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and conversation when they think proper. The other kind is smaller, with a similar fire-place, in which patients so much disordered as to be confined in strait waistcoats, are permitted to eat their meals, and sit together. This last kind of room is used instead of keeping the maniac, who is greatly disordered, always in his cell, in solitary confinement, and does infinite honour, together with many other regulations, to the master of this house.
Every patient has a square room to sleep in, with a good mattress, and warm bed covering. The maniacs sleep in sheets, except a very few in the most offensive state of insanity. The doors of their rooms stand open all day, unless the patient is confined to his bed by sickNot only are the principal apartments of this hospital kept clean, but the very cells, and the galleries, are as clean and well aired, as the rooms of any private house. To give full effect to this most excellent management, there are not behind this noble building, any wells of stagnated air, such as are to be found in most of our public and large buildings, bearing the name of courts or squares.
The number of patients in this hospital is three hundred, there not being room for more. No persons in a state of idiotcy are allowed by the rules to become patients. The following results relating to this melancholy state, are founded on the experience of several years in this hospital: the average number of incurable patients, at one time, was 115; the average number of curable patients admitted annually is, males 110; females 153. The number discharged is, cured males 37, females 71.-Uncured males and females 100; the proportion of females to males admitted, is nearly as three to two, and of females cured to males, nearly as two to one. The average number of deaths is 27 per annum.
The Foundling Hospital.
The Foundling Hospital is situated on the north side of the metropolis, at the end of Lamb's Conduit Street, about a quarter of a mile from Holborn. It is in a direct line with the villages of Somers' Town and Hampstead, and contiguous to the superb squares, Brunswick and Russell,
the greater part of the former of which is erected on the lands belonging to the hospital.
It is almost unnecessary to inform the reader, that the object of this institution is to receive and maintain exposed and deserted children; or, as the memorial presented to the king, when it was first incorporated, better expresses it: "For preventing the frequent murders of poor miserable infants at their birth, and for suppressing the inhuman custom of exposing new born infants to perish in the streets." It differs, however, from most of the foreign charities for foundlings in this, that on the continent all children are received indiscriminately, being left in a cradle or wheel, in a particular part of the building, without any questions being asked; whereas, in our Foundling Hospital, even the reception of objects is regulated by a committee, who examine whether the case is such as to require the relief afforded by the institution or not.
This truly humane institution owes its establishment to the exertions of a private and obscure individual.
About the year 1722, Captain Thomas Coram, the master of a merchant ship in the American trade, a man singularly endowed with every benevolent affection, undertook the arduous task of founding an hospital for this purpose, and finally succeeded, after the labour of seventeen years. Before he presented his petition to the king, he was advised to procure a recommendation from some persons of rank; and being presented to his majesty, a royal charter was granted, on the 17th October, 1739, authorising the governors of this charity to purchase in mortmain real estates, not exceeding 4000l. per annum.
The number of children received into this hospital, before the end of the year 1752, was 1040, of which 559 were at that time maintained by the charity, at an expence to which its income was by no means adequate. In 1756, therefore, the parliament voted the sum of 10,000l. to the hospital, and large sums were afterwards granted. It was found, however, that the scheme of the Foundling was extended too far, numerous abuses crept in; the governors were finally obliged to contract their views; but, at present, from the income of their landed and funded property,
and the collections of the chapel, sufficient is raised to maintain upwards of 400 children.
The Foundling Hospital is a handsome and convenient structure, with a good garden and commodious playground for the children. The chapel is in the centre. The east wing is appropriated to the girls, and the west to the boys. At the south extremity of the former is the treasurer's house, and the extremity of the opposite wing is appropriated to inferior officers. Divine service is performed in the chapel twice on every Sunday, at eleven in the forenoon, and at seven in the evening. The pews are in general let at a high rent; and besides this, there is always a collection at the doors, which, from the excellence of the music, and the popularity of the preachers, is considerable, and amounts, with the rest of the pews, as we have been informed, to nearly 2,500l. per annum.
The kitchen of the Foundling is an object worthy of inspection to all strangers: it is constructed on the plan of Count Rumford, and causes a saving to the charity of twenty-five chaldrons of coals in the year.
