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"To ordinary common sense the suppo- a succession governed by law and forming sition that by any modification of matter a whole. In addition, therefore, to the we can explain mind, is absurd ; because series of states of consciousness we have matter, as perceived or conceived by us, two other elements to account for: the has none of the properties of mind, and unifying power or principle by virtue of mind, as perceived or conceived by us, which it is a series, and the knowledge has none of the properties of matter. that it is a series. Both these imply an Nevertheless, keen and powerful intellects enduring self, or self-conscious mind. For are found maintaining that these two sub- no one would be insane enough to say that stances, diverse by every criterion we can our states of consciousness follow one apply, are at bottom identical. In the whole another at haphazard with no inward link of nature, they tell us, we discover nothing of continuity. Neither will it do to say but matter and force. Matter we know, that they are continuous, as any chain of and force we know; but what is spirit ? events may be continuons, by the relation It is a strange oversight for a philosopher of cause and consequence. For it is only
, to forget to count himself. Yet who does to a very limited extent that our states of not see that in the words, “WE find," "WE mind follow one another in the sequence of know," that very element is interpolated in cause and effect. They are chiefly prothought which is verbally denied? Atoms duced by the action and reaction of our cannot say to themselves, We are atoms, will, reason and sensitive faculties, on the Heat and gravitation and chemical affinity one hand, and the outer world, on the other. cannot say to one another, We are force.' In which process, moreover, it is a great Our next extract relates to the objects on me," as if the mind were simply
error to speak of “ the effects wrought by position held by Mill and Spencer, passive : its innate force contributes at and a hundred years before by Humé least as much to every sensation as the -the positivist basis of metaphysical tion ; and in a multitude of cases (as in agnosticism, and therefore also of dreams) the mind originates the sensation theological scepticism-that mind is and invents the imaginary external object only a series of states of consciousness :
to which it refers it.........
Still, it will be urged, this is at bottom In its higher, or psychological, form nothing but the association of ideas." A the objection may be thus stated : Mind chain needs no cement or ligature to make is nothing but a chain of states of con- it a chain-simply the fact that each link sciousness, which states primarily originate takes hold of its fellows at either end. in sensations, either of the individual him- Yes ; but how comes it to do so? By the self or of his ancestors, whose “organized force of the skilful hand which welded experience” he inherits.The one thing link after link in that position, without which any one knows as mind is the series which ten thousand links would never make of his own states of consciousness ; and if a yard of chain. And when we speak of he thinks of any other mind than his own the force and skill of the workman's hand he can think of it only in terms derived we really mean his thonght, purpose and from his own. If I am asked to frame a will. The iron cable that holds the ship at notion of mind divested of all those struc- anchor is as truly bound together by the tural traits under which alone I am con- force of thought-the porpose of the man scious of mind in myself, I cannot do it. I who invented it and the intelligence and *know nothing of thought save as carried will of the workmen who forged it-28 8 on in ideas originaHy traceable to the chain of reasoning. What is “ associaeffects irrought by objects on me." tion of ideas"? What associates them? This goes to the
root. Admit this, and Nothing can be more empty verbiage, neither evolution nor any other theory is howsoever it may pass current for philo necessary to exclude the idea of Deity sophy, than to speak as though an idea from the universe. But the first remark (whatever that may mean) could have in to be made is, that the statement in itself ang power to associate or league itself appearance wonderfully simple) that “the
with any other idea. There must be s one thing which any one knows as mind is workman to forge the chain, a mind to the series of his own states of conscious- associate ideas, an abiding conscious self to ness" is self-contradictory. In the words unify and appropriate experience ; & pera “his own" and "series" it implicitly manent personality to recognize and asserts what it explicitly denies. What, accredit the representations of memory or who, is "any one" who knows mind as distinguishing them from those of imagia series of states of consciousness? And nation with an intuition which is the last what constitutes these states a series " appeal in every practical affair of life, and For a series is not a mere succession ; it is afirming, with a certainty which can
neither be impagned nor augmented- • This, in briefest outline, is what we are * That is My experience."
