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Cardinal Penitentiary, who is the great pomp during nine days, and official depositary of the special the Cardinals attend there every spiritual power vested in the Pope, morning. Three days are given for attends him in his last moments, the Pope to die, to be embalmed, etc. accompanied by the Pope's Confes- Strange scenes have sometimes been sor; and the Sacristan of the Pope's witnessed at the funeral of a Pope. chapel administers extreme unction. On the removal of Paul IV., of the When death has done his work, the house of Caraffa, an aristocratic armed fact is immediately made known to band, defeated in its purpose to secure the Cardinal Camerlingo* by the the remains, proceeded to knock off Secretary of the State. The Camer- the head of one of the late Pope's lingo hastens to hold an inquest on statues, which, after parading it about the reported demise of the Pope. the streets, they threw into the Tiber. Proceeding to the death-chamber, the Alexander VI., whose life was a disCardinal strikes the door with a gilt grace to Italy, and, of course, no credit mallet, calling on the Pope by name. to the Roman Church, after his death On receiving no reply, he enters the was most scandalously dealt with. room, when he taps the corpse on the The corpse was borne into St. Peter's forehead with another mallet of by four beggars ; the Clergy, accordsilver, and falling on his knees before ing to custom, preceding and the the motionless body, proclaims the Canons walking by the side of the Pope to be in truth no more. After bier : which being set in the midst this he forwards to the Senator the of the church a number of drunken notification for the ringing of the soldiers of the palace guard great hell of the Capitol, which is to snatched the torches from

the announce to the Romans that their Clerks ; whereupon the Clergy despiritual sovereign is dead. This bell fended themselves with their torches, is rung only on the death of the Pope, and the soldiers made use of their and on the opening of the Carnival. weapons ; so that the Clergy, becomThe deathbeds of many of the Popes ing frightened, rushed in a body into have been attended by circumstances the Sacristy, and left the Pope's corpse of painful neglect. No relatives are in the hands of the ruffians. allowed to be near. At times there On the death of the Pope the are gentlemen in the city of Rome usual machinery of Government is who think the sooner a sick Pope suspended, and remains so until the gets out of the way the better, creation of a new one calls it again without its being generally known that into activity. The Cardinal Camerhis death was likely to take place. lingo forthwith receives the late

The last Pope, Gregory XVI., who Pope's “ piscatorial ring ’; so called did not like the subject of death to because it has engraved upon its be mentioned in his hearing, died, in stone the figure of St. Peter, drawa manner, unattended. Those who ing in his fisherman's net. On the should have ministered to him the following day the Cardinals hold last rites of the Church could not be their general meeting, when the ring summoned to his chamber ere he is broken. Messengers are then at breathed his last.

once despatched to all the Catholic The body of the deceased Pope is sovereigns to acquaint them with the carried to St. Peter's, where a funeral fact of the death of the Pope, that service is performed for him with the Cardinals in their dominions may

* The Cardinal who governs the ecclesiastical state and administers justice : he holds the most important office at the court of Rome and is at the head of the treasury.

hasten to Rome for the election of death, the Cardinals who are then in the future Pope, if they choose to Rome, and in a competent state of attend the Conclave. Most of the health, meet in the Chapel of St. great functionaries in the Court of Peter's, which is called the Gregorian Rome hold their offices only for the Chapel, where a sermon, on the choice Pope's lifetime. His decease pro- of a Pope, is preached to them, and duces therefore an instantaneous sus- mass is said for invoking the grace pension of authority.

of the Holy Ghost. Then the CarThe Camerlingo possesses great power dinals prüceed to the Conclave in during the vacancy of the Holy See. He procession, two and two, and take up coins money with his own arms upon

their abode there. Pius VII. exit; lodges in the Pope's apartments, pired in the Quirinal; and, in accordand is attended by a body guard, and ance with the letter of the law

preall the edicts issued during the inter- scribing a Conclave to be held in the regnum run in his name. One of very palace in which the Pope dies, his first acts is to take an inventory the Cardinals congregated there. of all effects in the Apostolical

Since that time the Conclave has been Palace, because in olden time it was held in the Quirinal for each succesan established custom, during this sive election. At a more distant season, for the mob to rifle the Pope's period the elections were held in the palace. Down to a comparatively Vatican. Wooden booths were conrecent period, the interregnum was a structed for each Cardinal and his time of riot and brawl which made attendants. In the Quirinal Palace, the streets unsafe for quiet citizens. where the last Conclave was held, Most of the prisoners were sot at there is probably the longest corridor liberty, who abused their newly-ac- in the world, upon which opens, at quired freedom by strange, wanton regular distances, a range of doors, doings; and many of the populace exactly like those of monks' cells in banded themselves together, some for

