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encumbered with houses built on each side. It was im proved, and put into its present condition, in 1756. It is 915 feet long, and 45 feet wide, and at its centre is 60 feet high; it has 19 arches, but no two are alike. The centre arch is semi-circular, and was built in 1756, by throwing two into one, and is now 72 feet in diameter. The others are of different forms, and run from 8 to 20 feet wide.
The Water Works, on the north-west side of the bridge, supply a considerable part of London with water, for domestic purposes.
The water is forced into the main pipes with an energy which is competent to raise it 150 feet high, by the action of five large water wheels, turned by the tide, aided by the occasional assistance of a steam engine. There is also a water-wheel at the south end of the bridge for the service of the borough of Southwark.
A very heavy fall of water occurs at this bridge, occasioned in part by the enormous size of the sterlings, and by the small breadth of free water way. The obstruction to the navigation from this cause, and the number of lives which are every year lost in consequence, are sufficient reasons for removing the bridge, and erecting a more com、 modious one as soon as possibie.
THE NEW BRIDGES.
London Bridge remained the only one from the year 1000 till 1750, when Westminster Bridge was finished, and, in ten years, that of Blackfriars was called for and undertaken. In consequence of these improved communications, the marshes of Lambeth, and St. George s Fields, have been covered with houses within the memory of man, and this suburb now merits, from its size and population, to have its ancient name of South-work changed into the more appropriate one of South London.
The vast increase of this division of the metropolis, and its capabilities of further enlargement, have recently led to the projection of other bridges; and the inducements
watch lead to the formation of joint-stock companies, under the sanction of an act of parliament, have occasioned no less than three new bridges to be projected within a few years, In justification of which it is stated, as the result of observation, that there pass every day, over each bridge as under:
Blackfriar's Bridge. London Bridge.
Which traffic, at a moderate rate of toll, would yield respectively per annum, 107,6471. and 265,5517. a fair proportion of which will, it is alleged, pay ample interest to the adventurers in these new concerns; and it is calculated that that which is nearest to London Bridge will be likely to pay in a higher proportion than others more dis
The Waterloo Bridge,'
Originally called Strand Bridge, is certainly one of the most majestic structures of the kind perhaps in the whole world, was the first of the newly projected bridges, and crosses the Thames from a place midway between Somerset House and the Savoy, to the opposite shore of Lambeth Marsh, over which, roads and streets are to be opened to the Obelisk in St. George's Fields, and to Kennington. It was built under the direction of Mr. Rennie.
It consists of nine equal arches, and, like the bridges of the ancients, is perfectly flat, a circumstance highly favourable to the draught of carriages across it, and without any apparent substraction from its beauty.
Each arch is 120 feet span; the piers 20 feet thick, with Tuscan columns; the width within the parapets 42 feet, the foot-paths being 7 feet each, and the road-way 28 feet. The capital of the company is 1,000,000l. for the bridge and other improvements.
Tolls taken on the Waterloo Bridge, for each and every time of passing.
For every foot passenger
Ditto, drawn by four horses or other beasts
Ditto, drawn by less than four and more than one horse or other beast
Ditto, drawn by one horse or other beast
For every waggon, dray, cart, or such other fourwheeled carriage, drawn by six or more horses, or other beasts
Ditto, drawn by four or five horses, or other beasts 0 8 Ditto, drawn by two or three horses, or other beasts 0 Ditto, drawn by one horse, or other beast For every two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one horse or other beast For every additional horse drawing such carriage For every horse, mare, gelding, mule, or ass, laden or unladen, and not drawing For every drove of oxen or neat cattle, per score For every drove of calves, hogs, sheep, or lambs, per score
The Vauxhall Bridge.
This bridge extends from Mill-bank to Smiths Tea Gardens, which nearly adjoin Vauxhall Gardens, and is intended to connect the roads branching from that spot to Hyde Park Corner, by a straight road and street across Tothill Fields to Eaton Street, Pimlico, and Grosvenor Place. The architect was Mr. J. Walker. It consists of nine arches of equal span, in squares of cast iron, on piers of rusticated stone, formed of fragments, united by means of Parker's cement. The total width is 809 feet, the span of the arches 78 feet, the height 29 feet, and the clear
breadth of the road way 36 feet. The small crosses represent the triple lamps. The cost was above 300,0QNI.
Tolls taken at Vauxhall Bridge every time of
Waggon, wain, dray, &c. with 6 horses or mares
Coach, berlin, landau, &c. with 6 horses
Ditto, ditto, 4 horses
Ditto, ditto, 3 or 2 horses
Chaise, &c. &c. 1 horse
Ditto, ditto, 4 or 5 horses
Ditto, ditto, 1 ditto
Ditto, ditto, 3 or 2 ditto
Horse, mare, gelding, mule, or ass, not drawing
Calves, hogs, sheep, &c. ditto
The Southwark, or New London Bridge
It is proposed that this bridge shall form a communication from the bottom of Queen Street, Cheapside, being the direct line of Guildhall, to Bankside, and thence to the various Kent and Surrey roads. It is designed by Mr. Rennie, and is to consist but of three grand arches; the centre arch 240 feet span, and the side ones 210 feet each. The arches are to be composed of cast iron, and the piers and abutments to be of stone. The cost is estimated at 287,000l. and there can be little doubt but its tolls will yield from 50 to 60,000l. per annum, though London Bridge should be rebuilt.
HOSPITALS, AND OTHER PUBLIC CHARITIES.
For accounts of the Royal Hospitals of Greenwich and Chelsea, see the environs of London, in another part of this work.
This is a royal foundation, for the maintenance and education of orphans, and other poor children, situated a little to the north of Newgate Street. On its site anciently stood the house of the grey-friars, or mendicants, of the order of St. Francis, founded by John Ervin, mercer, about 1225; and part of the present edifice is a cloister of the convent. It was granted to the city by King Edward the sixth.
It is a very extensive building, consisting of various irregular parts. The south front, adjoining to Newgate Street, is the best, being ornamented with Doric pilasters, placed on pedestals. In an area, before Christ's Church, to which there is a passage from Newgate Street, this front may be fully seen. The cloisters serve as a thoroughfare, and a place for the boys to play in.
The great hall is a spacious room, in which the boys breakfast, dine, and sup. The present apartment_was built when the former was burnt, in the great fire of London, at the sole charge of Sir John Frederic, alderman of London, and cost 5000l. On one side, at the upper end, is a prodigious large picture, by Verrio, representing James II. surrounded by his nobles, and receiving the president, governors, and many of the children of the hospital. In this picture are half-lengths of Edward VI. and Charles II. which are represented hanging as portraits. On the same side, at the lower end, is a painting, representing Edward VI. delivering the charter of the hospital to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, who are in their robes, and kneeling. Near the king is the good bishop Ridley. In this hall is a fine organ. In the winter, after Christmas, an anthem is sung in the evening, about six o'clock, by the boys, accompanied by the organ; which is usually attended by a large, but select company, admitted by tickets. The stranger will find no difficulty in obtaining one of these, and this is a ceremony worthy of his notice.
In a spacious apartment, where the governors meet, called the court-room, are portraits of Edward VI. and of the chief benefactors to the hospital. The portrait of Edward is by Holbein, an unquestionable original, and a very fine painting.