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condition, education, and employment: called by St. Paul, "a laying up for the children1," that is, an enabling them, by competent portions, or good trades, arts, or learning, to defend themselves against the chances of the world, that they may not be exposed to temptation, to beggary, or unworthy arts. And although this must be done without covetousness, without impatient and greedy desires of making them rich; yet it must be done with much care and great affection, with all reasonable provision, and according to our power: and if we can, without sin, improve our estates for them, that also is part of the duty we owe to God for them. And this rule is to extend to all that descend from us, although we have been overtaken in a fault, and have unlawful issue; they also become part of our care, yet so as not to injure the production of the lawful bed.
5. This duty is to extend to a provision of conditions and an estate of life". Parents must, according to their power and reason, provide husbands or wives for their children'. In which they must secure piety and religionw, and the affection and love of the interested persons; and, after these, let them make what provisions they can for other conveniences or advantages: ever remembering, that they can do no injury more afflictive to the children, than to join them with cords of a disagreeing affection: it is like tying a wolf and a lamb, or planting the vine in a garden of coleworts. Let them be persuaded with reasonable inducements to make them willing, and to choose according to the parent's wish; but, at no hand, let them be forced. Better to sit up all night, than to go to bed with a dragon.
«1 Tim. v. 1.
Mipfivav s|«/, xovx tfiov x^tvut va%t.—Eurip. Androm. 988.
Ovid, in Epist. Hermiones.
y Iiiberi sine consensu parentum contrahere non debent. Andromacha apud Euripidem, cum petita fuit ad nuptias, respondit, patris sui esse sponsaKum suorum curam habere: et Achilles apud Homerum regis nliam sine patris sui consensu noluit ducere. II. 9. 393. "Hu yij 2t» fit ffoanrt fao), xai olxaft "xoufiat, TtnXtls &]v fiot %-trUra yw ouxa. yafiifffftrat ahr'ss. Et Justinianus Imp. ait, naturali simul et civili rationi congruere, ne filii ducant uxores citra parentum authoritatem. Simo Terentianus parat abdicationem, quia Pamphilus clam ipso duxisset uxorem. Istiusmodi sponsalia fiunt irrita, nisi velint parentes : at si subsequuta est copula, ne temere rescindantur connubia, multse suadent cautiones et pericula. Liberi, autem, quamdiu secundum leges patrias sui juris non sunt, clandestinas nuptias si ineant, peccant contra quintum prseceptum, et jus naturale secundarium. Proprie enim loquendo parentes non habent £ govn«, sive potestatem,,sed authori. tatem; habent jus jubendi aut prohibendi, sed non irritum faciendi. Atque etiam ista authoritas exercenda est secundum sequum et bonum; scil. ut ne morosus et difficilis sit pater. Mater enim vix habet aliquod juris praeter suasionis et amoris et gratitudinis. Si autem pater nliam non collocasset ante 25 annos, filia nubere poterat cui voluerat, ex jure Romanorum. Patrum enim authoritas major aut minor est ex legibus patriis, et solet extendi ad certatn setatem, et tum exspirat quoad matrimonium; et est major in filias quam filios. Num. 30.
"Eosdem quos maritus nosse deos et colere solos uxor debet; supervacaneis autem religionibus et ab'enis superstitionibus fores occludere. Nulli enim deum grata sunt sacra, quae mulier clanculum et fu'rtim facit. — Plutarch. Conjug. Pmcept. Gen. 24. Vocemus puellam, et quaeramus os ejus.
Rules for Married Persons.
1. Husbands must give to their wives love1, maintenance, duty, and the sweetnesses of conversation; and wives t must pay to them all they have or can, with the interest of obedience and reverence: and they must be complicated in affections and interest, that there be no distinction between them of mine and thine. And if the title be the man's, or the woman's, yet the use must be common; only the wisdom of the man is to regulate all extravagances and indiscretions. In other things, no question is to be made; and their goods should be as their children, not to be divided, but of one possession and provision: whatsoever is otherwise, is not marriage, but merchandize. And upon this ground I suppose it was, that St. Basil commended that woman who took part of her husband's goods to do good works withal *: for supposing him to be unwilling, and that the work was his duty or hers alone, or both theirs in conjunction, or of great advantage to either of their souls, and no violence to the support of their families, she had right to all that: and Abigail, of her own right, made a costly present to David, when her husband Nabal had refused it. The husband must* rule over his wife, as the soul does over the body, obnoxious to the same sufferings, and bound by the same affections, and doing or suffering by the permissions and interest of each other: that (as the old philosopher said) as the humours of the body are mingled with each other in the whole substances, so marriage may be a mixture of interests, of bodies, of minds, of friends, a conjunction1" of the whole life, and the noblest of friendships. But if, after all the fair deportments and innocent chaste compliances, the husband be morose and ungentle, let the0 wife discourse thus: "If while I do my duty, my husband neglects me; what will he do, if 1 neglect him?" And if she thinks to be separated by reason of her husband's unchaste life, let her consider, that then the man will be incurably ruined, and her rivals could wish nothing more than that they might possess him alone.