the corridor of a monastery. Each frolic, and others for all manner of

of these leads into three or four apartwickedness. Doors were thrown down ments. Here the Cardinals have to and many houses were broken into live during the Conclave. A number at night and despoiled. Day after is put to each door, and small papers day brawls and murders were per

with corresponding numbers are put petrated. Men and

into a box. Every Cardinal, or some found killed in various parts of the one for him, draws out one of these city and suburbs, and not a few papers, which determines in which were picked up who had been thrown room he is to lodge. Two attendants headless into the Tiber. There are allowed to each Cardinal, and was no law in Rome but that of three to Cardinal Princes. These violence, and the holy city' was attendants are persons of some rank, turned into a pandemonium. These and generally very confidential; but lawless men were the dread of all they have to carry in their master's classes : since the Cardinals could not meals, wait on him at table, and dispense with their services, and had perform all the offices of a menial to buy their good humour and assist- servant. Two physicians, two surance, the townspeople were at the geons, an apothecary, and some other mercy of their recklessness. This

necessary officers, are also chosen by state of things continued till the the Cardinals to be in attendance. Cardinals in Conclave elected another So it takes no small number to Pope.

constitute a Conclave. Before the On the tenth day after the Pope's Cardinals enter on their business, it




and by

is customary for every person of rank victions alone, and then drops his paper in Rome to pay his respects to each into the chalice on the altar. When all Cardinal in his cell. Thither go all have voted, two Cardinals number the Ambassadors, Envoys and Poli- the votes, and if they are more or less tical Agents in Rome; not merely for than the number of Cardinals prefriendly greetings or Court etiquette, sent, the voting must be repeated. but to make known the fact that If the numbers agree, then the Carcertain nominations will not be ар- dinal appointed for the purpose reads proved of by the Powers which they the motto and the name under it of represent. A bell rings three hours the Cardinal voted for; so that each after sunset, when all visitors with- voter hearing his own sentence, and the draw.

name joined with it, knows that there There are three modes in which a is no mistake. The names of all the Pope can be lawfully created : by Cardinals voted for are taken down inspiration; by compromise ;

in writing. Should any candidate's ballot. A Pope is created by inspi- name come out with just the majority ration when all the Cardinals, without of two-thirds, it then becomes necesany previous conference, simultane

sary to open the upper folded portions ously proclaim the same individual. of the ballot papers, with the view of Very few of the Popes have been ascertaining that this majority is not created by inspiration. Pope Clement due to the candidate's own vote, it V., in 1305, was elected by a small being not lawful for a Pope to be the Committee. It was impossible for actual instrument of his own creation. the Cardinals assembled to agree upon

If the legal majority is not obtained, any candidate, they therefore intrusted then the Cardinals vote a second time; the selection to a delegation out of and so they continue to vote till the their own body. The election is by legal majority is obtained, or one of ballot; and no election is effectual, the other modes of election is adopted. until two thirds vote for the same The Papal throne has been vacant person. The Cardinals meet in a for months and even years, when the chapel twice every day for giving Cardinals could not agree in their their votes. The voting papers are

choice of a Pope. Clement IV. died square, and folded so as to have at each at Viterbo on November 29th, 1268. end a sealed portion. Every Cardi- Then the Cardinals assembled, eighteen nal writes his own name on one end in number.

At the end of one year of the paper, which is folded and and nine months, no Pope was elected. sealed, and can only be opened under The inhabitants of the city were special circumstances. In the other wearied with the company of the fold a motto from Scripture is written; jarring Cardinals. They unroofed which once adopted must be the same the episcopal palace in which the at all ballots : this sentence the voter Conclave was held, and left its inmates must remember, as it serves for iden- exposed to wind and weather. Kings tification of the vote. In the middle remonstrated with the Prelates, and space a conclavist writes the name all Romish Christendom was tired of of the person for whom his master the intolerable state of things ; but votes.

for the space of another year, the The voting papers being prepared, refractory Cardinals continued to each Cardinal enters the chapel and quarrel among themselves. At last advancing to the altar, offers a short the ballot was abandoned and a Pope prayer in silence, takes an oath aloud, was created by compromise. Six out to the effect that the vote about to be of their body were endowed with the given is dictated by conscientious con- absolute power of nominating a Pope,


whom the others stood pledged to ac- defeating Castiglioni's election. All knowledge.

it effected was to vitiate the ballot of The Sovereigns of France, Austria that day, and on the following mornand Spain have the power to veto an ing Castiglioni became Pius VIII. by election, that is to say, they can each an increased majority. exclude one Cardinal. When a Pope During the time the Cardinals are is on the eve of election, and the re- in Conclave, there is great excitement presep ative of one of those Powers in the city. Crowds of idlers gather protests against his election, he can- under the window of the chapel not be made Pope. The latest in- where the voting papers are burnt, stance of exclusion occurred in 1831. and as the smoke issues through the Cardinal Giustiniani was visibly on funnel many a disrespectful pun is the verge of election : on the day’s made concerning the doings of the ballot he counted twenty-one votes,

