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thought himself of imploring the af- other hand, that you do not push mate sistance of the gods. Prayers, offer- ters to extremity. ings, alms, sacrifices every thing, in But this man, who was inconsolable fine, was employed to obtain her cure, for the death of his daughter, ftill pere The Bonzes, whom these gifts enrich, sisted in declaring, that he would ra. answered for her recovery on the ther perish, than recede in the least faith of an idol, of whose power they instance from his rights : « My lord,' had boasted much. Nevertheless, this answered he, my resolution is taken: daughter died, and the father, enra- the idol is persuaded, that he can comged and inconsolable, resolved to q« mit all manner of injustice with impuvenge her death, and to prosecute the nity: he imagines that no one will be idol in due form of law. He lodged hardy enough to attack him : but he his complaint, therefore, before the is mistaken ; and we shall foon see, judge of the place. After having whether he or I be the most wicked Itrongly represented in his declaration and intractable of the two. the treacherous conduct of this unjust The viceroy, perceiving that all fardivinity, he urged the judge to inflict ther expostulation would be in rain, an exemplary punishment upon him for permitted the cause to proceed, and his breach of faith. "If the Spirit,' fent information of it, in the mean added he, were able to cure my time, to the sovereign council at Pedaughter, it was an absolute fraud, to kin, who ordered it to be removed, take my money, and suffer her to die, by appeal, to their tribunal, before If he had not this power, why did he which both parties soon appeared, interfere in it? What right had he to The idol did not fail to find very able affume the quality of a god? Is it for pleaders at the bar. The counsel, to nothing țhat we adore him, and that whom the Bonzes gave a fee to de the whole province offer facrifices to fend him, were clear that his righe him ?” In a word, he contended, that was incontestable, and they spoke considering the impotence, or the ma, with such eloquence on the subjects lice of this idol, his temple should be that the god in person could not have demolished, his priests driven ignomi- excelled them. But they had to conpiously from it, and he himself under: tend with a much more able man, go fome severe corporal punishment. who had already had the precaution

The affair appeared important to to have his arguments preceded by the judge, and he referred it to the a round sum of money, in order to governor, who, unwilling to have a- give his judges a clearer insight into ny conteft with the gods, requested the merits of the case ; being perfuathe viceroy to examine into the me, ded, that the devil must be very cunrits of the case. The latter, after ha- ning if he could withstand this laft ving heard the Bonzes, who appeared argument. In reality, after many & much alarmed, called the plaintiff, and loquent pleadings, he gained a comadvised him to desist from the prase- pleat victory. The idol was CODcution. "You are not wife,' said he, demned, as useless in the empire, co ¢ to embroil yourself with these Spis perpetual exile ; his temple was des rits : they are naturally malignant, molished ; and the Bonzes, that rea and, Į fear, may play you a scurvy presented his perfon, met with exemtrick. Be advised by me ; accept the plary punishment. proposals of compromise which the. The fuperstitious credulity of the Bonzes will make you. They assure Chinese is assiduously kept up by thele me, that the idol, on his part, fhall Bonzes; who are vagabonds, broughe listen to reason ; provided, on the 'up from their infancy in effeminacy:

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Remarkable Instances of Superstition among the Chinese. 379 idleness, and aversion to labour; and add the most rigid fasting, frequent the greatest part of whom devote them- watchings, and long prayers before selves to this profession for mere sub- the altars of Fo. The gifts which listence. There is, consequently, ño they cannot obtain by cunning and kind of artifice which they do not em- address, they endeavour to procure by ploy, to extort presents from the de- exciting compassion fof the austerity vout worshippers of Fo. Nothing is of their penances. They may be met more common in China thán recitals with in the most public streets, disof the artful tricks of thefe pious playing to the eyes of the people a cheats. The following instance of this spectacle of the most frightful macemay divert our readers :