asked to believe as a simple, scientific, non• This fact, namely, that the mind is not mysterious explanation of the existence mere string of experiences, but a con- and activity of human minds. Feeling, scions anit, an abiding self, the cause, not Reason, Will, Poetry, Music, Painting, the offspring, of its own experience, is so Architecture, Politics, Manufactures, Law, plain to ordinary common sense that to Morality, Religion, Science itself, are all many it may seem lost time and labour to explained by the vibration of molecules spend & sentence in refuting what is so under the action of nerve currents. My obviously false. Only the artificial refine- objection to this explanation is, not that it ments of philosophy and necessities of is purely imaginary (for that it could not system could ever lead any one to doubt it. help being), but that it explains nothing, If any one chooses, with ostrich-like pla- and is, when pressed fairly home to its cidity, to bury his head in the bush of his
exact meaning, totally unintelligible. Proown system, admitting no facts but those
fessing to do away with mystery by denying which it has room for, his position is the existence of individual minds, distinct impregnable. But a philosopher in this non-material centres of consciousness and posture does not constitute a landmark of will, it sets us face to face with two mysprogress, still less a barrier of thought.' teries, than which none can be more stuAfter sketching and criticizing in
pendous or inscrutable. First, how can
multitudinous atoms, obeying universal some detail the Spencerian principles forces, produce a personal unity? Secondly, of psychology and physiology, the how can vibrations, whether of molecules lecturer sums up his conclusion in the or of ether, by any degree of rapidity and following paragraph :
complication, become consciousness ? (To be concluded.)
THE POPE, THE KINGS AND THE PEOPLE :
(Continued from page 365.)
VATICANISM AND LEGISLATION. THose who have studied Mr. Arthur's mere Papal tools, useful for or against work, must be convinced that Pio the Bishops as occasion might demand. Nono, with the aid of Veuillot, Man- We have seen the gradual process ning, Ward, the Jesuit Fathers of the whereby ecclesiastics and ecclesiasCiviltá and some others, organized, tical institutions everywhere have through a course of years, a conspiracy been deprived of all national and inagainst all sovereignties and nationali- dividual privileges and organized into ties, and finally succeeded in esta- a poisoned network for the entangleblishing a powerful machinery for the ment of the world. The Papal Court attainment of his pernicious objects. proceeded with caution ; for though
We have seen how the Pope, by per- caution was not one of the qualities severing and skilful maneuvres, suc- of the outspoken, self-satisfied and ceeded in attaining the utter cen- self-confident Pio Nono, yet astute tralization of all authority in himself, advisers, like Antonelli and some of so that Bishops became mere Prefects, the Jesuits, succeeded in somewhat to be appointed or crushed according checking his precipitancy. The Pope to his personal, irresponsible will. The would have liked to bring about the Clergy, similarly at the mercy of the subserviency of the laity as openly, as Bishop, subject to appeal to Rome, the rapidly and as entirely as that of the Religious Orders also deprived of their clergy, but his plans were somewhat comparative independence, becoming crossed by the fears and prudence of
others. He partially succeeded, how- vate thought and act and every doever, in the subjection of the laity; mestic incident deemed by the confeshe subjected their mind and con- sor desirable to be known; he has science. So long as he only claimed obliged them all to believe that whensupremacy over all, it was possible for ever
he orders, it is morally dangerous the laity to refuse obedience, and yet to disobey ; that whenever he teaches, to live as Roman Catholics—to declare and intends his teaching to be of unithe Pope to be in error, and yet to versal import, and on any matter approach the Sacraments. To obviate which can touch the conscience or the this, he schemed till the entire Papal convictions, to question the legitimacy Church had been induced to accept or truth of the principle announced, the dogma of his personal infalli- or the 'fact' commented on, would bility, to submit to the teachings and be to forfeit eternal salvation. For anathemas of the Syllabus and to the it has even to be believed that the decision that any doubt on these sub- Pope cannot err as to the accuracy of jects deliberately entertained would be his statement as to 'facts' which bea mortal sin, which must be con- come the subject of his anathemas, or fessed, and if persevered in or unab- 'apostolic' utterances. The laity are solved would consign the soul to hell. now compelled to regard the Pope as Also it had to be admitted, under the supreme over their own sovereign in same penalties, that the Popes, in all matters whenever the two authoriformer times,' had never exceeded in ties clash. the maintenance of their claims.
