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THE GROWTH OF CANADIAN COMMERCE, by James Young, Esq., M.P., Galt 387
THE WISDOM OF THE EAST, a Poem, by George Murray, Esq., B.A., Montreal........ 392
Dinah BLAKE'S REVENGE, by Mrs. J. V. Noel, London, Ont., (Chapters X., XI.,

393 FORSAKEN, a Poem, by L. M.............


LL. D.
Books, by Alexander McLachlan, Esq., Erin.........

421 THE NINE HOURS' MOVEMENT, by C. Henry Stephens, Esq., Montreal....

423 LET Us LAUNCH Our Boat, a Poem, by Miss Mary B. Smith, St. John, N. B....... 431 MARGUERITE KNELLER, Artist and Woman, by Miss Murray, Wolfe Island, (Chapters XV., XVI., XVII., XVIII)...........

432 THE BARD, a Poem, by Charles Sangster, Esq. Ottawa. YACHTING, by an Amateur......

440 Eloïse, a Poem, by Mrs. J. C. Yule, Toronto....... OLD AGE, by C. J. Campbell, Esq., M.D., Woodstock. GREAT BRITAIN, CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES...

453 TRANSLATIONS AND SELECTIONS :-The Sword-Point, from the German of Liebetreu...

466 How I was Rusticated from Cambridge....

471 BOOK REVIEWS......




446 448


Intending Contributors are respectfully reminded that the space we can devote to original matter is by no means large. It will be necessary, therefore, to exercise a careful discretion in the selection of papers for publication. No article can be accepted unless it be of reasonable length, and possessed of some distinctive claim upon public attention.

All communications in reference to the “CANADIAN MONTHLY" should be addressed to the publishers Messrs. ADAM, STEVENSON & Co., io King Street East, Toronto.



Adam, Stevenson & Co.,..
1 oronto. McEntee..

Appleton, D. & Co.,.
New York. Marshall, Robert..

Toronto. Brown Brothers....

Toronto. Millichamp, W... Campbell, James & Son.

Newburgh Paper Mill.....

Newburgh. Catto, John & Co.,. .

Ontario Religious Tract and Book So"Canadian Monthly ” Prospectus.


... Toronto. Chambers, W. & R...

Edinburgh. Oshawa Manufacturing Company. Oshawa. Coxwell, Ć. W...... Toronto. Queen's Hotel,.

. Toronto. Ellis' Hair Manufactory,

Roberts Brothers,..

Boston, Herring, S.,...

Saint Charles Restaurant,

Toronto. Hovey, A. H...

Scribner, Armstrong & Co.. New York. Hampton, W. B.....

Thomas, M. A..

.Toronto. Harper Brothers.

New York, Treble, J. M.... Irving, A. S.,.

Toronto, Victoria Chemical Company Laird, R. W.

Weber & Co.

... Kingston. Lovell, John.. Montreal. Weekes, H. J....

Toronto, Macmillan & Co., .

. London. Willing & Williamson..

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OTHING more truly indicates the by a steady, and, since the Union, a rapid

condition of a nation than the rise expansion. or fall of its commerce with other countries. The “blue books” issued by Parliament As its commercial tides ebb and flow, so each year have very few students. They may the nation be said to prosper or de- are, it must be confessed, not very attractive cline-advance or retrograde. A contract to the general reader; but the facts which ing annual commerce indicates “ something they contain are highly important, and derotten in the state of Denmark ”; an ex serve more consideration than they generally panding commerce tells not only of im- receive. Let us see if they cannot tell us portant resources, of national industry and something interesting about the extent and enterprise, but of growing wealth, power character of our commerce, the different and influence.

nations with which we deal, and the exLooked at from this point of view, the changes which annually pass between us. condition of Canada, especially since the The Union of the Provinces, on the ist of Confederation of the Provinces, may justly July, 1867, naturally divides our commer

be described as satisfactory and hopeful. cial, as it does our political, history. Prior . Our progress may not have been so rapid to that time, our public records contain only as that of particular States of the neighbour- the Trade Returns of Ontario and Quebec ; ing Republic, or of one or two of the Aus- since then, we have those of Nova Scotia tralian Colonies, whilst under the first and New Brunswick included. Taking these stimulus of the gold excitement. But it has divisions in their order, we find that the been less fitful than the latter, and the volume annual commerce of the late Province of of our annual commerce has been marked ) Canada rose from a mere trifle in 1841,

Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canaria in year 2, by Adam, Stevenson & Co., in the Office of the

Minister of Agriculture.

when Upper and Lower Canada were first political fruits of that measure, more time united, to nearly $100,000,000 before that may be necessary to enable an intelligent union terminated in 1867. To prove this, judgment to be formed; but the experience and show the steadiness which marked its we have had, comparatively short as it has growth, we need not go farther back than been, goes far to establish its success from the year 1850, from which date up to Con- a commercial point of view. This will apfederation, the total value of our annual pear by an examination of the imports and transactions (imports and exports added) exports of the Dominion since the union, was as follows:

beginning with the year ending the 30th YEAR. TOTAL TRADE., YEAR. TOTAL TRADE. June, 1868, and ending with that of the zoth 1850. -$29, 703,497 1859.. 58,299,242 June, 1871 :1851. 34,805,461 1860. 68,955,093 IMPORTS.


TOTAL 1852. 35,594, 100 1861..

76, 119,843 $71,985, 306... ...$57,567,888..... $129,553, 194 1853. 55,782,739 1862..

79, 398,067

67,402,170. 60,474,781..... 127,876,951 1854. 63,548,515 1863.. 81,458,335 74,814,339.

73,573,490..... 148,387,829 1855.. 64, 274,630 1864 (1/2 year) 34,586,054


74, 173,613.. ... 160,834,758 1856.. 75,631,4041864-5........ 80,644,951 1857.. 66,437,222 1865-6.. 96,479,738 $300,862,960 $265,789,772 $566,652,732 1858.. 52,550,461 ) 1866–7.. ...... 94, 791,860

The returns of the first two years after From these statistics, it will be observed Confederation, it will be noticed, were that, with the exception of a few years suc- nearly equal, but since then the Dominion ceeding the great commercial crisis of 1857, has bounded quickly forward in the race of which swept over this continent like a flood, commercial progress. During 1869-70 the the growth of the trade of the late Province value of our trade increased $20,510,878 of Canada was generally steady, and at over the previous year, during 1870-1 there times, even rapid. Between 1850 and 1856, was a further expansion of $12,446,929, and our annual transactions rose from the value the current year promises to equal, if it does of $29,703,497 to the handsome sum of not surpass, them both. Our total transac$75,631,404-an increase of over 250 per tions last year reached the handsome sum cent! This result was largely due to the of $160,834,758, and it will be seen that unusual stimulus of that wise and liberal the Dominion's first four years' business measure negotiated by the late Lord Elgin, amounts to no less than $566,652,732. the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, and it could These facts we need not enlarge upon. not, therefore, be expected that such a large They go far, as we remarked before, to percentage of increase would long be kept establish the commercial success of Conup. Taking the whole period quoted above, federation, and point hopefully to the future. however, the result will be found satisfac Next in interest to its extent, we may set tory. The highest amount reached during down the character of a nation's commerce, any twelve months was $96,479,738 in and the countries with which it deals. The 1865-6—the year the Reciprocity Treaty nature of our exports are familiar to all. terminated-and by comparing these figures The great bulk of them are comprised with those for 1850, it will be seen that our under three heads : produce of the forest, commerce increased within a fraction of 325 animals and their products, and agricultural per cent. in fifteen years, or, in other words, productions. Through the courtesy of John doubled the original amount every five Langton, Esq., Auditor General, we are years.

enabled to give in advance a complete We are now in the fifth year of Confedera- return of the exports of the various Protion, and the “blue books" give us the vinces comprising the Dominion, for the result of four years' experience. Of the year ending 30th June, 1871 :

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The value of articles exported last year,

Silks, Satins and Velvets.... 1,282,132
Hats, Caps, &c...

632,088 which were the actual growth or produce of Woollens .....

6,893,424 the Dominion, was $55,151,047, as will be Fancy Goods..

1,426,460 Glass and Glassware

549,029 seen by the above table. Of this amount, Hardware

2,335, 391 the productions of our farms and forests Iron

1,786,647 Railroad bars, axles, &c.....

917,283 make up no less than $44,788,282, or con

Iron-pig, scrap, &c. ...

1,134,001 siderably more than three-fourths of the Teas

3,646,977 Sugars

3,618,304 whole. Less than one-fourth is contributed


1,429,275 by our fisheries, mines, manufactures and ship Cane juice, melado, &c.

549,898 Coal and Coke....

