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A STATE of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's

THERMOMETER in the open air, taken between 12 and 3 o'clock, afternoon ; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, From the 30th of June 1787, to the 30th of July 1787, near the foot of Arthur's Seat.

71

29:65

59.

47

Days. Ther. Barom, Rain. Weather
June 30

65
29.7

Clear.
July 1 64
29.75

Ditto.
2
66 30.18

Ditto.
3
65 30.13

Ditto.
4 77 29.57

Ditto. 29.325 0.125

Rain.
6 65 29.4

Clear.
7
61
29.356

0.04

Showers. 8 61 29.575 0.02

Ditto.
9 57

Ditto.
10
63
29 75 0.28

Rain and hail.
II
29.625

0.09

Rain.
I2
59
29.625

Clear.
13 59

29.575 0.095 Cloudy, small showers
14 55 29.535

Clear,
is
61

29.625 0.35 Rain.
16

29.6125 0.38 Ditto.
60 29.6375 0.07 Small rain,
18 60 29.675

Showers.
19

60 29.625 0.01 Ditto, cloudy,
20
59
29.325

Cloudy.
21
29.4525

Ditto. -.
29.4575

0.1

Rain and thunder.)
29.425 0,67 Ditto.
24
29.612 0,02

Shower.
25
29.875

0.44

Rain. 29.6125

1.58

Ditto and thunder.
27
64
29.875

Clear.
62 29.625 0.45

Rain.
29
68
29.4

0.04

Clear showers at night.
39
62
29.4

0.04 Showers.

Total, 4.790 Rain.
THERMOMETER.

BAROMETER..;IT pa na Days

Days. 4. 57 greatest height at noon. -3. 30.18 greatest elevation. 7!. 17 46 least ditto, morning. 20.

29.325 leart ditto.

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63

64

63

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61 65

26

28

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BORTHWICK CASTLE, in Mid-Lothian.
HIS Cattle is feated on an eminence, in the midnt of a pretty vale,

bounded by hills covered with corn and wonds; a most picturesque

scene. It consists of a vast square tower, ninety feet high, with {quare and round bastions at equal distances from its base. The state. rooms are on the first storey, once accessible by a draw-bridge. Some of the apartments were very large; the hall forty féet long, and had its mufic gallery, the roof lofty, and once adorned with paintings. This castle was built by a Lord Borthwick, once a potent family. In the vault lies one of the name, in armour, and a little bonnet, with his lady by him. On the fide are núnibers of little elegant human figures. The place was once the property of the Earl of Bothwel, who, a little before the battle of Carberry hill, took refuge here with his fair confort.

Peniant,

On the Rise and Progress of the Italian Opera. AN

Ń Opera is defined by the eino, and compofed by Peri, a mu

critica poetical tale or fic freian of some eminence in that age. tion, reprefented by vocal and in- Tlie subject was the death of Euri. ftrumental music, adorned with dice, and the defçent of Orpheus scenes, machines, and dancing. It into the infernal regions. A ftory is said to have been invented in happily enough cholen for the inItaly, towards the close of the 16th troduci ion of Atriking scenes, gro. century. The first performance of tefque figures, and dresses, furpri. this kind deserving much notice fing deceprions hy machinery, and was exhibited in Florence, úpon mufic of powerful and various ex occasion of the marriage of Henry IV. preffion. Accordingly, its success of France with a princess of the was very great, and it remained a Medicean family. It was written long time as a ftandard of imitation by a Florentine poer, named Rinuc- for fucseeding poets and musicians.

For

A 2

.