Any careful observer of the events Thus the laity were deprived theore- recorded by Arthur, by Janus, by tically of all mental and moral liberty: Friedrich (vide his invaluable articles we say theoretically, for it is obvious in the Contemporary, exposing that one hundred and seventy millions Manning's True Story') must be of slaves must not be unceasingly convinced that the Pope means, not reminded of their slavery, or made to less than he says, but more than he feel it. In the West Indian plan- says; that the organization contrived tations the slaves enjoyed a great and subjugated to himself is for deal of license, and those slaves who political purposes, and not for mere could render their masters great ser- scholastic disputations ; that the prinvice or gratification, who surpassed in ciples of ecclesiastical despotism and aptitude or in beauty, who were skil- intolerance, laid down so clearly, are ful in keeping others down, or who, if meant to be enforced whenever, not cautiously handled, might get up
wherever and so far as may be posa mutiny or run away, were often the sible; that when the whole of the recipients of so many decorations and despotism and intolerance cannot be favours that, excepting the fact of effected, at least a part can and must. their being slaves
, they were really Is there, however, any portion of quite as free as they cared to be. The human conduct, anything in the Pope has subjected all the laity to management of human affairs, himself, as to marriage, the education wherein the laity have not yet been of children, the mode of spending made to feel their dependence ! Sundays, the articles of food on about There is : though the Pope claims to one hundred and twenty days of the
be supreme legislator in all affairs year, the books and periodicals to be touching property, and exercises that read or rejected, and the societies to power as to ecclesiastics, so that in be entered or eschewed. He has England very important legal quesobliged them to confess periodically tions as to legacies have been over, to one of his sub-prefects every pri- ruled from Rome in a way opposed
to our national law, and the sufferers approached, if not
yet atcompelled to submit to the foreign tained ?' decision under pain of 'mortal sin' In this way: by direction. Enand excommunication ; yet as to the courage the Jesuits as directors, until management of personal property in direction' has become universally no wise regarding any ecclesiastical submitted to through all the richer interest, the Pope bas at present ab- portions of society; and then, gradustained from enforcing upon the laity ally get the Bishops and secular any absolute ordinances. It is clergy into the spiritual office of the obvious that in a mixed community, Jesuits. wherein there are believing Roman What is direction'? How does Catholics interwoven with Liberal it differ from confession and absoluCatholics, with semi-believing Catho- tion, the component parts of the lics, with Freethinkers and with ad- Sacrament of Penance'? In the herents of opposing religious bodies, Sacrament of Penance, the penitent is it would be impossible to enforce only bound to confess sins mortal and rules as to property deemed suitable venial, dangers of sin and temptafor the Indians of Paraguay under tions ; but the Jesuits teach their their beneficent and able Jesuit penitents to believe that for the soul despots. How can that difficulty be to be thoroughly pleasing to God met? It is the only flaw in the and quite secure of salvation, it is system. The Pope may say to him- necessary to lay open to the confesself : 'I have secured their souls, their sor all personal, domestic, pecuniary wives, their children, their schools, and other affairs, and to be guided but I have not yet obtained their implicitly by him in everything, down purses. I can get as much money to the minutest detail of expenditure from them as I want, but I have not and of daily life. This manifestation as yet become the recognized disposer is not to be made to the ordinary conof their income. I am the lord of fessor unless he acts as the director' the earth, I can allot countries to the as well. The confessor who is selected rulers I select, I can, by Divine right, to overrule all the details of personal, depose those who displease me. But domestic and public life is called the in consequence of the prevailing director.' For many years, the wickedness of unbelief, I cannot just