The Duty of Husbands, &c.
1 2o) 11 $to) roffa, %o7lv
"Avipa r£ xa.) olixov, xat ofiotp^offvvnv oTautUnv
7'Evtffr aXn^s tptXrgov tlyvufiuv ro«VoS'
H Faovvot (ptXtovj aXo^ovs fispoTa/v Avqppttuv
'at^uoat; tTU> oWts avhp ayaQos xoii I%itppuv,
T«v Xvrov tptXltt xa) xMtrou' u>s xa) iya/ T«v
'E* $vy.ov tptXiov Sovptxrnrw vrtg iovffav. — Homer. II. 9. 340.
The Duly of Masters of Families.
1. The same care is to extend to all of our family, in their proportions, as to our children: for as, by St. Paul's economy, the heir differs nothing from a servant, while he is in minority, so a servant should differ nothing from a child, in the substantial part of the care; and the difference is only in degrees. Servants and masters are of the same kindred, of the same nature, and heirs of the same promises, and therefore, 1. must be provided of necessaries, for their support and maintenance. 2. They must be used with mercy. 3. Their work must be tolerable and merciful. 4. Their restraints must be reasonable. 5. Their recreations fitting and healthful. 6. Their religion and the interest of souls taken care of. 7. And masters must correct their servants with gentleness, prudence, and mercy; not for every slight fault, not always, not with upbraiding and disgraceful language, but with such only, as may express and reprove the fault, and amend the person. But, in all these things, measures are to be taken by the contract made, by the laws and customs of the place, by the sentence of prudent and merciful men, and by the cautions and remembrances given us by God; such as is that written by St. Paul, "as knowing that we also have a Master in heaven." The master must not be a lion in his house, lest his power be obeyed, and his person hated; his eye be waited on, and his business be neglected in secret. No servant will do his duty, unless he make a conscience, or love his master: if he does it not for God's sake or his master's, he will not need to do it always for his own.
z KXs-^awa Baxa KXiy.uu.ra sovtv uvfyos ruS tvTouas lToirtffu * Lsetum esse debet et officiosum mariti imperium. — Plut. Namque es ei pater et frater, venerandaque mater: nee minus facit ad dignitatem viri, si mulier eum suum praeceptorem, philosophum, magistrumque appellet. — Plutarch.
h Oonvictio est quasi qusedam intensio benevolentise.
The Duty of Guardians or Tutors.
Tutors and Guardians are in the place of parents; and what they are in fiction of law, they must remember as an argument to engage them to do, in reality of duty. They must do all the duty of parents, excepting those obligations which are merely natural.
If The duty of ministers and spiritual guides to the people is of so great burden, so various rules, so intricate and busy caution, that it requires a distinct tractate by itself.
Of Negotiation, or Civil Contracts.
This part of justice is such, as depends upon the laws of man directly, and upon the laws of God only by consequence and indirect reason; and from civil laws or private agreements it is to take its estimate and measures: and although
VOL. IV. M
our duty is plain and easy, requiring of us honesty in contracts, sincerity in affirming, simplicity in bargaining, and faithfulness in performing; yet it may be helped by the addition of these following rules and considerations.
Rules and Measures of Justice in Bargaining.
1. In making contracts, use not many words; for all the business of a bargain is summed up in few sentences: and he that speaks least, means fairest, as having fewer opportunities to deceive.
2. Lie not at all, neither in a little thing nor in a great, neither in the substance nor in the circumstance, neither in word nor deed: that is, pretend not what is false; cover not what is true; and let the measure of your affirmation or denial be the understanding of your contractor; for he, that deceives the buyer or the seller by speaking, what is true in a sense, not intended or understood by the other, is a liar and a thief. For, in bargains, you are to avoid not only what is false, but that also which deceives.
3. In prices of bargaining concerning uncertain merchandises, you may buy as cheap ordinarily, as you can; and sell as dear as you can, so it be, 1. without violence; and, 2. when you contract on equal terms with persons in. all senses (as to the matter and skill of bargaining) equal to yourself, that is, merchants with merchants, wise men with wise men, rich with rich; and, 3. when there is no deceit, and no necessity, and no monopoly: for in these cases, viz. when the contractors are equal, and no advantage on either side, both parties are voluntary, and therefore there can be no injustice or wrong to either. But then add also this consideration, that the public be not oppressed by unreasonable and unjust rates: for which, the following rules are the best measure.
4. Let your prices be according to that measure of good and evil, which is established in the fame and common accounts of the wisest and most merciful men, skilled in that manufacture or commodity; and the gain such, which, without scandal, is allowed to persons, in all the same circumstances.
5. Let no prices be heightened by the necessity or un