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foundation, for similar purposes to that of St. Bartholomew's, may be mentioned next in order.
In 1551, the Lord Mayor and Citizens having purchased the manor of Southwark from Edward VI. of which this hospital was part, they repaired and enlarged the building at the expence of 1100l.; and, in 1553, Edward incorporated this foundation with Christ's Hospital and Bridewell, under the governance of the Lord Mayor and Citizens of London.
The present building was erected in 1669, by voluntary subscription, the Governors setting the example of the munificence that reared this edifice. St. Thomas's Hospital consists of four courts that run behind each other from the street. The front next the street is occupied by a pair of large iron gates for carriages, with a door of the same for foot passengers on each side, the whole attached to stone piers at the extremities, each having a statue, representing a patient of the hospital.
The chapel has four lofty pilasters, of the Corinthian order (with a pediment), placed on high pedestals. In the centre of the court is a brass statue of Edward VI. by Sheemaker, of considerable merit. A broad passage on the east side leads into the third court, the structure above being supported on pillars. A colonade entirely surrounds this court, and the front of the wards above are ornamented with long, slender, Ionic pilasters. In the centre of the square is a stone statue of Sir Robert Clayton, Knt. Lord Mayor, who gave 600l. towards rebuilding the hospital, and endowed it by will with 2,3007.
The laboratory is a very complete work; it has also a museum, a dissecting-room, and theatre for public lectures. Three surgeons attend in rotation, with dressers and pupils; and an apothecary resides on the spot.
In St. Thomas's are 18 wards, and 430 beds; and in 1814, there were admitted 2713 in-patients, and 6117 out-patients.
The poor, maimed by accident, are received here as in St. Bartholomew's, at all hours of the day and night, without recommendation.
The diseased poor are admitted on petition, signed by a
Governor; a Committee of the Governors sits every Thursday to receive petitions, as at St. Bartholomew's.
Guy's Hospital, Southwark.
This magnificent building was raised at the sole expence of Thomas Guy, a bookseller, of London, who expended 20,000l. upon the building, and at his death left for its endowment the enormous sum of 220,000l.; it adjoins St. Thomas's Hospital; to which, as we have seen, Mr. Guy was also a great benefactor, and as a school of medicine it may be considered as being attached and united to St. Thomas's.
There are twelve large wards, containing 320 beds, for so many in-patients; besides whom the charity relieves nearly 2000 out-patients every year. The entrance to this hospital is certainly grand; it is a square paved court, with handsome buildings on each side; the hall, the Treasurer's, and the Steward's houses, form one side: the apothecary, the chapel, and the clergyman, occupy the other. The hospital consists of two small quadrangles, joined by a cross building supported on arches.
The laboratory is neat and convenient. The medical establishment, and forms of admission, are similar to what we have before described of other hospitals.
Wednesday is the day for receiving patients. Behind the hospital a small neat building has been lately erected for the reception of lunatic patients.
At the theatre on Saturday evenings, a debating society is held, during the winter, on subjects connected with medical science, and is respectably attended. To this society members are at liberty to introduce a stranger or friend.
A library is attached to this institution; and a collection of anatomical preparations.
Mr. Guy, the founder and great benefactor, was a zealous advocate of the liberties and rights of his fellow-subjects, which he strenuously asserted in several parliaments, in which he sat for the borough of Tamworth, the place of his birth. In this town he erected an alms-house, with a library, for the reception of fourteen poor men and women, to whom he allowed a pension during his life, and at his
death he bequeathed the annual sum of 1251. toward their future support, putting children apprentice, and other purposes. In the year 1701, Mr. Guy built, and furnished, at his own expence, three wards on the north side of the outer court of St. Thomas's Hospital, and gave to those wards 100l. a year, for eleven years, immediately preceding the foundation of his hospital. Some time before his death he removed the frontispiece of St. Thomas's Hospital, which stood over the gateway in the Borough, and erected it in the place where it now stands, facing the street; he then rebuilt the two large houses on its sides, and erected the fine iron gate between them, all at the expence of 30001. To many of his relations he gave, while living, a settled allowance of 10l. or 20l. a-year, and to others money to advance them in the world. At his death he left to his poor aged relations the sum of 870l. per year during their lives; and among his younger relations, who were very numerous, and his executors, he left 75,5897. He left the governor's of Christ's Hospital a perpetual annuity of 4001. for taking in four children annually, at the nomination of the governors; and bequeathed 1000l. for discharging poor prisoners within the city of London and the counties of Middlesex and Surrey, who could be released for the sum of 51.; by which sum, above 600 poor persons were set at liberty.
