of a suggestion from the French if Sicily was got ceded for some equivagovernment, and that upon the refusal of lent, the meditated changes in Germany that single point those powers were to be would be published, the Russian negociawith-held. Further, sir, I would put it to tor M. d'Oubril requested that the English my noble friend, whether upon the con- cabinet would temporize rather than abrupttents of the letter from lord Yarmouth to ly terminate the negociation, and it was Afr. Fox, of the 19th, and Mr. Fox's an- admitted that an equivalent might be found swer of the 26th, the inference is not unde- for Sicily. This is acknowledged in a disa niable, that it was not the intention of patch from the English cabinet to lord Yareither government to insist upon the ab- mouth, dated July 18, {p. 118.) and at solute recognition of the abstract basis of the che sanie time a compensation is named, uti possidetis as preliminary to negociation, which I confess it appears to me almost as or even to uegociate strictly upon that unreasonable for us to expect that France basis: 2Why, sir, the state of actual pos- should consent to, as it was extravagant session on both sides mast bave been in- in France to suggest the exchange of the tended, if on either: and yet we find that Hanse Towns for the island of Sicily. in the relation of the very first conversa- On the 20th of July, notwithstanding the tion held by the English plenipotentiary, warm and repeated remonstrances of lord on bis return to Paris, with M.Talleyrand, Yarmouth, the separate treaty was signed (wherein ke urges upon that minister the by M. D'Oubail with France, the terms correctness of the terms of the message of which appear to have been highly dishe took to England) be gives Mr. Fox to graceful to that counts and injurious to the understand that he had asked for the .ces- cause of her allies.-But, sir, here it ngay not be improper to remark, in order that now it turns out that nothing injurious to justice may be done to all parties; which this country of any sort arose out of his it is essential should be done, in order that conduct. For although it is suggested in we may obtain a just view of our situation; the correspondence that the negociation in order that we may stand, both now and was in some sort, of necessity continued hereafter, clear before the world at large; in consequence of the step taken by lord and especially that we may deserve from Yarmouth; by the declaration it would Providence, under whose aweful eye we appear that it was the determination of the act, that protection which we implore, I say king's government at this period to send a it is but proper to remark that in signing a minister duly authorized, to Paris..Sir, separate treaty with Russia, France did not my noble friend and his colleagues have acviolate any principle of good faith with cused the French government as having this country. She had expressed from the manifested an unbecoming elation, in conbeginning a determination to treat sepa- sequence of the advantage they had ob. rately with the powers to whom she stood tained, and of having greatly increased in. opposed, if she could effect it; and in so their demands. Upon this point I beg to doing she had neither deceived nor inju- refer to the short abstract from lord YarTed Great Britain; nor, indeed, is want of mouth's dispatch of the 21st of July, goud faith upon this score attributed 10 wherein he tells his court, thal " he can France in any part of the correspondence.“ perceive, that the terms of France are in. With Russia it is impossible not to observe “ creased, but still not so much so as the the case was different; and certainly her ple- “ sudden defection of Russia had led him nipotentiary had acted in a manner most in- " to apprehend. Hanover, Malta, the consistent with every principle of justice and “ Cape, and India remained pure and unhonour. The situation of lord Yarmouth was“ sullied." [No. 23. p. 123.) Was it reathus rendered almost beyond precedent dif- sonable to expect that France would not inficult and distressing, and I cannot help sayo crease in her demands in consequence of ing that he had hitherto conducted himself the event which had taken place ? did we in a manner which did him great credit; not afterwards rise in our demands when it nor do I think that his subsequent conduct was found that Russia would not ratify the deserved the sort of censure which was treaty signed by her minister i and is it thrown upon him by the king's ministers wise or dignified in a great nation to reat the time, and which has been in some present as an act of gross injustice on the degree insisted upon by my noble friend part of her enemy, a line of conduct, which below me to-night. True it is, that lord under a change of circumstances she herYarmouth did at this crisis, upon the de. self has actually adopted? If we could but mand of M. Talleyrand, produce the full weigh the conduct of the adversaries with powers which had been intrusted to him on whom we treat and our own in the same the 26th of June, on the express condition equal scale, how much would it couduce that they were not to be opened unless the to establish the tranquillity, and render French government would relinquish its permanent the bappiness of mankind !claim to Sicily: but niust be recollected To this observation, sir, I might have been that in the interval, compensation for Sicily led by the comments of my noble friend on had been suggested by France, and the the communication made by lord Yarpossibility of it not only admitted by En- mouth of the conference which took place gland, but a specific mode of compensation between his lordship and general Clarke pointed out. So that the circumstances of after the exhibition of his full powers, in the negociation were changed altogether : which conference (No. 25, p. 125.) the and if under such circumstances lord Yar- English plenipoteutiary conducted himself mouth, contrary to the letter of his instruc- with exemplary discretion, sagacity, and tion, did in consequence of the remon- moderation; in no instance committing strances of M.'Talleyrand, as detailed in his the high character with which he was inveslordship's letter of the 30th of July, pro- ted, giving no hope to the French plenipoduce his full powers, though not strictly tentiary that England would depart from justified in point of diplomatic etiquette, the basis on which the negociation was surely there was such palliation, if not avowedly instituted, at the same time in a complete ground of vindication to be found, discussion of many hours, seeking to ascere as might have saved him from reproach outain the extent of the demands of France, the part of his employers; more especially and in what manner they could be modi. fied. Sir, I would ask of my noble friend, which England would condescend to prohow the most experienced diplomatist could ceed, uo discussion could arise upon the have conducted himself in a manner more subject. The simple question was, les, satisfactory, or could have evinced greater or No ? as was put by Mr. Fox relative to skill in a situation of extreme delicacy - the joint or separate negociation in his corNow, sir, it becomes necessary to observe respoudence with M. Talleyrand, and by upon that part of the speech of my noble the same minister also in the case of Sicily. friend wherein he states the increased and -However, sir, to revert to the account extravagant pretensions of France, as ari- of the conference itself. I maintain, that sing out of the successful issue of her my noble friend is no more entitled to say schemes with the Russian minister ; and that the terms mentioned by general surely it is not just to take the terms men- Clarke, were the only terms which could tioned by general Clarke, in this conference have been obtained from France, than that with lord Yarmouth, as the ultimatum of the French minister would have been juso the French goverument, far less to assert tified in affirming that the cession on the that the Freuch insisted with great elation part of the French government of Naples, upon their success with Russia, and in Venice, Istria, and Dalmatia, together consequence of it demanded terms to which with a part of the emperor's Italian domiEngland could not accede. That a consi- nions to the king of Sardinia, (p. 113) derable advantage had been gained by were the only terms upon which England France, no man can deny, and that such would consent to make peace with France, advantage would not be improved was un-Sir, I confess that such laxity and indulreasonable to expect. But the words of gence towards ourselves, and such strict general Clarke are extremely cautious. interpretation of all that comes from the He says that it would entitle the emperor opposite party, seems to me, with great to more advantageous terms. That, “ the submission, neither to be in the true spirit

emperor would be authorized to with- of conciliatory treating, nor to be founded “ hold some of the great points, but having in equity or wisdom.-We now come to a “ repeatedly said the contrary, though not period when the news of M. D'Oubril's " in an official manner, he would abide by conduct bad reached England, together “ it." My noble friend has justly re- with the account of the step lord Yarmouth marked, that in the subsequent explanation had consequently taken, and there is subof these great points by general Clarke, the mitted to us a dispatch (No. 26, p. 129) proposed cessions of Hanover, Malta, and bearing Mr. Fox's signature which unfolds ihe Cape, were burthened with conditions the sentiments and views of the English wholly inadmissible: and my feelings revoltcabinet at this juncture.I cannot refrain at them as much as those of my noble friend. from remarking by the way, that it is exThe difference between us is this, that my traordinary to find M. D'Oubril's conduct noble friend considers these propositions in signing the separate treaty always reto have been seriously intended as the ul- ferred to the threat held out about the timatum of France, whilst I consider them affair of Germany; whereas the French only in the nature of preliminary discus- ninister from the beginning of the first sions, and if those discussions had pro- correspondence with Mr. Fox always inceeded, terms of a different nature, and sisted that Russia bad shown a disposition perfectly admissible terms might have been to negociate separately, and lord Yarmouth proposed.--Here, sir, I would beg to refer himself says, (p. 122) “ that from the first those who are disposed to contend that the “ hour he met M. D'Oubril in France he uti possidetis had been hitherto, and was thought he was come determined to now considered as the sine qua non of the “ make a peace good or bad, with or with negociation, to the note prepared by lord" out Great Britain."-Sir, there is someYarmouth for his discussion with general thing to nie unintelligible in the conduct Clarke, and which was read by his lordship of the Russian plenipotentiary in the whole to thegeneral. [No.25, Inclosure D.p. 129.] of this affair, and it would be improper You will there find that the English pleni- perhaps to ask, or to give any explanation potentiary states himself to be authorized upon the subject at this moment. But to to " discuss the basis, and to give full effect this I think there must be an universal as. " to the reciprocal desire of the two coun- sent, that no effort was left unemployed by "tries." Now surely, sir, if there had lord Yarmouth to prevent M. D'oubril been but one indispensable basis upon from taking the step so justly deprecated.