rations. Some, with difficulty, drag Two of these Bonzes, roving about along the streets heavy chains, thirty the country, perceived two or three feet long, fastened to their neck and Jarge ducks in the farm-yard of a rich legs. Others bruise, and cover thempeasant. They instantly prostrated selves with blood, by striking their themselves before the gate, and be- foreheads with a heavy stone ; and 0. gan to groan and weep very bitterly. ther's carry burning coals upon their The farmer's wife, who saw them from naked head. These felf-rormentors her chamber, went out to know the stop at the doors of the houses. • You · subject of their grief. "We know,' fee,' say they, how much we suffer said they, that the souls of our fa- to expiate your faults, and can you thers have passed into the bodies of be so hard-hearted as to refuse us a those ducks; and our fears left you small pittance ? should kill them, will inevitably make One of the most extraordinary kinds as die ourselves with grief.' . It is of penance was that of which Father" true,' answered the farmer's wife, it le Compte was an eye-witness, and was our intention to sell them; but which he thus relates : ' I met, one since they are your fathers, I will give day, in the midst of a village, a young you my word to keep them.' This Bonze, whose insinuating address, and was not what the Bonzes wished for : graceful air, was calculated to obtain • Ah!' said they, your husband may the donations of the charitablé. He not be fo charitable; and we shall cer- stood upright in a chait, or kind of tainly die if any accident betide them.' small pulpit, closely shut, and stuck In fine, after a long conversation, the very thick, in the inside, with long good woman was so affected by their points of nails towards his body, infoapparent grief, that she committed the much that it was impossible for him ducks to their filial care. They recei: to recline against any one part, withved them with great respect, after ha- out being wounded. Two hired men vingtwenty times prostrated themselves carried him very Nowly into the houses, before them; but, that very evening, where he befought the people to have they put their pretended fathers on the compaffion upon him: I have caused spit, and very handsomely regaled their myself,' said he, to be inclosed in little community.

this chair, for the good of your souls, These Bonzes are acquainted with determined never to leave it till all all the resources of hypocrisy. They these nails are bought.' (There were know, to a moment, when to cringe, upwards of 2000 of them.] • Each and to assume the most abject humili- nail is worth five pence; but there is ty. They affect a gentleness, com- not one of them which is not a source plaisance, and modesty, calculated to of benediction in your houses. If you captivate every heart. They may be buy some of them, you will perform taken for so many faints, especially an act of heroic virtue ; and it will be when, to this engaging exterior, they giving alms, not to the Bonzes, to 3 A a

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whom you can find other ways of be- him on every side. His arms, and the ing charitable, but to the god Fo, to rest of his body, were concealed. He whose honour we are building a temple.' had nothing at liberty but his eyes,

• I was then passing the same way; which he moved with a degree of wild: the Bonze saw me, and saluted me nefs. Lower down, upon the theatre, with the same compliment. I told him, appeared an old Bonze, who explained that he was very wretched to torment to the people, that this young mani himself so ineffectually in this world ; had resolved to sacrifice his life, by and I advised him to leave his prison, throwing himself into the deep river that and go to the temple of the true God, howed by the highway-side. • But,' that he might be instructed in heavenly added he, the young man will not truths, and submit to a less rigid, but die in consequence of this ; for he will more salutary penance.'-He answer- be received, at the bottom of the waed me with great good temper, that he ter, by charitable fpirits, who will be was much obliged to me for my advice; eager to give him a friendly welcotne. but that he should be still more thank. His lot is to be envied! He has obful, if I would buy a dozen of his tained the greatest felicity he could nails, which would most assuredly desire. A hundred other persons were procure me prosperity in my journey. Candidates for his situation, but to his • Here,' said he, turning to one side, superior piety, his transcendent virtue, • take these on the credit of a Bonze ; the preference was justly due.'-The they are the best in the chair, for they Mandarin, after having heard this hatorment me more than the others; rangue; declared that the young man nevertheless, you shall have them at displayed great courage, but he was the same price. - He uttered these surprised that he had not himself exwords with an air and an action, that, plained his motives for this sacrifice : on any other occasion, would have · Let him descend,' continued the go. made me laugh; but, at that moment, vernor, that we may converse with his wretched ignorance excited my him a moment.' The old Bonze tercompassion; and I was penetrated with rified at this order, expostulated against grief at the sight of this miserable cap- it. He protested that all was lost, if tive of the demon, who suffered more the victim only opened his mouth, for perdition, than a Christian is ob- and that he could not answer for the liged to suffer to be saved.'. calamities that would consequently be

