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He denies that this cause is to be Twelve Members spoke in favour found 'either in the country itself or of Mr. Sadler's motion, only four, all in the character of its inhabitants.' of them connected with the GovernAs to both he quotes Lord Bacon: ment, in opposition to it, and all

pleading only for postponement. 'This island has so many dowries of Ministerial influence, however, prenature, the fruitfulness of the soil, the excellency of the climate, the ports, the

vailed, and the resolution was negarivers, the quarries, the woods, the fisher- tived by a majority of twelve. The ies, and especially its race of valiant, hardy comment of the Times was : Mr. and active men, that it is not easy to find

Sadler's speech was able and elosach a conflux of commodities, if the hand of man did but join with the hand of quent; nor are we among those who nature.'

consider it a defect that he treated He next proves that the cause of

the matter broadly. Thus a great all this misery could not be surplus through the weight of Mr. Sadler's

advance had been made, chiefly population as compared with produce,'inasmuch as, whilst multitudes speeches and writings. , '

Dn the dissolution of Parliament, of her people were starving,' Ireland was exporting millions of bushels resulting from the death of George of corn and thousands of head of IV., Mr. Sadler had been again recattle.' He shows that in those

turned for Newark, in face of the

. parts of the country where the popu- opposition of Sergeant Wilde. Three lation is most dense, or in other

weeks after the opening of Parliawords, where the property is most

ment the Duke of Wellington and divided, there is it the most valuable,

his Cabinet resigned. and there is found the greatest degree

On the 1st of March, 1831, the of peace, comfort and prosperity.'

new Ministry brought forward their He then, in a high style of indignant in favour of an extensive, equable

Reform Bill. Mr. Sadler was strongly eloquence, denies the alleged indo

and consistent reform in the Parlialence and improvidence of the Irish’:

mentary Representation of the coun. 'It is notorious that, either in this try, which should really remedy the country or in the New World, wherever capricious and injurious anomalies of labour is to be obtained, no matter how

the antiquated system it was intended hard, there are the Irish. In the most laborious season of the year thousands of

to supersede. But he as strongly disthem annually traverse the breadth of both approved of Earl Grey's Bill, just islands, and cross the sea that separates because it egregiously failed in these them, in search of a few weeks' employ

essential particulars. Its fatal defect ment, at which, when obtained, they work like slaves, while they live like ascetics.

in Mr. Sadler's judgment was that And then, resisting every temptation, they

which still awaits rectification, that carry home their bard earnings in their very defect which Mr. Gladstone has tattered garments, I wish I could say, an offering to lay on the humble altar of

recently exposed with so much elodomestic enjoyment—but, on the contrary,

quence and cogency, (Contemporary a means wherewith to pay those exorbitant Review, November, 1877; January, rents which are demanded for the wretched 1878,) namely, the enormous disprocabin, raised by themselves, which affords portion between the representation them shelter, and the narrow plot whichfurnishes them with their scanty food. They

of the towns and that of the counare nevertheless accused of indolence and

ties. ir providence! and while deprived of labour On the 18th of April Mr. Sadler, at home and thus eagerly seeking it else- with one of his most brilliant and where, the economists exclaim, in the language and with the feelings of an op

effective speeches, seconded the mopressor of ancient times, “Ye are idle !

tion of General Gascoyne, "That it Je are idle !,

is not expedient to diminish the num

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ber of representatives for England agricultural labourers. and Wales.' One of his most telling anxious to secure not only their polipoints was the contrast which he tical, but also their personal, espe

, pointed out between Earl Grey's Re- cially their moral rights. He held form Bill and Oliver Cromwell's plan that a comfortable cottage, roomy for a fair distribution of the fran- enough to prevent an overcrowding chise. He showed that Cromwell inconsistent with decency, was quite

really did 'what this Bill only pro- as due, and would be quite as dear, fessed to do: he 'conformed to the to the hard-worked villager as a basis of property and population vote at an election. Mr. Sadler was which he evidently laid down as his no stranger to the British husbandguide. He gave two hundred and man. The thresher, thatcher, ploughthirty-seven members to the counties

man, reaper, was no barbarian to of England, and one hundred and him. Himself a farmer's son, he had forty-three to the towns; these give spent the first twenty years of his one hundred and forty-nine members life amidst the toiling peasantry. to the counties, and two hundred and The farm-labourers of South Derbyninety-five to the towns.

