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vented, without having recourse to cool rooms and ventilators. As a proof of the superiority of the Polish method in the management of bees, allow me to ask, where are the cottagers of any other country of Europe who earn every autumn from 5 to 20 barrels of pure honey, and from 50 to 200 lbs. of wax? Where are the small farmers who can produce from their hives from 20 to 100 barrels of honey? Where are the landed proprietors who augment their revenues by the value of many hundreds of barrels of fine clear honey, which they sell either in its pure state or distilled into Miodomel, or save a handsome sum by selling, or exchanging for waxcandles, many hundred pounds of wax? Or who, from the strong vinegar made from the sediments of the wax and honey, are enabled to purchase wines and groceries to supply their household for the whole year? Nowhere, we presume, but in Poland. The advantage that Poland has over Britain in facilitating the culture of bees, is the possession of more extensive nourishment for them; but if the hints given under Sect. I. be followed out, the bees in Britain will also find abundance of flowers and blossoms to gather honey from, especially if the use of buckwheat groats should become, for such a purpose, as universal as it is in Poland and Germany.

* A Polish barrel of honey contains from 400 to 500 pounds.

PART SECOND.

DUTIES OF A BEEKEEPER IN POLAND.

I. IN THE SPRING.

XIII. DESCRIPTION OF THE NECESSARY TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS.

IN describing and dividing the duties of an apiarian according to seasons, and the successive appearances of the natural evolutions of the bee, we have endeavoured to form in this Part a regular Beekeeper's Manual. 1. A peculiar knife is wanted for the cutting out of honeycombs (see Plate III). It is made of iron: the blade, sharpened on both sides, and in the form of a long triangle, must be about half an inch broad and two inches long; it must be rivetted or screwed to a handle sixteen inches long, and its breadth on the rivetted end must not exceed one inch. 2. A common spade, as used by the gardeners. 3. A boat-hook; this is a pole, from 20 to 30 feet long, on the thickest end of which a double hook is fastened; one part of it is straight, and

the other curved. 4. A rope, about 20 yards long. 5. A quantity of dry rags, or lunt (matchcord), or fire-boletus, or touch-wood, to produce smoke without flame, to force the swarm, in the time of harvest, into a new hive. 6. A hivestaff; this is an implement like the churnstaff, only with this difference, that the staff itself is longer, and the lid as large as the top of the inside of the hive, and without holes; it is used to beat out the yearly hives, in a large establishment of many hundreds of hives. 7. A proportionate number of barrels, with an opening larger than the bottom of the hives, to receive the beat-out contents of the yearly hives in time of harvest, used also in large establishments. 8. A proportionate number of large tubs or pans, to receive the honeycombs cut out from the winter stock hives, and also to receive pure honey from the filtering-barrels. 9. A sweep and dust-broom. 10. A framed square trestle, about 2 feet high, open in the middle. 11. A quantity of dry, clean sand, from inland, which is preferable to sea-sand. 12. A wheel-barrow. 13. Clean linen sheets.

The extensive bee-gardens in Poland are in remote deserts or forests, sometimes ten miles from a habitation; and consequently the hut of the beekeeper must be provided with every article necessary for the performance of his duties.

Nevertheless, they are so simple that they are to be found in every cottage, excepting only the peculiar knife.

XIV. GENERAL VISITATION, CLEANING, AND SUPPORTING OF THE HIVES.

When the warmth of the sun begins to operate, in the beginning of the month of April, the beekeeper must appear, on a fine sunny day, with his knife, spade, brooms, a trestle, a tub, and a wheelbarrow full of dry sand, amidst the colonies intrusted to his care. He begins his operations by taking off the earth placed round the hive; then he places the hive upon the trestle, cuts out the wax combs emptied by the bees during the winter season, but taking care to leave enough of them for the lodgings of the whole colony; he must take great precaution not to touch the combs or cells filled with the young brood, eggs, or honey. He cleans the hive inside and outside with the dust-broom; removes the clay from the entrance; cleans the stand and the place round the hive; destroys all injurious reptiles, insects, and vermin with which he may meet; strews a little fresh dry sand on the stand; places the hive the same way as before, laying round the bottom dry chips or moss, and covers it with earth, as mentioned under Sect. VI. The hive

must be always cautiously removed. Some beekeepers protect their hands with gloves, and cover their head and neck with a handkerchief; some smoke a pipe, but no other smoke is used, as the bees are not very irritable at that time. The next day he must administer to every hive a good tablespoonful of pure, clear honey, dissolved in some hot water; this he must do twice a week during four weeks successively, as at that period the bees are breeding, which circumstance renders them very feeble. This administering of food must be done always after sunset, when all the members of the colony are at home, otherwise the hive would be invaded by another hungry or rapacious colony of the same, or from a neighbouring establishment. The food is passed through the entrance in a small oblong crib, made by the beekeeper of a bit of wood for the purpose.

XV. PREPARATION OF THE STANDS AND NEW HIVES FOR THE FORTHCOMING YOUNG SWARMS.

The required number of new hives is generally made by the beekeeper of a large establishment during the winter, calculating two new hives to every winter stock-hive, as during the winter he has nothing else to do. In the spring he must prepare stands for double the number of his

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