In this situation of things it was judged in the case of Sicily, and possibly in some adviseable to add another minister to the other points, something of tergiversation earl of Yarmouth ; and the earl of Lau- and chicanery on the part of France, is un. derdale was selected for the purpose ; a deniable ; but if it was fit to pursue the person perfectly qualified for any station wegociation at all, it was fit to pursue it in where talents, activity, and integrity are the spirit of conciliation and peace, both as sequited, and whom from motives of per- to form and substance: and io judge from sonal regard and friendship I should have his manner of treating, I must say, it apwished to see placed in situations of emi-pears to me that lord Lauderdale's innence and distinction. If I sball be com-structions were not judiciously drawi).pelled hereafter to disapprove of that part Sir, from the papers before you we find of the negociation in which he was prin- that lord Lauderdale arrived at Paris on cipally concerned, lord Lauderdale may the 9th of August and in a dispatch, dated no doubt appeal to his instructions as fur- fon the 9th, he informs this government of nishing at once the best vindication, and interviews which had taken place between the highest authority for his conduct. the English plenipotentiaries and general About the sanie period we have been given Clarke, to whom had been added M. to understand by lord Yarmouth, an imd Champagny as coadjutor, which had been préssion was created in France most unfas announced to the earls of Lauderdale and vourable to the issue of the conferences, Yarmouth, with something like an insiby an event which was deemed to bave “ nuation that an unfair advantage had taken place, I mean the political death of been taken by the English government Mt. Fox. Alas! sir, how fresh causes of " by the appointment of two ministers on grief and lamentation for the loss of that their part.” [No. 35, p. 144.] I conillustrious man daily arise ! how much fess, sir, that I wish lord Lauderdale bad more than ever are we now bound to de- omitted so invidious a communication to plore his untimely death! but was it unna bis court. It does not appear in the true tural that the French should conceive it spirit of amity, that any thing so vague and probable his death would make a consi- uncertain, as something like an insinuaderable difference in the British councils tion” should be seriously noticed and reas to the great object of peace? Sir, not. corded. I am the more confirmed in the withstanding, my noble friend, who has wish I have expressed, by adverting to the been during the whole course of his parlia- dispatch from the English cabinet, dated the mertary life for 20 years the zealous advo- 14th of August, [No.38, p. 163] wherein cate, and the most able and eloquent sup- the expression I have quoted, is so strongly porter of those enlightened and glorious taken up as to make it the ground of lord principles which actuated Mr. Fox; not Yarmouth's recall from Paris.--Sir, the withstanding, I say, he and others of tris conference which took place immediately warmest friends and admirers were to be after lord Lauderdale's arrival at Paris is found amongst the advisers of his majesty, rendered for ever memorable by the deliwas it surprising that the French govern- very of a Note, (p. 145) signed by the new ment should be somewhat diffident of other English negociator, doubtless, in strict conservants of the crown, who, whatever their formity to his instructions, which indeed, sentiments might now be, had certainly did raise the uti possidetis into a sine qui upon former occasions not evinced the non, and threw such an impediment in the readiest disposition for peace with the chiet way.of pacification, as was not surmounted of the French governinent. Sir, from my till the period for a temperate discussion soul, I believe that every member of the of terms was passed; the wbole of the inEnglish cabinet was sincerely desirous of termediate time having been lost in a fruitpeace. I have publicly expressed that con- less dispute upon a barren proposition, viction, and I repeat it: but am I to be which France nevertbeless, as I shall heresurprised that France liad not the same after shew, made an effort to surmount, an confidence as myself? and ought not pe- effort which might unquestionably have culiar caution to have been taken at a been highly improved. This same propojuncture so critical, to avoid giving the sition we ourselves at last abandoned, for slightest appearance of a change of senti- the purpose of doing that, which we ougit hent on the part of this country? The to bave done in the outset, namely, of conpath was plain and obvious; I do not sidering the terms upon which a peace bothink it was pursued. That there had been nourable. 10. both countries might be ef

