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midst of another party of rioters, which had encamped at Mile-end. His head was also fixed upon a pole, and carried, together with Lord Say's, before the insurgents, through every principal street. Cade now plundered the citizens; some he stripped of all their valuables and treasure, and obliged those suspected of secreting their money to purchase their lives at his own price. The citizens came, therefore, to a resolution to shut their gates as soon as Cade and his men should march back in the evening to Southwark. In this they were seconded by Lord Scales, constable of the Tower, and Sir Matthew Gough, his lieutenant, who were so well prepared to defend the passage of the bridge, that when Cade attempted next day to force his way, he was repulsed. The loss which Cade sustained in this engagement diminished his army considerably and Archbishop Stafford, high-chancellor of England, seizing the opportunity to work upon the fears of the insurgents, got an act of indemnity proclaimed in Southwark the night following, which dispersed the rebel force so suddenly and effectually, that next morning Cade found himself entirely deserted. He fled in disguise to the woody parts of Sussex, where he was detected and killed in a garden at Hethfield. His body was afterwards put into a cart, and brought to London, when his head, with those of several of his companions, was fixed on London Bridge.
From the first institution of the mayoralty till 1454, the procession to Westminster, where the Lord Mayor takes the oath, had been constantly made on horseback; but this year Sir John Norman, draper, being mayor, caused a barge to be made at his own expense, and in that he was rowed to Westminster, attended in a superb manner by those companies which had barges.
In the beginning of the reign of Henry the Seventh, the sweating sickness first appeared, carrying off great numbers within four-and-twenty hours after they were affected by it. The conduct of this prince to the citizens was very base and oppressive; though they voluntarily raised money for him several times to a great amount.
In the reign of Henry the Eighth, about the year 1518, the sweating sickness made its second appearance, and carried off a considerable proportion of the population. Its
third appearance was in 1528, when the greater part of those attacked died in five or six hours.
At the grand dissolution of monasteries, &c. which took place about 1537, it is almost incredible how many magnificent churches, cloisters, dormitories, libraries, and other buildings, as well in the metropolis as elsewhere, which had been erected at an immense expense of money and labour, were unroofed and ruined. The priories suppressed in London were:
St. Martin-le-Grand, founded by Withred, King of Kent, in the year 700; and given, in 1502, by Henry the Seventh, to Westminster Abbey.
The Nunnery of Clerkenwell, founded in 1100, by Jor
St. John of Jerusalem, built in 1100, by the Order. The Holy Trinity without Aldgate, by the Empress Matilda, 1108.
The Priory of St. Bartholomew, by Rahere, in 1123, and the Hospital soon after.
The Nunnery of Haliwell, by Robert Fitz-Gelran, before 1127.
St. Katherine, near the Tower, by the Empress already mentioned, before 1148.
The Old Temple of Holborn, 1118: and the New one, by the Order, in 1185.
St. Mary Spittle, by Walter Brune, in 1197.
St. Thomas of Acre, in the latter end of the reign of Henry the Second, by Thomas Fitz-Theobald.
The College of Allhallows, Barking, by King Richard
The Nunnery of St. Helen's, by William Fitz-William, in 1210.
The Black Friars, who begged or bought the ground their monastery stood on, soon after 1221.
The Gray Friars, about 1224, who were afterwards placed in Newgate-street.
The White Friars, by Sir Richard Grey, 1241.
The Austin Friars, by Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, in 1253.
The Friars of the Sack, in the Old Jewry, 1257. The Order, however, was dissolved in 1307.
And the Crossed, or Crutched Friars, by Ralph Hosier and William Saberns, in 1298.
The Rolls Chapel, or Domus Conversorum, by Henry the Third, in 1231.
St. Mary Rouncivall, about the same period.
Bedlam, in 1247.
The Convent of St. Clare, in the Minories, by Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, in 1293. Elsing Spittle, in 1329.
Sir John Pountney's College, in 1332.
St. Mary of Graces, by King Edward the Third, in 1350. The Charter House, rather before 1370, by Sir Walter de Manny and Michael de Northburgh, bishop of London. And lastly,
The Hospital of the Savoy, 1505, by King Henry the Seventh.
Besides these the guilds, or fraternities, were very numerous. There was a brotherhood and chapel of the Holy Trinity in Leadenhall, and innumerable others founded in most churches.
But besides the houses of the religious, the bishops and parliamentary abbots had each a town residence of state. The Abbot of St. Austin's, Canterbury House, was in the parish of St. Olave's, Southwark.