For a confiderable period the mar- the modern ballad, tho' far more 'vellous was considered as the foun- correct and significant. In the ardation of this Dramay. the subject ticles of decoration and machinery, was generally “no mortal business, they appear to have gone greater the music an imitation of no found lengths than the critics are aware of. that this earth owns,” and the per- How, otherwise, shall we accormt fons, gods, demigods, devils, fairies, for the enormous expence attending and-forcerers; beings whose actions the representation of their pieces, and appearances were not to be and the wonderful stage-effects which hampered by nature, truth, or pro- we perceive they produced !--What bability. To support and adorn kind of flying chariot was it in those reprefentations vast expences which Medea made her triumphant were lavished, and every fource of exit?-What curious device made pleasure in the fine arts explored. the back-scene, which at firft apTheatres arose over all Italy, rival- peared to Strepsiades in the form of ing in magnificence the palaces of clouds, gradually roll forward, and kings, and in elegance the monu- change into the more engaging

ments of antiquity. In them spectacle of several clever lasses, "artists of every kind vied with each who advanced, and with great good other in the exertion of their re• nature gave the honest man a song? fpetive abilities: the most ingeni. These, and other particulars that ous machines, and the most enchant- might be mentioned, feein to prove ing 'fcenery conspired to fascinate that the Greek theatre was not only the eye; while multitudes of instru- fupported by excellent poets, but ments and voices astonished the ear. by excellent musicians, painters, ar

Such a representation, though ve- chitects, and mechanics; and give ry imperfect, and very absurd in some colour to the opinion, that the many respects, was highly admired; pieces there exhibited differed in and the Wits of the time congratu- nothing from modern loperas, but lated themselves on the invention in being much better written, and of what they thought a new species in wanting the distinction of air and of Drama, unknown to the ancients. recitative. Here, said they, we have disco- I do not imagine, however, that + vered a new scenic power to inter- the inventors of the Italian Opera est and to charm, Admiration ;, and availed themselves of this, or indeed we can join it to Aristotle's Terror that they knew any thing of it; and Pity. All the merit of the in- for had that been the case, it is navention may, perhaps, be granted tural to suppose their first performthem, while the novelty of it is de- ances would have been direct

międ. The Opera, so far from be- translations of Greek plays. I ra*ing unknown to the ancients, and ther incline to think they took their Hi especially to the Greeks, appears to idea from the old Masque, an enter:' me to have been the only Dramą tainment brought into Spain by the

they knew. The Greek tragedies Saracens, from whence it {pread are all serious operas; their come- over Europe, and became the condies, at least those that still remain, ftant attendant of mirthful folemmay, without any disrespect, be cal. nities, in the courts of princes, and led Burlettas. We have reason the castles of the great barons. It to believe that the declamation of was an interlude of a few songs, their theatre was a true recitative, mixed with dances by fantastie fiand that for the most part accome gures, and feats of agility; and in panied. Their chorus answered to it were found moft of the perso

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Introduction into England.

5 nages which first appeared in the heart was introduced with success : great. Opera--gods, dæmons, he. they found themselves no longer in roes, dwarfs, magicians, and scara- need of filling their scenes with mouches. The itretch of invention imaginary characters; and being was not much from finging fome able to represent mortals, they bedetached airs to make thein repre- came independent of the gods*. sent, a fhort story. There is no- The music thus was made fo chathing in this but what happened racteristic and appropriated, as to be long before, in the affair of Thef- in a manner loft during the reprepis and his hymns 10 Bacchus. sentation, so that a fenfible specta

Such was the rise of this Drama. tor could hardly separate, the exIn the course of near 200 years it pression of the orchestre from the has undergone several alterations, exprefsion of the poet. A raging improvements, and refinements; hero stalked along the scene--and but those have been very unequally it seemed not abfurd that he should applied. In Italy, they have been rage in fong; for the song was happy in discarding many foolilla fuch as fhook every foul of feeling tricks of the stage, and in cultiva. with pleasing terror. : A mourning ting impassioned music: in France, heroine appeared and the tender the chief Itress is still laid on “ in- and pathetic accents which the muexplicable dumb fhews,” and noise. sician gave her to breathe, could It was in the former of those coun- not be distinguished from the real tries that some genuises of the first ones of griet. rank arose, such as Vinci, Per- The Opera was arrived at that

golese, Porpora, and Durante; men perfection in Italy, when it was first - not only of profound skill in music, introduced into England ; and if Mr

but of chalte and elegant taste. Addison's accounts of it were to be They foon perceived, that harmony believed, it might seem astonishing and melody, when applied to words, how a representation, so clumsy and were not things indifferent ; that bungling, could ever be endured, far they were capable of assuming al- less become the favourite amusement most every variation of sentiment of the nation. This, however, hapand paffion; and that, consequently, pened in spite of all the powers of instead of being employed, as for- ridicule that he and his associates merly, to excite a pleasure merely could muster against it. We may physical, they might be addressed suspect, therefore, that he ought not to the imagination and the heart. implicitely to be credited; and for Upon this account, many person- this there are several good reasons, ages of high renown were driven one of which is, that he appears to from the theatre; the whole rab- have known little of the fubject. In blement of mythological beings were the first paragraph of the first paper

difcarded, (except Orpheo, who he writes concerning it, there are .: keeps his ground to this day ;) and as many mistakes as fentences. It