fected.- Sir, my noble friend has paid to created a difficulty which delayed its prolord Lauderdale the tribute due to him gress during the whole of that valuable from ministers for the faithful discharge of and irreparable period, which elapsed be his duty; for the spirit with which he up-tween the 7th of Aug. and the 18th of Sept. held the honour of the nation confided to My noble friend has commented with bis care, and for the ability with which he just severity upon the Note which was deperformed his various functions. I wish livered by general Clarke to the English not to detract from that praise. They mission, (p. 150.) in answer to that which I have both now, and in their dispatches ad- have just mentioned. Undoubtedly, in that dressed to bim, done him no more than paper is contained great intemperance of justice: and I am sure but little impression expression, much vagne and false reasoncan have been made on the house by that iog, much exaggerated statement, and a part of the speech of the bon. gent. to which great deal of assertion as to the possessions i have before alluded, wherein he tried to which the French emperor would retain, expose che noble earl to ridicule for the provided the basis of uti possidetis should easiness with which he suffered himself to be adopted. However Moravia, part of be duped, and the tameness with which he Hungary, the whole of Austria, &c. might suffered the character of the nation he re- bave been his by the right of conquest, ißey presented, to be insulted. Sir, to uphold had been restored by treaty, and, at the the character of a great country is the first time of opening the correspondence, were duty of a negociator, but not the only one. not in the possession of France. But in There is a skill which will combine firmness this note, the basis of actual possession is with conciliation, and obtain the object positively and violently rejected, and it is sought for without the slightest departure said that France will treat upon that basis from the true feelings and expressions of alone, which was proposed by Mr. Fox, national honour.-Sir, the note in question, namely, " that the treaty should be ho: at the same time that it demands the pre- “ nourable to each party, and its allies ; vious recognition of the basis of actual pos- " and at the same time of a nature to insession, admits, “ that an indemnification sure, as far as should be in their power, " may be found for Sicily, and that pro- “ the future tranquillity of Europe, accom

positions may be accepted for the ex-" panied by an acknowledgement in favour

change of territory between the two coul- “ of both powers, of the right of inter" tracting parties upon just and equal“ ference and guarantee in continental " principles.” (p. 148). Sir, may we be " and maritime affairs.”—According to allowed to ask, why not, as in the ordinary the instructions given, no alternative was transactions of life, go at once to the sub-| left to the English plenipotentiaries, after stance, and dispense with the formalities, the step which had been taken, and the rethe recognition of which cannot couduceception it had met with, but to demand 10 any good purpose? Why not proceed to their passports, and immediately to quit discuss those exchanges which it is admit-Paris. Passports were accordingly deted may be made, instead of dwelling upon manded, but the demand was eluded, as is a preliminary admission, which, when ob- said in the Declaration, by an unusual und tained, would not, in the slightest degree unexplained delay, from the 9ih to the 11th bave accelerated the work? The recog- of August. The conduct of the French nition of a techuical basis, which, whatever government in acting so directly in oppowas her original proposition, you knew that sition to all established forms, in violation France was now indisposed to admit, which, of that perfect freedom which must be alat all events, she would not be compelled lowed at all times to accredited ministers to acknowledge, and which it does not ap- sent to treat with a bostile power for the pear to me to have been necessary or ad-great object of peace, has been deservedly viseable to send a fresh plenipotentiary reprobated. But I think the hon. gent. merely, to urge. But whatever may have who spoke early in this debate, bore much been the course which I, as a person ar- too hard upon the noble earls in attributing dently wishing that every facility, consist- to them any blame for their conduct at ent witb-pational faith and honour, should this crisis. They insisted upon their passhave been given to this great work, might ports, and reiterated their request in a deem most proper, certain it is, that the laconic, and forcible manner, such as could course which was actually pursued after give no reason to doubt of their being the arrival of lord Lauderdale at Paris, sufficiently alive to the insult ubich was Vol. VII.


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