The mas

shire may be, probably are, as a rule, culine mind of the Protector could somewhat above the average in their not produce anything so false and in- mental and moral qualities. And coherent as this attempt.' It was on while the swink'd hedger at his this motion of General Gascoyne and supper sat,' Michael Sadler had talked Mr. Sadler that the Ministry were with him freely on higher themes beaten as to one of the leading pro- than 'bullocks, and discussed somevisions of their Bill. In consequence, thing nobler than bread and cheese, the Bill was abandoned, and Parlia- or beer and bacon. Many of these ment dissolved.

labourers were religious men, who As Mr. Sadler had taken such a not only enjoyed the meditative rest prominent position and such effective and the tranquilizing, elevating exeraction in opposition to a Bill which, cises of the Sabbath, and the sublimwith all its glaring defects, incoher- ity and sweetness of the Scriptures, encies and unfairnesses, was the best but also the soul-sharpening fellowthe country saw any hope of obtain- ships of a Church reconstructed on ing, his third return for the borough the true Society-principle of Penteof Newark was thought somewhat cost, and the thought-awakening clasprecarious; he therefore consented to sical hymnology of a great religious become candidate for Aldborough, quickening, of which the birth-place Yorkshire, for which he was elected, was a university, and the originators and which he represented to the men of culture and genius. close of his parliamentary career. In his speech Mr. Sadler showed Meanwhile, in his absence and with- how 'the poor commoners’ had been out his knowledge, he was nominated robbed of their time-sanctioned for the city of Norwich, in opposition rights, by private Inclosure Bills, and to two ministerial candidates; and compelled to herd and huddle togenine hundred and seventy-seven un- ther, in a way most perilous to virtue, solicited votes were recorded in his by the systematic demolition of their favour.

tenements, and annexation of their In pursuance of what he regarded little gardens. The legislative meaas his philanthropic mission in Par

sures he proposed were somewhat liament, Mr. Sadler, on October 11th, more advanced or, at least, 1831, called the attention of the defined than those of Mr. Joseph House to the wants and wrongs of Arch and his sympathizers in the

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present day. He would have an young persons in the Mills and FacAgricultural Labourers' Dwellingstories of this country.' On March Act, (and why not ?) as well as an 16th, 1832, he moved its second readArtisans' Dwellings Act. But, be- ing, and showed its object to be the yond this, he urged that 'a certain liberation of children from that overnumber of cottages should be rebuilt, exertion and long confinement which in those parts of the country where experience has shown to be utterly they are most wanted,' with, at least, inconsistent with the improvement of its rood' of garden-ground around their minds and the preservation of each, which should be let to the their morals and their health.' He cottager' at a fairly remunerative proved that children cannot be rerental. He asks, . Where would garded as free labourers,' but are be the difficulty of Government grant- doomed to 'infantile slavery,' either ing a small loan, secured by the by the indigence or the intemperance respective parishes at the usual of their parents ; ' because they must interest ;

which parishes should otherwise starve, like Ugolino, amidst possess the property, to their own their starving children ;' or that, great and obvious advantage, as well ' instead of providing for their offas that of the poor?' He pleaded spring, they may make their offspring

, that the revival of cottage horticul- provide for them. At the very same ture would yield employment to the hour of the night that the father is peasant at those seasons of the year at his guilty orgies the child is pantwhen he is now often without it, ing in the factory. Or else they are would increase his comforts and go orphans, 'a class which this system far to restore him plenty at all sea- is a very efficient instrument in sons. He says, “By a garden, I multiplying. He adduced evidence

' mean not the barren, overshadowed that children of thirteen had been patch that may still sometimes be left confined in the factory from 6 A.M. at the back or in front of some of the to 8 P.M. -fourteen hours continuruinous cottages of the country, ously, without any time being allowed sufficient to grow a shrub or two on for meals, rest or recreation ; their which the inmates can hang a few meals to be taken while attending rags to dry.' He points out the con- the machines, and this the practice nection between the wretchedness for years. He says : ‘Such is the and involuntary idleness of the poor,

'

practice at Bradford and the neighand the moral and political dangers bourhood. It is not the degree so of their condition. He also recom- much as the duration of their labour mended that cottagers selected for that is so cruel and destructive to their good conduct and industrious these poor work-children. How rehabits, should be admitted tenants of volting the compound sounds! I little intakes, or to depasture upon trust it will never be familiarized to general allotment. He preferred, our feelings. It is the wearisome however, giving 'the cottager his own uniformity

of the employment which share in severalty. Leave was given is more fatiguing to the body and the to bring in his Bill, but very shortly mind than more varied and voluntary, afterwards Parliament was prorogued. though far stronger, exertion. He

In the autumn of 1831 various shows how the fine-enforced necescircumstances directed his attention sity for punctuality at such an early to the case of children working in hour aggravates the sufferings of the factories, and on the 15th of Decem- child, since, 'not in one case out of ber, 1831, he brought in a Bill, "for ten, perhaps, the parent has a clock.' regulating the labour of children and He touchingly describes the patter

VOL. II.-SIXTH SERIES.

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of little pattens on the pavement, in a leading member of the Commission a manufacturing town, many hours and an eminent Leeds surgeon. This before light on a winter's morning.' little contribution to the cause of He exhibited to the House one of the science and philanthropy was re

heavy leathern factory thongs,' with warded by a half-day's remission of which even female children were our own studies. beaten to keep them awake over their The Report of the Commissioners work.

