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which confidence she did the act, and, without, she would not (as if I tell a woman, her husband is dead, or intended to kill her, or is himself an adulterous man), or if I use violence, that is, either force her, or threaten her with death, or a grievous wound, or any thing that takes her from the liberty of her choice, I am bound to restitution ; that is, to restore her to a right understanding of things and to a full liberty, by taking from her the deceit or the violence.
9. An adulterous person is tied to restitution of the injury, so far as it is reparable, and can be made to the wronged person; that is, to make provision for the children begotten in unlawful embraces, that they may do no injury to the legitimate, by receiving a common portion: and if the injured person do account of it, he must satisfy him with money, for the wrong done to his bed. He is not tied to offer this, because it is no proper exchange; but he is bound to pay it, if it be reasonably demanded : for every man hath justice done him, when himself is satisfied, though by a word, or an action, or a penny.
10. He that hath killed a man, is bound to restitution, by allowing such a maintenance to the children, and near relatives of the deceased, as they have lost by his death, considering and allowing for all circumstances of the man's age, and health, and probability of living. And thus Hercules is said to have made expiation for the death of Iphitus, whom he slew, by paying a mulct to his children".
11. He that hath really lessened the fame of his neighbour by fraud or violence, is bound to restore it by its proper instruments; such as are confession of his fault, giving testimony of his innocence or worth, doing him honour, or (if that will do it, and both parties agree) by money, which answers all things'.
12. He that hath wounded his neighbour, is tied to the expenses of the surgeon and other incidences, and to repair whatever loss he sustains by his disability to work or trade; and the same is in the case of false imprisonment; in which cases only the real effect and remaining detriment are to be mended and repaired; for the action itself is to be punished
or repented of, and enters not into the question of restitution. But, in these and all other cases, the injured person is to be restored to that perfect and good condition, from which he was removed by my fraud or violence, so far as is possible. Thus a ravisher must repair the temporal detriment or injury done to the maid, and give her a dowry, or marry her, if she desire it. For this restores her into that capacity of being a good wife, which by the injury was lost, as far as it can be done.
13. He, that robbeth his neighbour of his goods, or detains any thing violently or fraudulently, is bound not only to restore the principal, but all its fruits and emoluments, which would have accrued, to the right owner, during the time of their being detained. By proportion to these rules we may judge of the obligation, that lies upon all sorts of injurious persons: the sacrilegious, the detainers of tithes, cheaters of men's inheritances, unjust judges, false witnesses and accusers; those, that do fraudulently or violently bring men to sin, that force men to drink, that laugh at and disgrace virtue, that persuade servants to run away, or commend such purposes; violent persecutors of religion in any instance; and all of the same nature.
14. He, that hath wronged so many, or in that manner (as in the way of daily trade), that he knows not, in what measure he hath done it, or who they are, must redeem his fault by alms and largesses to the poor, according to the value of his wrongful dealing, as near as he can proportion it. Better it it is to go begging to heaven, than to go to hell, laden with the spoils of rapine and injustice.
15. The order of paying the debts of contract or restitution, is, in some instances, set down by the civil laws of a kingdom, in which cases, their rule is to be observed. In destitution or want of such rules, we are, 1. to observe the necessity of the creditor ; 2. then the time of the delay; and, 3. the special obligations of friendship or kindness; and according to these, in their several degrees, make our restitution, if we be not able to do all, that we should; but, if we be, the best rule is, to do it so soon as we can; taking our accounts in this, as in our human actions, according to prudence, and civil or natural conveniences or possibilities; only securing these two things : 1. That the duty be not wholly omitted ; and, 2. That it be not deferred at all out of covetousness, or any other principle that is vicious. Remember that the same day, in which Zaccheus made restitution to all whom he had injured, the same day Christ himself pronounced, that salvation was come to his house ".
16. But besides the obligation arising from contract or default, there is one of another sort, which comes from kindness, and the acts of charity and friendship. He, that does me a favour, hath bound me to make him a return of thankfulness. The obligation comes not by covenant, not by his own express intention, but by the nature of the thing; and is a duty, springing up within the spirit of the obliged person, to whom it is more natural to love his friend, and to do good for good, than to return evil for evil: because a man may forgive an injury, but he must never forget a good turn. For every thing, that is excellent, and every thing, that is profitable, whatsoever is good in itself, or good to me, cannot but be beloved ; and what we love, we naturally cherish, and do good to. He, therefore, that refuses to do good to them, whom he is bound to love, or to love that which did him good, is unnatural and monstrous in his affections, and thinks all the world born to minister to him, with a greediness worse than that of the sea; which although it receives all rivers into itself, yet it furnishes the clouds and springs with a return of all they need.