Cardinals. These comments and and only twenty-nine were wanted to witticisms, which are matters of secure his triumph, when Cardinal general amusement, originate mostly Marco-y-Catalan said he was charged with the lower Clergy, who, by their to exclude him by order of the King intelligence and their access to the of Spain. The Cardinal declared sources of information, are considered that he was very thankful that he the only classes qualified to conceive had escaped election, but the historian and concoct each well-adapted centells us that his disappointment was

That class also best knows 80 sore as to cause an attack of fever. the comparative strength of the cur

There have been times when the rents of interest, of animosity, or of election of this or that Cardinal as preference which agitate those who Pope might break or establish the have to determine who shall be Pope. peace of Europe. Emperors have Not a few bets are made as to who vied with each other to sway the

will be the successful candidate. Conclave. When two Catholic powers

The Conclave has been designated have been at war, each hostile Sove- the Epsom, the true Derby' of the reign has striven to secure the influ- Roman populace, bets being made ence of the Pope. Three hundred and accepted as regularly as upon years ago the election of a Pope was an English racecourse. The shopa matter of paramount importance to keepers and merchants of Rome enter the crowns of Europe. The place into the game with a passion which where the Conclave was held was resembles the habits of speculation often the battle-ground of nations : in stock which have made the Funds and the history of Conclaves is the a subject of palpitating interest. history of contending faction, of in- The spirit of gambling was so pretrigue and bribery. In the Conclave valent and popular, that Pius IV. of 1829, Cardinal Castiglioni's name issued a Bull against it, declaring came out of the ballot with thirty- that all wagers made on a pending five votes, against twenty for Cardinal Papal election shall be held and Gregorio, and twelve for Capellari, deemed altogether null and void in afterwards Gregory XVI. On ex- court and out of the same. But at amining the papers, the scrutators the last election many a wager was found two votes dropped into the laid and not a few hundreds of afternoon ballot with mottoes that pounds changed hands; yet it is only did not tally with any amongst the fair to say that in this respect things morning votes. Two Cardinals were are not so bad as they were two or suspected of having perpetrated this

three hundred years ago. trick, probably with the vain hope of When a Pope is chosen, and has accepted the election, for no man is tion, received the Communion seated lifted to the Para throne against his on his throne, raised high above huwill, the Conclave is declared at an man heads, by four dignitaries of the end; the doors are thrown open to Church. The elements were brought the public, and the assembled Car- from the altar and offered to him by dinals present to the newly-elected two Cardinal Deacons. Pope the first act of adoration. Then The last ceremony which the from the balcony the Cardinal Dean newly-chosen Pope has to perform, is proclaims the new Pope, and couriers to take possession of the Lateran are sent off with the news to all parts Basilica. On this occasion, the Pope of Christendom. When the present traverses the whole city of Rome in Pope was elected, he was conveyed solemn procession, accompanied by to St. Peter's amid great pomp, and,

all the Cardinals. Down to a very seated on the high altar, was adored recent period it was customary for by the higher Clergy, during the the Pope to ride a white steed, and chanting of the Te Deum. The to be escorted by the Sacred College Pope had his foot and hand kissed on horseback. But as many of the by each Cardinal in succession, whom Cardinals are old men, and not the he in return embraced and kissed on most expert equestrians, this pracboth cheeks. The Pope is crowned tice has been abandoned. in St. Peter's amid all the grandeur Formerly it was the custom of the which wealth and artistic taste can Jews to line the portion of the way command. He is carried in proces- between the Arch of Titus and the sion up the cathedral aisle to the Coliseum, and there to present to chapel of St. Gregory, and as he is- the Pope, in sign of homage, a copy sues from it, a master of the cere- of their law. But since the time of monies suddenly steps forward, and Pius VI. the Jews have been exarresting the Pope's progress, on bent cused from this service. knee, holds up to him a silver rod Since the last election vital changestipped with a bundle of tow, which have come to pass in the Papacy. a clerk sets on fire from a taper in The Pope is no longer numbered his hand; then the officer holding the among the crowned heads of Europe. silver rod sings aloud · Sancte Pater, The inhabitants of what were so sic transit gloria mundi.' In olden lately called the States of the Church times another singular piece of sym- now acknowledge another King. The bolism was performed before the changes which may follow the demise newly-elected Pope. When he arose of Pius IX.; the part which the on the first morning after his elec- Courts of Europe may play in the tion, a bronze cock was carried to election of his successor ; and the rehim in procession, to call to his mind, volutions which may attend the elevaat that solemn moment of elevation, tion of the new Pope, events alone the frailty which Peter himself be- can declare. And all who have true trayed, and to which human nature sympathy with human progress and is still exposed.

freedom will look with deep interest The present Pope, at his corona- on these important events.

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