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stead of being buried with trans- sessed it, but that it received Him as gressors, He shall have His grave a guest. This highly-favoured house with the rich, it is assumed that His was, as it were, the fixed station from life shall descend through poverty, which He evangelized Galilee. He full of dishonour, persecution and had no shelter of which He disposed scorn, to the lowest depth as owner, not even in Nazareth, death which includes in it the pain of where the family-house, if it was many deaths; but then shall take a Joseph's property at all, was shared turn towards glory.
among a number of brothers and Truly He was poor. We find Him sisters. He commanded not a foot'sindeed as a guest in the house of breadth of earth. He called noMatthew in Galilee, and of Simon in thing His own save the clothing of Bethany, and elsewhere; and there He
He never had lodging eats and drinks, as He also counsels for a night within four walls of His His disciples, of that which is placed own. The foxes hare holes, and the before Him. But what ate He at birds of the air have nests; but the other times, when the pressure of the Son of Man'-He says Himself, people allowed Him to eat, and when hath not where to lay His head.' He did not purposely fast? Bread Once, when weariness overcame was His usual support, and besides at Him on a voyage on the sea of Genthe most some fish. Even in the nesareth, He did not indeed despise forty days between the resurrection the pillow in the stern of the vessel ; and ascension this remained His cus- but often He slept on the hard soil tom. Broiled fish and bread make of the desert. We read that, after the breakfast that the Risen One heavy toil continued up to night, He prepared for the seven disciples on did not lie down in the house, but the sea of Tiberias, and 'a piece of withdrew far away to a lonely place; broiled fish' and some "honeycomb' yet even there the people, who folis all that the disciples put before the lowed Him everywhere, knew where Risen One in the house. (John to find Him, even thence His seeking xxi. 1-14, Luke xxiv. 42.) Thus disciples drew Him back. Most gladly fared it in Galilean poverty with He passed the night on mountains, this holy circle. The disciples, when and often it is recorded that He spent they were hungry, fed on ears of the night there in prayer. The transficorn they plucked, and subsequently, guration on the mount, the Messiah's as at least is credibly reported of consecration to death, was such a Peter, Matthew and James, abstain- night-scene. He prayed there withing from flesh, limited themselves to out ceasing, whereas the disciples vegetable food. Poverty becomes the could not keep themselves from sleep Jews, says an old Palestinian prov- —and in answer to His prayer was mierb, as a red thong, or, according to raculously strengthened for the path another reading, as a red rose be- of death that lay before Him. comes a white horse. In this also the And by what means did He supply disciples of Jesus were representa- the needs of His earthly life? What tives of the genuine Israelitish nature, Peter said of himself, Silver and after the pattern of their Master. gold have I none,' held good also of
And where and how did He dwell ? his Master. When the temple-tas is An old Church-motto says, ' Bethle- demanded of Him, He finds himself hem bore, Nazareth reared, Caper- compelled to obtain by a miracle the naum lodged Him.' If a house in two double drachma for Himself and Capernaum is mentioned as His
His Peter. We nowhere read of a beggar ouse, it is not meant that He pos asking alms of Him; they knew that
He had no outward means, but other up in despised Nazareth, a small hillmeans. But yet we do not read that town lying away from sea-route He Himself received alms from the and high-road. With the poor equip Tamchui, i.e. almsdish, or from the age of a wandering teacher, who Kuppa, i.e. almsbox.* He
was possessed nothing, He traversed the raised above poverty that lives on country. With the words : "Blessed bread of charity and above depend- are the poor in spirit,' He began His ence on the beneficence of the multi- teaching; and that 'to the poor the tude. He was poor, but differed from Gospel is preached' He described the poor of this world in this, that He as the chief note of the new era that accepted no gifts of common human opened. In the third year of His sympathy, but only the gifts of a ser- work He was betrayed by one of His viceable love that did not on account own disciples for a slave's price of of His lowliness fail to see His great thirty shekels. Roman soldiers renness. From the gifts that such love dered to the mock King of the Jews furnished were the wants of the sacred acts of homage, which they confirmed circle supplied. The money was kept by blows on the cheek. With the in a Glossokomon, i.e. a bag or casket, cry, ‘Behold the man !' Pilate led of which Judas Iscariot had charge. Him forth, scourged and arrayed in When on the night of the farewell- mock robes, before the people ; but supper he went forth at the saying of these, maddened by their rulers, Jesus : “That thou doest, do quickly, shouted . Crucify, crucify Him!' to carry out his deed of darkness, the Thus He suffered the death, with disciples supposed, as he had the Glos- which in the Roman comedy # slaves sokomon with him, Jesus said to him : are threatened, and with which only
Buy what we need for the feast,' or the vilest criminals were punished. that he give something to the poor. Cast out of the camp of Israel, deFor it was prescribed that even the livered up to the Gentiles, He was poorest fail not in the minimum of nailed, a "curse of God,' I to the tree almsgiving; namely, a yearly gift of a of shame. His clothes were torn from third of a shekel, and especially at His body, and four Roman soldiers, the Easter-feast the poor needed help under the eyes of the dying man, all the more, as even they, according shared among themselves these spoils, to religious custom, must have in the and with His coat played a game of Passover meal four cups of wine. lots. He hung between heaven and This duty of alms Jesus also fulfilled, earth, to His foes a shameful specbut indirectly; for to dispense alms tacle, but to all that love Him a directly was unworthy of Him. He spectacle drawing heavenward. The gave better than copper and silver, spiced wine, which the pitiful women
Yes, though He was rich, for our of Jerusalem were wont to offer in sakes He became poor, that we cases of execution to render the crimithrough His poverty, might be rich.' nal insensible, He refused, and conIn a cave, which served as a stable, tented Himself with vinegar. And He greeted this earth. A manger having taken the vinegar, which again was His cradle. His mother presented loosened His tongue that cleaved to the dove-offering of the poor. It was the roof of His mouth, He cried : the presents of visitors from far which It is finished,' bowed His head, and made possible the hurried journey to departed. But even after He gave Egypt. Returning thence, He grew up His life, His self-surrender on
One used for daily, the other for weekly alms among the Jews.