These Bonzes are not all penitents : indicted on the province. The caa great number of them renounce these lamities you are apprehensive of,' rea painful methods of procuring alms. turned the Mandarin, " I will take To gain the same end, some others em- upon myself:' and lie instantly comploy a thousand secret abominations, manded the young man to come down, and even murder itself. • Some years but the latter made no other answer; ago,' says Father le Compte, “the go- than by frightful looks, and an irrevernor of a city being on a journey gular motion of his eyes, which seemed with his usual attendants, and percei- almost starting from his head : Behold ving a great crowd of people on the those looks, that agitation,' said the high way, had the curiosity to stop, and Bonze,' and judge, by thefe figns, of to inquire the reason of this concourse, the violence you do him: he will die

The Bonzes were celebrating there with grief.' But the Mandarin was an extraordinary festival. They had not to be deceived: he ordered his at. constructed a lofty machine upon a vast tendants to ascend the theatre, and to theatre. At the top of this machine, bring the unfortunate man before him. the head of a young man appeared a. They found him bound and gagged. bove a linall balustrade, that enclosed They unbound him, and the moment

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Remarkable Instances of Superstition among the Chinese. 381 he was at liberty to speak, he cried out, some other Bonzes, his confidents, to Ah! my lord, revenge me on these secure the two attendants, and he vioasfallins, who were going to drown me. lated the young lady, in spite of all her I am a batchelor, who was repairing cries and tears. to court, to assist at the usual exami- ' The doctor was long ignorant of the nations. These Bonzes seized me cause of his daughter's absence : he yesterday by force; and before day- knew that she had entered the pagod, break, this morning, they tied me, in and had disappeared there. He despite of my resistarice, to that machine, manded her : the Bonzes answered to with a view to throw me this evening all his requisitions, that it was very true into the river, in order to perform she had entered the pagod, but that she their abominable mysteries, at the ex. had left it when she had finished her pence of my life.'-The moment he devotions. The doctor, who had been had begun to speak, the Bonzes took brought up in great contempt for the to fight; but the officers of justice, Bonzes, às are all the men of letters in who always attend the governor, ap- China, wrote to the General of the prehended some of them. The prin- Tartars of this province, and demandcipal Bonze was throwń himself into ed justice of him on the violators of the river, and drowned. The others his daughter. The Bonzes,who thought were conducted to prison, and met, in they should find an implicit confidence the sequel, with their merited punish- in these two men, informed them, in a ment.

mysterious manner, that the god F., · A letter of Father Láůreati, an Ita- having fallen in love with the young lian Jesuit, affords a fact of a different lady, had carried her off. The Bonze, kind : it will give us an idea of the vo- the principal in this intrigue, attempt. luptuous manners, and secret lascivious ed next, by a pathetic harangue, to life, of these Bonzes. There once make the doctor comprehend what ho'existed, near the city of Foutcheou, a nour Fo had done to his whole family, Famous pagod, in which the most dif- in deeming his daughter worthy of his tinguished Bonzes of the province re- tenderness and society. But the Tare, lided. The daughter of a Chinese doc- tarian General was not to be satisfied tor, going to her father's country-house, with these fi&tions. Proceeding to exattended by two maid-fervants, and plore the most concealed recesses of . carried, according to custom, in an the pagod, he heard some confused open chaise, had the curiosity to enter cries issue from the bottom of a hollow this temple, and sent to request the rock. He went to this place, and perBonzes to keep at a distance, while ceived an iron door, which closed the the performed her devotions. The prin- entrance of a cave. Having burst it cipal Bonze had the curiosity to see open, he descended into a subterranethis young lady, and concealed himself ous place, where he found the docbehind the altar. He saw her but too tor's daughter, and more than thirty well ; and he was so desperately smit- other women, who had been imprisonten with her, that his heated imagina. ed there. They left their prison and tion, inattentive to every idea of dan- the pagod ; and, immediately after, the ger, conceived nothing but the facility General set fire to the four corners of with which he might carry off a help- this édifice, and burnt the temple, the less and ill-attended girl. He loft not altars, the gods, and their detestable a moment in helication. He ordered ministers *

The

* Univers. Mag.

