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kitchens. In each story is a large room in front, and in the back is a smaller room, and the space occupied by the stair-case. This, however, is only meant as to the general class of houses. Those of the nobility and persons of high fashion, though mostly plain and simple in the exterior, are internally constructed with all the variety of taste, elegance, and convenience, for which modern architecture is distinguished.*
Water is conveyed, into almost every house, by leaden pipes, and preserved in such quantities, that the inhabitants have a constant and even lavish supply. Nothing can be more commodious or cleanly than the interior of the houses; and this character extends generally to lodging hotels, taverns, coffee-houses, and other places.
The roads that lead to London are most of them spacious, in excellent repair, and so well lighted by lamps, to a considerable distance, that foreigners arriving by night have imagined there was a general illumination; yet, at the avenues of London, the entering streets are many of them mean, and calculated to inspire foreigners with very erroneous ideas concerning the real magnificence of this metropolis.
But that which forms an essential part of the general character of a city is the natural capacity of its situation for the health, comfort, pleasure, and happiness of the inhabitants. In this, London is singularly fortunate. It stretches along the banks of the river Thames, which here winds so as to give the utmost aid that can be afforded by the disposition of its waters, to the commerce, embellishment, and salubrious ventilation of the town. This river,
In the great squares and principal streets, houses, according to their size, let from 200l. to 500l. per annum. In the second-rate streets, they let from 100l. to 2001. In the third and fourth-rate streets, from 40l. to 100%. In the great trading streets, besides a premium for the lease, according to its length, the rents run from 100%. to 400%. per annum. And in the second and third-rate trading streets they run from 40l. to 80l. per annum. The rents have of late been somewhat reduced.
though far from the largest, is said to be the most commodious for commerce of any the world affords. In all seasons of the year it is filled with fleets that are incessantly departing for or returning from every near and distant climate. Being sixty miles distant from the sea, London, profiting by this beautiful river, enjoys every benefit of navigation, without the danger of being surprised by foreign fleets, or the inconvenience of being annoyed by the moist vapours of the sea. It rises regularly from the water side, and extending from east to west in a kind of amphitheatre on the north bank, is continued for nearly twenty miles in every direction by successive populous villages, the country seats of opulent merchants and tradesmen, and the magnificent villas of the higher ranks.
GENERAL SKETCH OF THE STREETS,
The directions of the main streets of London follow the course of the river Thames from east to west, and the cross streets run, for the most part, in a direction from north to south.
There are two grand lines of streets from west to east. One of them, which may be called the northern line, commences from the Uxbridge road at the north side of Hyde Park, and under the successive names of Oxford Street, St. Giles's, Holborn, Skinner Street, Newgate Street, Cheapside, Cornhill, and Leadenhall Street, is continued on to Whitechapel and Mile End on the Essex road.
The southern line commences on the Bath road at the south side of Hyde Park, and is continued under the successive names of Picadilly, St. James's Street, Pall Mall, Charing Cross, Strand, Fleet Street, Ludgate Hill, St. Paul's Church Yard, Watling Street, Cannon Street, and Tower Street, to the Tower of London, whence it may be said to be further extended two miles along the river side in Wapping.
The boundary of the Thames and the two grand lines of streets render it exceedingly easy, therefore, for any strangers to find their road in London, for there is scarcely
any point of the town which is not within half a mile within one of these lines.
In another point of view, London divides itself into three great districts:-the West End of the town, the City, and the East End of the town.
The WEST END OF THE TOWN is the most modern and elegant part of London; it is inhabited by the nobility and gentry, and is the seat of the government and of the court. It may be said to extend westward from the meridian of Charing Cross.
The CITY, in its familiar phrase, means the trading part of the town, extending, with slight variations, from Charing Cross to the meridian of the Monument or the Tower; but, locally speaking, it is confined by a circle, the radius of which would reach about half a mile round St. Paul's Cathedral.
Eastward of the meridian of Tower Hill, London, may be considered as a SEA-PORT; the inhabitants of this large district being in general connected with the shipping interests, and consisting either of owners or captains of vessels, of merchants, ship-builders, sailors, or shopkeepers, and others, who maintain themselves by the business of this unrivalled port.
West of Blackfriars Bridge the banks of the Thames are rendered subservient at once to the objects of pleasure and business, but eastward of that bridge, they are solely occupied by a line of warehouses, and devoted to the bustle of commerce.
The Borough of Southwark, which lies to the south of the Thames, is chiefly inhabited by merchants and traders, and has only one main street, which extends from London Bridge into the country, and is called the Borough High Street. A fine street also extends from Blackfriars Bridge leading into the country, and others are projecting which in time will confer more importance on this part of the metropolis.
PRESENT GOVERNMENT OF THE METROPOLIS.
In tracing the outline of the present government of this metropolis, to the whole of which we shall, from this time, give the common name of London, it will be convenient
to divide it into three principal parts, the city of London, with its dependencies; the city and liberties of Westminster; and the suburbs out of the jurisdiction of both these cities.
THE CITY OF LONDON.
The entire civil government of the city of London is vested, by charters or grants from the kings of England, in its own corporation, or body of citizens. The city is divided into twenty-six principal districts, called wards; and the corporation consists of-1. The Lord Mayor; 2. The Sheriffs; 3. The Aldermen; 4. The Common Council.
I. The Lord Mayor is chosen annually, in the follow ing manner :-On the 29th of September the livery, in Guildhall or common assembly, choose two Aldermen, by shew of hands, who are presented to a court, called the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen, by whom one of the Aldermen so chosen (generally the first in seniority) is declared Lord Mayor elect; and on the 9th of November following he enters upon his office.
The civil power exercised by the corporation, or its officers, are very complete within its jurisdiction. The laws for the internal government of the city are wholly framed by its own legislature, called, the Court of Common Council, consisting of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Councilmen. The administration is en◄ tirely in the hands of the city, of which the Lord Mayor is the chief magistrate.
II. The two Sheriffs are chosen annually by the Livery, not only for the city, but for the county of Middlesex, the same persons being Sheriffs for London, and jointly forming one Sheriff for the county; and it is their duty to inspect the prisons, summon impartial juries, keep the courts of law, and execute all writs and judgments.
LORD MAYORS AND SHERIFFS DURING THIS CENTURY.
1801. Sir William Staines.
1802. Sir John Eamer
1803. Sir Charles Price
1804. Sir J. Perring
1805. Peter Perchard, Esq.
1806. Sir J. Shaw
1807. Sir William Leighton
1808. J. Ansley, Esq. 1809. Sir Charles Flower
1810. Thomas Smith, Esq.
1811. J. J. Smith, Esq.
1812. Sir S. C. Hunter
1813. G. Scholey
1814. Sir W. Domville
1815. Samuel Birch, Esq.
1816. Matthew Wood, Esq.
1817. Matthew Wood, Esq.
1818. Christ. Smith, Esq.
W. Champion, Esq.
John Thos. Thorpe, Esq. George Bridges, Esq.
Francis Desanges, Esq. George Alderson, Esq.
N.B. The Sheriffs enter into office on the 28th of September, and the Lord Mayor on the 9th of November.