Jesuits were the only directors, they now put in force these my rights are still the chief directors to the over nations; I cannot at present, aristocracy and the wealthier classes ; therefore, place Henry V. or young but their system of direction has been Napoleon over France, or MacMahon imitated by others, and this infamous over Ireland, or Don Carlos over system, as fatal to all noble develSpain (should the young king prove opment of conscience as to all true unfit), or the Emperor Francis Joseph domestic love and confidence, has now over Germany; I cannot, perhaps, spread its accursed blight over the just as yet put Cardinal Manning into whole Church. Retreats and Misthe Privy Council and the House of sions help on that anti-Christian Peers; I cannot expect all heretics and inhuman system. Thus directo be fooled, though so many fortu- tion' is another instrumentality, not nately are so ; but I ought to be able yet fully developed, but in use, for to have practically recognized my the utter
ostration of whatever rights over all the private properties remnant of human liberty and conpossessed by good, docile, believing science the Romish Church has Catholics, like
those in England and spared. in Scotland. How can that be The progress of Papal error is: first a legend; then a counsel ; last a pre- can side of the Tiber. Juvenal, cept. The legend is for the credu- writing A.D. 120, complains in his lous; the counsel for the pious ;' the fourteenth satire of the introduction precept for all. The last two dogmas, of Jewish notions and practices into the Immaculate Conception and the Roman education and customs. The Infallibility, have gone through those Christian religion doubtless obtained stages; for long they were only many of its early conrerts in the pious opinions'; belief in them was midst of the Jewish emigrants. The counselled. Direction is now in the traditions of the empire and of intermediate stage; when it has been Judaism mingled in Roman Christirendered obligatory on all, through- anity. Jews judaized Christianity; ; out the Papal world, conscience will Pagans paganized it. The influence have no office, except in the selection of Rome was, however, the most fatał of a director, and the minute revela- to Christianity. Memories of Psalms tion to him of every detail of the and of Prophets ever kept upon & interior, domestic and social life of higher level the least spiritual Rabbi. the penitent. At present, such minute But between the Empire of Rome and surveillance is generally exercised the Church of Christ alliance signified over at least one member of each corruption. Rome was the mistress household above the grade of insig- of the world, and she imprinted on nificance. Thus the Pope has now
all she could touch the indelible seal an absolute power centralized in him- of her domination, self, extending over all Roman Catho- Eastern Christian slaves introduced lics who approach the Sacraments, and Christianity into Patrician families. he has, moreover, an immense staff Thus wealth and social prestige began of spies whose information can be to enter the simple ranks of the utilized whenever needed. Few per- Primitive Church, which thus emsons have the audacity to pretend braced the two extremes, the poorest that this inhuman system of wide
and the most aristocratic. Proud of spread despotism and surveillance is their converts, they began to yield to needed for the salvation of souls ; it their influence.
Pagan rites and is generally frankly admitted that it customs began to enter the Catacombs. is the ecclesiastical mode of maintain- The Pagan
mythology was re-enacted ing and intensifying the imperial in Christianity, till fresh converts power of the Papacy over the tempor- pouring in, found little changed exalities of the world. Rome presented cept the name; and often not even to Christianity the material empire that. Pagan Rome had its supreme which Jesus Christ rejected. Virgil
, Pontiff; his person inviolable. He in his sixth Æneid, says :
was the head of a 'Pontifical College." "Tu regere imperio populos Romane
In the days of Pagan Rome, the sumemento
preme Pontiff united in his own Hae tibi erunt artes.'
person spiritual and temporal dignity, • Remember, O Roman, these shall be was clad in garments of ecclesiastical
thy arts; Torule the nations with thy empire.'
splendour, was addressed in language
similar to what is now used to the Pagan Rome, as the capital of the Pope, and signed his name with the ancient world, attracted to itself all same initials. When, in the Third energies, all ambitions, all schools of Century, Christian Preachers from the thought, all religions.' Josephus tells Catacombs proclaimed that Evangel
, us, in one of his exaggerated state before which Prætorian guards and ments, that A.D. 66 two-and-a-half courtiers of Cæsar bowed their face Hon of Jews resided on the Vati- and turned pale, they were already