This, which is another royal foundation, is situated in Bridge Street, Blackfriars. It is at present used as a house of correction for dissolute persons, and idle apprentices, committed by the chamberlain of the city; and for the temporary maintenance of distressed vagrants till they can be passed to the places of their settlements.
The houses round the court are inhabited by manufac turers, or art-masters, as they are called, who take apprentices. Formerly these apprentices were habited in rather a singular manner, and, like all bodies of young men, were sometimes disorderly, but their conduct has been altered, and the dress thrown aside.
This, which is the fifth royal foundation, and incorpo◄
rated with Bridewell, was granted by Henry VIII. to the city, for the cure of lunatics.
It was long situated on the south side of Moorfields, but great part of it has lately been taken down, and a new building, on a grand scale, for the use of this charity, has recently been erected near West Square, St. George's Fields. The new structure was designed by Mr. Lewis, and is now completed, in the road which leads from New ington to Westminster Bridge, at an expence of 95,000l. It is 580 feet long, and capable of receiving in this front 200 patients.
Another line of building, extending to the south, is designed for an equal number; and also for 60 lunatics, the charge of which latter department exclusively belongs to government. The ground occupied by the buildings, and intended for the exercise of the patients, is twelve acres.
In 1813, there were received into this asylum of wretchedness 106 patients, making a total of 252 then in the house. Cured and discharged 98.
St. Luke's Hospital.
St. Luke's Hospital was established in 1751, by voluntary contributions. The inadequacy of Bethlem Hospital to the relief of all indigent lunatics, had been long a subject of public notoriety; the evils resulting from the want of relief in this helpless case, are too palpable to require a statement of them. Some benevolent persons resolved to institute a new charity, in aid of that of Bethlem. Wise considerations prevented their linking it to the royal foundation. They had enlarged views; and, while they provided a place of refuge, and medical aid, for outcast maniacs, they had in contemplation an additional school for the study of this most important part of medicine. A house was erected by them, on the north side of Moorfields, and called St. Luke's Hospital, from the name of the parish. The institution at once bore such evidence of its utility, that benefactors multiplied, and the funds of the charity rising rapidly, the governors purchased a large spot of ground in Old Street, on the western side of the City Road, on which they erected the present edifice, at the expence of 55,000%.
This noble hospital is 493 feet in length; and of proportionable breadth. The front has a very fine effect, for which it is indebted to the simple grandeur of its outline, and the propriety of its appearance, being very sparingly aided with extraneous decoration.
The building is of brick and stone. The centre and ends project a little, and are carried higher than the two parts that connect them together, and are distinguished also by a little more decoration of stone. In the front is a broad space, inclosed with a wall, relieved by a kind of portico in the centre. The entrance is through this outer building, by a flight of steps, under a cover, supported by
The whole interior of the hospital, whether we regard the architecture or the management of the house, may well serve as a model to every similar charity. It consists of three stories, exclusive of the basement floor, and of an attic in the centre and at each end. The centre, on the floor level with the entrance, is occupied by a hall, apartments for some of the officers of the institution, and the staircase. Upwards, it is filled with the staircase, having a lobby at the end of each landing, the committee-room, and the respective apartments of the master and matron, and the rooms of the several attendants. On each side, in each story, is a spacious gallery, the female patients occupying the western galleries, and the men the eastern. The hall at the bottom, and the lobby at each landing separate the galleries, the entrance to which is from the lobby, by an open iron gate. At the extremity of each gallery is another (but shorter), without any partition, being in the wings, or ends of the building.
The rooms of the maniacs are ranged along the south side of the gallery; the greater part of the north side be ing open to the air, by wide and lofty sash-windows, secured within by iron gratings. In each gallery are sitting rooms of two sorts; one is spacious, with tables and forms, and a large fire-place, inclosed with iron rails to the top of the chimney-piece, sufficiently wide to admit the heat into the room, and prevent accidents by fire to the maniacs. In this room, patients that are sufficiently composed, eat their meals together, and assemble for company