Our duty to benefactors is to esteem and love their persons; to make them proportionable returns of service or duty, or profit, according as we can, or as they need, or as opportunity presents itself, and according to the greatnesses of their kindness, and to pray to God to make them recompence for all the good they have done to us; which last office is also requisite to be done for our creditors, who, in charity, have relieved our wants. Prayers to be said, in Relation to the several Obligations and
Offices of Justice.
Persons under Command.
constituted all things in a wonderful order, making all the creatures subject to man, and one man to another, and all to thee, the last link of this admirable chain being fastened to the foot of thy throne; teach me to obey all those, whom thou hast set over me, reverencing their persons, submitting indifferently to all their lawful commands, cheerfully undergoing those burdens, which the public wisdom and necessity shall impose upon me; at no hand murmuring against government, lest the spirit of pride and mutiny, of murmur and disorder, enter into me, and consign me to the portion of the disobedient and rebellious, of the despisers of dominion, and revilers of dignity. Grant this, O holy God, for his sake, who, for his obedience to the Father, hath obtained the glorification of eternal ages, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.
Prayers for Kings and all Magistrates, for our Parents spiritual
and natural, are in the following Litanies, at the End of the
Fourth Chapter. A Prayer to be said by Subjects, when their Land is invaded
and overrun by barbarous or wicked People, Enemies of the Religion or the Government.
. 1. O eternal God, thou alone rulest in the kingdoms of men ; thou art the great God of battles and recompences; and by thy glorious wisdom, by thy almighty power, and by thy secret providence, dost determine the events of war, and the issues of human counsels, and the returns of peace and victory : now at last be pleased to let the light of thy countenance, and the effects of a glorious mercy and a gracious pardon, return to this land. Thou seest, how great evils we suffer under the power and tyranny of war; and, although we submit to and adore thy justice in our sufferings, yet be pleased to pity our misery, to hear our complaints, and to provide us of remedy against our present calamities : let not the defenders of a righteous cause go away ashamed, nor our counsels be for ever confounded, nor our parties defeated, nor religion suppressed, nor learning discountenanced, and we be spoiled of all the exterior ornaments, instruments, and advantages of piety, which thou hast been pleased formerly
to minister to our infirmities, for the interests of learning and religion. Amen.
II. We confess, dear God, that we have deserved to be totally extinct and separate from the communion of saints, and the comforts of religion, to be made servants to ignorant, unjust, and inferior persons, or to suffer any other calamity, which thou shalt allot us as the instrument of thy anger, whom we have so often provoked to wrath and jealousy. Lord, we humbly lie down under the burden of thy rod, begging of thee to remember our infirmities, and no more to remember our sins, to support us with thy staff, to lift us up with thy hand, to refresh us with thy gracious, eye : and, if a sad cloud of temporal infelicities must still encircle us, open unto us the window of heaven, that, with an eye of faith and hope, we may see beyond the cloud, looking upon those mercies, which in thy secret providence and admirable wisdom, thou designest to all thy servants, from such unlikely and sad beginnings. Teach us diligently to do all our duty, and cheerfully to submit to all thy will ; and, at last, be gracious to thy people, that call upon thee, that put their trust in thee, that have laid up all their hopes in the bosom of God, that, besides thee, have no helper. Amen.
Place a guard of angels about the person of the king, and immure him with the defence of thy right hand, that no unhallowed arm may do violence to him. Support him with aids from heaven in all his battles, trials, and dangers; that he may, in every instant of his temptation, become dearer to thee; and do thou return to him with mercy and deliverance. Give unto him the hearts of all his people; and put into his hand a prevailing rod of iron, a sceptre of power, and a sword of justice ; and enable him to defend and comfort the churches under his protection.
IV. Bless all his friends, relatives, confederates, and lieges; direct their counsels, unite their hearts, strengthen their hands, bless their actions. Give unto them holiness of in