| Deut. xxi, 23.
our behalf was not ended : Hising us truly happy brings us only the sacred body, pierced with a spear in pain of unrest, since it places us in the side, poured forth blood and slavish dependence on the creature. water, fountains of life for His holy But blessed for its own sake, whether Church.
it meet with return or not, is the In this way then He took every- love that, instead of seeking its own thing upon Himself for us, and for pleasure, denies itself, making the us sacrificed everything.
• Obedient inward and outward need of a neighunto death,' He accomplished the bour part of its own life—the love counsel of eternal mercy. His blood of sympathy and compassion—the atoned for our sins, through ‘His love that moved God to exchange stripes we are healed,' His cross His eternal throne in heaven for the rivets together heaven and earth, abyss of our misery. His body is the seed-corn of a new An Indian poet says of the Musasinless, happy humanity.
palm which, weak but flexile, bends Brethren | Let us look with a full, under its vast burden of fruit, that it fixed gaze into His fading eyes, until stoops in gratitude, as if to kiss the our selfishness dies too.
mother-earth that nourished it, bearembrace His death-cold feet, until ing patiently the stroke of the axe. worldly lust in us is extinct. Let us See there an image of Christian love ! learn love from the incarnate, cruci- The love of Christ the Crucified is its fied Love, that for us, who merited source of life. To this source of life anything but love, bled and died. it bends down in gratitude its fruit
It is not all love, still less Christian laden branches. It loves Jesus above love, that is called love. To love all; it loves all in Him ; it loves those with whom we are linked by Him in all, it loves Him above all, household ties, who bring us love in in the poor and destitute, His meanreturn, who are not less worthy of est brethren, in order one day honour than of love, and to love receive the blessing of the King Who whom gratifies our feelings—this is shall judge the world: "I was no love after the pattern of Jesus. hungry, and ye gave Me meat : I was Would you love as He loved, love thirsty, and ye gave Me drink : I was those who because not worthy are the a stranger,
ye took Me in: more in need of love; love even naked, and ye clothed Me : I was sick, against the inclination of your nature, and ye visited Me: I was in prison, from pure spiritual impulse; love and
ye came unto Me.' especially the poor and sinful, love Even so, O Jesus! Thy love is our them for their need and their ruin life, so let it be our pattern. We alone! The love that seeks its own will love the poor, because, and as, pleasure is at bottom nothing but Thou didst love us when poor. selfishness; and so far from render- Amen.
THE POPE, THE KINGS AND THE PEOPLE :
BY AN EX-ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST.
(Continued from page 206.)
JESUITIZING THE CHURCH. What do we mean by Jesuitizing the the Pope reluctantly utilized the Church? Some would reply, ‘Placing Jesuits when he had failed in his the Church under the control and endeavour to obtain aid as subservient management of the Jesuits ;' others from the Dominicans. would reply, 'Infusing into the Pio Nono always disliked the government of the Church the Jesuits : he distrusted them, was characteristics of the Jesuit order.' jealous of them, and feared the perilIt is in the latter sense we use the ous rivalry of submissive enemies. expression. Mr. Arthur, who to his He had frequently, in his joking and high honour can be named along not always prudent way, made fun of with Mr. Gladstone as one of the their sanctimonious ambition. He said very few Protestants who understand on one occasion to a very eminent the specialties of the Papal system, Prelate, who at length sent back and can speak of it with the calm- unopened a letter received from the ness of the historian and the con- then Provincial of the Society in his scientiousness of the moralist, develops diocese : Their motto is A.M.D.G., in his invaluable work, The Pope, the but D will stand for Diaboli or Dei Kings and the People, the diplomatic as occasion may serve best for the process whereby has been effected other letters.' The letters signify that change so injurious to souls, so Ad majorem Dei gloriam, for the dangerous to the political integrity greater glory of God, and it is a and rational liberties of the nations.