The Abbot of Evesham's, in the parish of St. Catherine Cree, nigh Billiter Lane.
The Abbot of Reading's at Baynard's Castle, in the parish of St. Andrew Wardrobe.
The Abbot of St. Mary's, York, resided at St. Peter's Place, near Paul's Wharf.
The Abbot of Glastonbury, in West Smithfield.
The Abbot of Hyde, in the parish of St. Mary-at-Hill. The Abbot of Ramsey lived in Whitecross Street. The Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's near Aldgate, in St. Mary's Street.
The Abbot of St. Alban's, in Lothbury.
The Abbot of Peterborough, at Peterborough Place, in the parish of St. Gregory, near St. Paul's, on the site of what is now Peterborough Court.
The Abbot of Salop, by Saint Bartholomew's, in Smithfield; and
The Abbot of Leicester, in the parish of St. Sepulchre.
The year 1543 was remarkable for the enaction of a sumptuary law, by the mayor and common council of London, for preventing luxurious eating during times of scarcity. By which it was ordained that the mayor should confine himself to seven, aldermen and sheriffs to six, and the sword-bearer to four dishes at dinner or supper, under the penalty of forty-shillings for each supernumerary dish. A year previous to this the parliament had taken into consideration the almost impassable state of many of the principal streets of the metropolis. In 1542, Aldgate High Street, Chancery Lane, Holbern towards St. Giles's in the Fields, and Gray's Inn, Shoe and Fetter Lanes, were ordered to be paved with stone; and this year it was enacted that Whitecross Street, Chiswell Street, Grub Street, Shoreditch, Goswell Street, St. John's Street, Cowcross Street, Butcher's Row, Wych Street, and Holywell Street, near St. Clement Danes, the Strand from Temple Bar to Strand Bridge, Petty France in Westminster, Water Lane in Fleet Street, and Long Lane near Smithfield, should be paved in like manner, with a channel in the middle of each street, at the charge of the ground landlords.
In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, we have the first good map of the metropolis; from which it appears that the greater part was contained within the walls, and even in these narrow limits were many gardens, which have since been converted into lanes, courts, and alleys.
The buildings of London were, on the west, bounded by the monastery of St. Catherine's; East Smithfield was open to Tower Hill, and Rosemary Lane was not built.
The Minories were built only on the east side, which fronted the city wall: cattle grazed in Goodman's Fields, and Whitechapel extended but a little beyond the bars, and had no houses to the north; for Spital Fields, which of themselves would now compose a very large town, were then really separated from each other by hedges and rows of trees. Houndsditch consisted only of a row of houses fronting the city wall, and the little yards and gardens behind them also opened into those fields.
Bishopsgate Street, Norton Falgate, and the street called Shoreditch, were then, however, built as far as the church; but there were only a few houses and gardens on each side, and no collateral streets or alleys.
Moorfields lay entirely open to the village of Hoxton; and Finsbury Fields, in which were several windmills, extended to the east side of Whitecross Street. Chiswell
Street was not erected, and St. John's Street extended, by the side of the priory of St. John of Jerusalem, to the monastery of Clerkenwell, and Cowcross, which opened into the fields.
But on leaving the city walls, the buildings were much less extensive; for, though the village of Holborn joined London, the backs of the houses, particularly on the north side, opened into gardens and fields; part of Gray's Inn Lane were the only houses that extended out of the main street; great part of High Holborn had no existence, and St. Giles's was a village contiguous to no part of London. If we turn to the Strand, we also find that that spacious street had gardens on each side, and, to the north, fields behind these gardens, except a few houses where is now the lower end of Drury Lane. On the south side of the street the gardens generally extended to the Thames; though some of the nobility had houses on the back of their gardens, next to the water side.
Covent Garden, so called because it belonged to the convent at Westminster, extended to St. Martin's Lane, and the field behind it reached to St. Giles's. That lane had few edifices besides the church; for Covent Garden wall was one side, and a wall which enclosed the mews on the other, and all the upper part was a lane between two hedges, which extended a little to the west of the village of St. Giles's.
Hedge Lane, now Crown Street, was also a lane between two hedges. The extensive street now called the Haymarket, had a hedge on one side, and a few bushes on the other.
Neither Pall Mall, St. James's Street, Piccadilly, nor any of the streets or fine squares in that part of the town, were built; and Westminster was a small town on the south-west and south sides of St. James's Park.
Such was the state of this great metropolis so lately as the reign of Queen Elizabeth; and how inconsiderable soever it must appear when compared with its present dimensions, yet it was then thought too large: for by order