vindicated Mr. Sadler's statements, All that Mr. Sadler could obtain by presenting a mass of touching, at first was a Parliamentary Enquiry; sometimes tragic, evidence that the so powerful was the opposition of factory children were the subjects of the mill-owners. A Committee was a cruel, often crushing, servitude ; appointed consisting of some of the that they were not free agents, but most distinguished members : Vis- let out to hire, the wages they earn counts Lowther and Morpeth (Earl being received and appropriated by of Carlisle), Mr. Fowell Buxton, their parents and guardians;' and that etc. The labour thus imposed on "a case is made out for the interference Mr. Sadler was excessive, in the of the Legislature in behalf of chilchair of the Committee during forty- dren employed in factories.' Mr. three days of actual session ; by Sadler, therefore, pleaded for leave to immense correspondence and the task introduce his famous Ten Hours' of carrying through the press the Bill :' 'a Bill for restricting the whole mass of evidence.

labours of children and young perMr. Sadler's representations were sons to ten hours a day.' We vividly only too amply verified, but again the recall the excitement produced in manufacturing interest interposed, de- Leeds ; equalid girls, on their way manding local investigation. Accord- to and from the mill, crying in a ingly, a Royal Commission was issued tone more like that of a wail than a to fifteen gentlemen, 'to collect infor- demand, We will have the Ten mation in the manufacturing districts Hours' Bill.' But, alas ! they had as to the employment of children in to wait till they were tired of wailing. factories.' The Commissioners did The Government stole a march on not always find it easy to arrive at the children's champion: they brought the facts of the case, even on the in and carried a mocking measure of spot. The testimony of the parents

The appointment of Inas to the age of the children was spectors, however, and the awakening questioned by the masters; so the of the press to this abomination made Commissioners were obliged to con- its ultimate removal sure. It was sult the teeth of the children in con- reserved for Lord Ashley (the Earl of firmation of their parents' tongues. Shaftesbury), after Mr. Sadler's death, To qualify themselves for forming to acquire for British bairns a conan accurate judgment they visited the sideration which had long been large public schools in the manufac- granted to criminals and slaves. turing districts in order to acquire Among his most earnest hearteners expertness in determining the age

of in this enterprise were his old and a child by dental inspection. We close friend the

famous Local ourselves, along with our ninety-nine Preacher, William (Billy ') Dawson, schoolfellows at Woodhouse Grove, and several manufacturers and great had the honour of contributing to this employers, especially Messrs. Wood induction, by opening wide and Walker, of Bradford, and the mouth to the conjectural scrutiny of generous George R. Chappell

, of Man

their own.

our

She left; but oft she tarried ;

She fell, and rose no more ; But, by her comrades carried,

She reached her father's door.

chester. A letter from Dawson to Sadler, dated Barnbow, January 27th, 1832, was extensively published in the papers and separately. In this he expresses his anxiety to throw into the scale the weight of his humble influence, to turn the beam on the side of justice and mercy.' There can scarcely be a more fitting conclusion to our account of Mr. Sadler's labours on behalf of the factory children than a lyric composed by him in the very heat of those labours, narrating in simple ballad style an illustrative incident attested before him as Chairman of the Committee.

All night, with tortured feeling,

He watched his speechless child ; While, close beside her kneeling,

She knew him not, nor smiled : Again, the bell's harsh ringing

Her last perceptions tried ; When, from her straw-bed springing,

• 'Tis time !' she shrieked, and died.

That night a chaise had passed her,

While on the ground she lay ;
The daughters of her master

An evening visit pay :
Their tender hearts were sighing

As negro wrongs were told,
While the white slave was dying

Who gained their father's gold!

THE FACTORY GIRL'S LAST DAY. It was a winter's morning,

The weather wet and wild : Three hours before the dawning

A father roused his child ; Her daily morsel bringing,

The darksome room he paced, And cried, “The bell is ringing!

My hapless darling, haste ! 'Father, I'm up, but weary,

I scarce can reach the door,
And long the way and dreary-

O carry me once more !!
Her wasted form seemed nothing-

The load was at his heart-
The sufferer he kept soothing,

Till at the mill they part. The overlooker met her,

As to the frame she crept, And with his thong he beat her,

And cursed her as she wept : It seemed, as she grew weaker,

The threads the oftener broke, The rapid wheels ran quicker,

And heavier fell the stroke.

This is, we believe, the only instance in which Mr. Sadler made his muse subservient to his philanthropic politics.

After the Dissolution of Parliament, which followed on the Reform Bill, at the general election, December, 1832, Mr. Sadler was induced, by the earnest solicitations of a large number of his fellow-townsmen, to come forward as a candidate for the representation of Leeds, in opposition to no less a personage than Thomas B. Macaulay. Could the election have been determined by show of hearts Sadler would doubtless have been returned. But the classes whom he had befriended could help him little, whilst those whom he had called to account were, of course, dominant in a great manufacturing town, The result of the contest was : for Sadler, 1,596 votes ; for Macaulay, 1,984.

As is well-known to the readers of Lord Macaulay's Life, he never forgave Sadler this honourable competition and his eloquent replies in Parliament. It was one of the very few, but very grave flaws in the fine character of that splendid writer that he indulged in an arrogant, uncandid, spiteful animosity towards

The sun had long descended,

Bat night brought no repose ; Her day began and ended

As cruel iyrants chose :
At length a little neighbour

Her halfpenny she paid,
To take her last hour's labour

; She by her frame was laid.

At last, the engine ceasing,

The captives homeward rushed; She thought her strength increasing'Twas hope her spirits flashed :

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