saying amongst Roman Mr. Arthur does not express an
Catholics : 'For Dei understand “our opinion as to the question whether Society"; and, doubtless, God is nethe Jesuits induced Pio Nono to cessary for the glory of our Society, imitate their system, or whether he and its aggrandizement is helped on utilized them for his previously con- by the conversion of souls. The end ceived projects. As an historian he is our Society, God is one of the carefully abstains from the temp- means thereto. No ecclesiastic, of tation so open to one addressing a any experience, but knows and says. public very ignorant on the subject this when speaking in safe circles. of his work, and refuses to supple- It is questionable whether, with ment facts by imagination. Possibly perhaps one single exception, all the he may incline to the opinion that English Bishops would not be heartily the Jesuits suggested to the Pope a glad if the Jesuit Fathers could be modus operandi, and that the Pope cleared quietly out of England. Pio adopting it, claimed the merit to Nono was very willing for them to himself. If we limited our view to leave Rome, and would have given the period embraced by Mr. Arthur, their great Church into the charge of we should find much to confirm the Rosminians, if only the illustrious such an impression ; but the writer founder of the latter Society had of this review has been circumstanced not proved himself unsound' as to 80 as to have been cognizant of the questions of Episcopal Election previous events and ramifications, and Papal Sovereignty. and we are thereby convinced that Pio Nono was always a believer
VOL. II.-SIXTH SERIES.
in his personal Infallibility, and the with equal satisfaction the preparaconviction strengthened with the tions for the promulgation of the tenure of office. When a man has decree of personal Infallibility, and been worshipped for a quarter of a it must not be supposed that they century, and treated as never Jesus would be at all influenced by any Christ Himself was treated, he cannot considerations as to what would but regard himself as by divine right gratify the Pope, benefit the people, the Christian Llama. That he was or magnify the Church; except no scholar, no theologian; was a well- inasmuch as they must share the meining, credulous man; and had benefits or the evils entailed on only mixed with believers—all tended others. Their one interest is their to confirm him in a belief sufficiently own Society, their one aim is its gratifying to a ruler. But it does aggrandizement, their one idea is an not follow that his rivals or his intense corporate egotism ; to that prime ministers had the same induce- idea they sacrificed the conversion of ments to encourage them to such a England, of China, and of Japan. belief. The Jesuits were theologians, Guided by that one aim, they became and knew that a dogma so disputable alternately the enemies of the people
, as Infallibility could never be pru- and of princes; they irritated, they dently raised into an Article of Faith conciliated, they
conciliated, they informed, they until history had been garbled for a yielded, they crushed; they wore much longer period. Moreover, they sackcloth or they wore purple. Not could not but remember that Clement once in their history have they sacXIV. had suppressed their order by rificed the power of their Society to a Pontifical Brief, wherein he assigned the welfare of the Church, the reasons of a very damaging character, security of the Pope, the protection which, by the retrospective action of of the feeble, or the elevation of the the dogma, would become divine truths. people.' The Jesuits were in favour of any That intense selfishness, so diploincrease of Pontifical authority where- matically carried out, always modifies by the Bishops could be crushed ; and often destroys amongst Roman for it was easier to manage the Pope Catholics the gratitude felt for the and through him to manage
the services they frequently render to Bishops, than to deal with each 'their cause.
If they had aimed at Bishop singly. Moreover, it was far the propagation of a grand and ancient easier for the Jesuits to disobey superstition, and for that endured Papal orders promulgated in Trans- their changeful lot, their history Alpine countries, than to escape the would possessa
sort of worldly vigilance of a Bishop in his own grandeur; but a protracted scheme limited diocese. Thus the Jesuits for the obtaining of power and the always pretended to ally themselves amassing of wealth, screening both with the Pope against the national under the mantle of religion, can Bishops and parochial Clergy.
never be sublime. Such a Society is The Jesuits were doubtless pleased inconvenient as a foe, embarrassing at the definition of the dogma of the as an ally. The Pope realized the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed difficulty. When he found no theoVirgin Mary, for that definition was logians or diplomatiste of mark, a triumph to those who, like the secular or regular, to aid him in his Jesuits, had contended for new and schemes, he reluctantly had recourse popular dogmas and practices, which to the Jesuits, and prevailed on some had been opposed by their rivals the of their ablest men to act in concert Dominicans. But they did not regard with
himself, their obedience to their