Hogarth was an early benefactor, and an active promoter of the Foundling charity. He presented the hospital with three excellent pictures, one of them his March to Finchley, which is accounted the best of his works; and the collection has since been enriched by other donations from celebrated artists. The altar-piece in the chapel is accounted one of Mr. West's best productions. It was painted for Macklin's Bible, and the subject is, " Except ye become as little children, &c." In the court-room of the hospital are four capital pictures from sacred subjects. The first painted by Mr. Hayman, and taken from the second chapter of Exodus, v. 8, 9. the words of which are, "The maid went and called the child's mother, and Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give you wages." The ensuing "And the verse is the subject of the next picture, viz.
child grew, and she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son, and she called his name Moses," this picture is painted by Mr. Hogarth. The third picture is the History of Ishmael, painted by Mr. Highmore; the subject taken from the 21st chapter of Genesis, ver. 17.
"And the angel of the Lord called to Agar out of heaven, and said to her, What aileth thee, Agar! Fear not, for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is." The fourth picture was painted by Mr. Willes; its subject is similar to Mr. West's already mentioned, viz. the 18th chapter of Luke. ver. 16. "Jesus said, Suffer little children to come ́unto me, and forbid them not; for of such is the kingdom of God." On each side of these pictures are placed smaller pictures, in circular frames, representing the most considerable hospitals in and about London: 1. The View of the Hospital for exposed Children; 2. The View of the Hospital at Hyde-Park-Corner, called St. George's Hospital; these two by Mr. Wilson; 3. The View of Chelsea Hospital; 4. The View of Bethlem Hospital; these two by Mr. Hatley; 5. The View of St. Thomas's Hospital; 6. The View of Greenwich Hospital; 7. The View of the Blue-Coat Hospital; these three by Mr. Whale; 8. The View of Sutton's Hospital, called the Charter House, by Mr. Gainsborough.
This noble charity may be visited any Sunday or Monday, for a small gratuity, on application to the secretary. By buildings on ground adjoining to and belonging to the hospital, the income of this charity has lately been much increased.
Besides these principal hospitals, there are several others of considerable magnitude, viz.
St. George's Hospital, near Hyde Park Corner.
Small Pox Hospital, near Gray's Inn Lane, for vaccine and variolous inoculation, and the reception of patients. Beth Holim, Mile End, for Spanish and Portuguese
Hospital for German and Dutch Jews, Mile End. Hospital for poor French Protestants, Old Street. Attached to St. George's Hospital there is a temporary provision for convalescents; and at the London Hospital a similar benefit is conferred by the Samaritan Society.
From the extremity of Limehouse, to Milbank; and on the north from Islington and Somers' Town, to the south as far as Lambeth; and by means of the Greenwich dispensary, to Newington and Peckham, including a space of nearly fifty square miles, a system of medical relief is extended to the poor, unknown to any other part of the globe. About 50,000 poor persons are thus annually supplied with medicine and advice gratis; one third of whom, at least, are attended at their own habitations.
The principal Dispensaries, are
1. The General Dispensary, Aldersgate Street, 1770. 2. The Westminster Dispensary, Gerrard Street, 1774. 3. The London Dispensary, Bishopsgate Street, 1777, 4. The Finsbury Dispensary, Clerkenwell, 1781. 5. The Eastern Dispensary, 1782.
6. The Public Dispensary, Chancery Lane, 1782. 7. The Mary-le-Bonne General Dispensary, Welbeck Street, 1785.
8. The New Finsbury Dispensary, 1786.
9. The City Dispensary, Grocers' Hall Court, 1788. 10. The Western Dispensary, Charles Street, Westminter, 1789.
11. The Surrey Dipensary, Union Street, Southwark, 1790.
12. The Universal Medical Institution, 1792.
13. The Bloomsbury Dispensary, Great Russell Street,
14. The Charitable Fund and Dispensary near Goldsmiths' Hall, combining relief and pecuniary aid.
15. The Northern Dispensary, near Tavistock Square. 16. St. James's and St. George's, Old Burlington Street,
The Lying-in Hospitals.
No description of want is more amply provided for by the spirit of benevolence, in London, than that which arises from the helpless condition of lying-in women. There are no less than eleven considerable establishments of this kind, several in which they are amply provided with every comfort, and even the infants taken care of till they are two or