The Heetopades of Veeshnoo-Sarina. Transaied from the Sanskreet languager

By Charles Wilkins. TN a former Number *, we gave a " preserved, and the fables of Veelho 1 specimen of Sanskreer Literature, “ noo-Sermå, whom we ridiculously from Mr Wilkins' Translation of the 66 called Pilpay, are the most beautiGEETA. The following is extracted « ful, if not the most ancient, collecfrom his translation of another work « tion of the Apologues in the world : in the same language, just published. “ They were first translated from the

This work. Cavs Mr Wilkins, is the “ Sanskreet in the fixth century, by Sanskreet original of those celebrated “ Buzerchumihr, or Bright as the Sun, fables, which, after passing through most

“ the chief physician, and afterwards of the Oriental languages, ancient and

“ the Vizeer of the great Anushirwan, modern, with various alterations to ac

" and are extant under various names commodate them to the taste and genius

“ in more thari twenty languages to of those for whose benefit or amusement

“ but their original title is Hitopadefa, they were designed, and under differ

“ oř Amicable Instruction ; and as the ent appellations, at length were intro

“ very existence of Æsop, whom the duced to the knowledge of the Euro

Arabs believed to have been an Apean world with a title importing them

“ bylinian, appears rather doubtful, I to have been originally written by Pilo“ am not dilinclined to luppole, that the pay, or Bidpai, an ancient Brahman ;

Ćs first moral fables which appeared in two names of which, as far as my in. “ Europe were of Indian or Ethiopian quiries have extended, the Brahmans

ane 6 origin.” of the present times are totally ignorant.

The Hectopades is a collection of Sir William Jones, whose surprising co

connected fables, arranged under the talents are ever employed in seeking tour fol!

emploved in seeking four following heads : The Acquisition fresh fources of knowledge, and pro- of a Friend : The Separation of a Famoting their cultivation, in an elegant vourite : Of Diputing : And, Of Madiscourse, delivered by him the 26th king Peace. As a specimen, we submit of February 1786, since my return to our readers, a part of the introduce from India, at a meeting of the Society tion, and two or three of the fables. for inquiring into the History, civil

INTRODUCTION. . . and natural, the Antiquities, Arts, « The Rajah Soodorshana, having Sciences, and Literature of Asia, ex- te

en respectfully delivered his sons into the presses his sentiments upon this sub

ube charge of Veeshnoo-Sarma ; that ject in the following words :

learned Pandeet, soon after, seized the .“ Their (the Hindoos) Neetee- opportunity, when they were for a“ Sastra, or System of Ethicks, is yet musement sitting together upon the

terrace * See Edin. Mag. Vol. II. p. 244.

+ In the year 1709, the Persian version of the Heetopades, made in the 515th year of the Higira, was translated into French, with the title of Les Conseils et les Maximes de Pilpay Philofophe Indien fur les divers Etats de la vie. This edition resembles the Heetopades more than any other I have seen, and is evidently the immediate original of the English Instructive and entertaining Fables of Pilpay, an ancient Indian Philosopher, which, in 1775 had gone through five editions. Trans.

I A great Pandeet, by name Veelhinoo-Sarma. Pandect is an honorary titles given to learned Brahmans. A doctor of the Hindoo laws. A Hindoo philosopher. It is not easy to determine whether Verfinoo-Sarma was really the author, or only the compiler of these Fables ; but it is worthy of observation, that the Brahmans themselves know nothing of Pilpuy', to whom, we are told, the Persians attribute them.

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