Inbjects were chosen from real is the fifth Spec. and the third of his history, more proper for affording writing, for lie seems eager to have interesting fituations. The machines a thrust at the new arrived Syren. of poets and carpenters were de- “ An Opera, (fays the great man) stroyed, and the lyric drama put may be allowed to be extravagantly on a form more noble and graceful. lavish in its decorations, as its only Every thing that could touch the defign is to gratify the senses, and

keep Royffeau.

keep ng an indolent attention in the representation of his own tragedy. audience.' Is it possible that three l fiippose he had directed the maartists, and so many at least there nager of the theatre to have a Romuft be in getting up every opera, man hall ois faloon represented as could combine their talents in com- exactly as possible by the foenery : pofing a work of which the only therefore, instead of fuffering Mr design should be to keep up an in- Booth to play Cato, he ought to dolent attention? Would they ne. have procured a man of pasteboard ver think of throwing out a bait for and painted canvas; for verily the the applause of the audience ! The scenes, both back and lide, were love scenes in Cato are as power- composed of fueli materials. In anofolly foporific as a long recitativo; ther paper, he thews his knowledge yet froin this we may not conclude, of music, by telling us of a lion that that the only design of tragedy is to was to be killed by Hydafpes, and lull men asleep. * Common sense, to roar twice or thrice, ere he died, (continues he) requires, however, to a'thorough bass : doubtless, the that there should be nothing in the most extraordinary piece of history, scenes and machines which may ap- extant concerning that noble anipear childish and abfurd.” But why mal. To have roar'd fimply a bass, fo!--for firely there are several might have been fufficiently won • things both childish and abfurd which derful, but tfie roaring of a thorough will gratify the senses, and keep up bafs, as Bottom says, “ would have an indolent attention. “How (cries done any man's heart good to have he) would the wits of King Charles's heard him." time have laughed, to have seen Ni- I mention thefe little flips of Ad. colini expofed to a tempeft in robes difon, because he has written a great of ermine, and failing in an open deal, and with the air of connoisseur: boat upon a fea of pafteboard ?" fhip on the subject ; and becaufe I Now this bullying question is not ea. know many people take their fily answered; for there seems no- ideas of it entirely from his thing more risible in one's being o- morous, though absurd representa-> vertaken by a tempest in a coat of tions. But though perfect faith crmine, than in a coat of buckram-or ought not to be given to him, it is Kendal.

1-green; and as to the sea of undeniable, that there was in his pafteboard, it is no more laughable time, and still is, ample field for exthan a tree of patteboard, a column, erting the severities of criticism on or an arch of pasteboard ; things the lyric ftage. There is perhaps which are feen every night in every no department of the fine arts where theatre, without exciting a convul. more might be done by a person of fion in any body's midriff. He goes good taste, information, and knowon, " A little ikill in criticism would ledge of the subject. Mr Addison, inform us, that shadows and realities by pouring forth his ridicule on the

; uright to be mixed together in tailor in the lion's skin, and the IparThe fame piece, and that the fcenes, rows aeting the parts of finging birds, which are designed as the repre- tras done nothing. Thofe abfurdisentations of Nature, jould be filled ties mast foon have failed of them. with resemblances, and not with the felvés. Had he been capable of Things themselves." If this be true, touching what was effential, the bad it will follow, tliat MrArdilon knew taste of the coinpofers, and the ima nothing of criticism, for he was him. proper licenèes taken by the fingers, self guilty of this supposed abfurdity he would have done good fervice to in the most glaring manner, at the the national taste, and our theatrical

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