1,455,936 yards, but it is gratifying to know that these

Wines and spirits.

1,557,339 branches of trade are fairly prosperous, and

Carpets and rugs..

436,408 Cotton wool

427,479 that the returns manifest a moderate annual


799,944 increase.


317,436 Watches and jewelry

368,602 The imports into Canada from Great

China, Crockery, &c..

431,525 Britain and foreign countries, during 1870-1, Stationery, &c.

Prepared oils..

346,455 amounted to $86,661,145, and embraced so

Small wares

1,475,921 many different articles that the publication Salt.......

540,557 Tobacco (un-manufactured)..

799,944 of a complete list of them would take up too Leather and leather goods..

612,264 much space. They are chiefly composed

Un-enumerated articles..

674,434 of manufactures and tropical productions,

This list of the principal classes of goods of which the principal articles are Cottons, Woollens, Teas, Sugars, Hardware, Iron, in view of the fact that our imports increased

we annually import is highly suggestive, and Coal and Fancy Goods. The Trade and Navigation returns for the last year are not $19,259,275 during the last two years, and

exceeded our exports during the same yet published, but we have gone over those for 1869-70, and we find our principal asked: are we not importing articles which

period by $13,728,103, it may be properly imports and their values in that year, to

could and ought to be produced profitably have been as follows:

among ourselves ? The answer to this

$7,270,927 Linens..

768,828 query must be in the affirmative, but we



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have every confidence that the enterprise less a share than $121,259, 176 was carried
and skill of our artisans will speedily apply on with Great Britain and the United
a remedy wherever practicable, and that, States.
too, without the Government resorting to As our two largest customers, the fluctua-
high protective duties, or any other mode tions of our trade with Great Britain and the
of forcing capital and labour into unproduc- United States, are worthy of attentive con-
tive channels.

sideration. By tracing these changes, the The great bulk of our commerce is car- immense influence of the Reciprocity ried on with two countries—Great Britain Treaty becomes strikingly apparent. From and the United States. The West Indies 1850 to 1855—the five years preceding Spanish and British, Newfoundland and Reciprocity-our imports from Great Britain Prince Edward Island and France, take were (in round numbers) $73,000,000 as rank next, and in the order of their mention against $50,000,000 from our neighbours ; The trade returns for 1869-70 contain the during the following five years the United names of about thirty different nations with States sold us to the value of $96,000,000, which we dealt more or less. With several | but the mother country only $76,000,000. of these our transactions were merely trifling. Since the repeal of the treaty, however, We shall, therefore, confine our list to those Great Britain has again obtained the lion's nations whose trade with us exceeded share. During the four years for which we $50,000, which we find after careful re- have returns, the excess was $48,490,007 in search to be as follows :

her favour,--the difference for 1869-70, as
may be seen above, being $13,867,267.

This difference is very considerable, but it

falls short of the real amount, for in the


statement of onr imports from the United Great Britain.... 24,950,925 38,595,433

States are several millions per annum, for
United States...


grain and flour, which, although entered at
Spanish West Indies. 1,280, 268 2,423,421
B. N. A. Provinces.. 1,421,423 1,268,948 our shipping ports, for the most part simply
British West Indies.. 1,512,780

892,134 France.


pass through this country on their way to

1,394, 346 Germany..

15,535 409,275 market. China...

432,919 Spain.


Another striking change, in the current of

314,925 South America


our commerce with the United States, has Belgium


161,553 taken place of late years. We are not of British Guiana

384 Italy

150,006 9,426

those political economists who attach much Holland

145,774 Portugal..

importance to the “ balance of trade,” for 56,322

43,435 Norway

108,649 Canada has only thrice had a balance in its St. Pierre et Miquelon.. 91,711

2,065 favour during at least fifteen years, and yet Africa..

70,241 Brazil


who can doubt that it has steadily grown in Naples


wealth and prosperity? But if there be any

virtue in it, it is gratifying to know that Besides the nations mentioned in the whilst, as between the Dominion and Great foregoing table, Australia, Switzerland and Britain, the balance continues to be against Sicily figure in the returns for considerable us, in the case of the United States it has sums--the former buying from, and the turned steadily in our favour. In 1869-70, latter two selling to us. Of the total com- for instance, whilst we had to pay Great merce of that year, which amounted to Britain $13,644, 508 to square up the trans$148,387,829, it will be observed that no actions of the year, our American neighbours

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