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ground. Nor can I see where, according to the construction of this prison, it will be possible to make an effectual separation between male and female prisoners. I presume it is intended, that one or two of the ranges of building should be appropriated to females, but two airing grounds used by them would in either case be contiguous to those of the males, and it would require very high party-walls to court-yards, over which there is so little inspection, to prevent communication between the men and the women; by night they would certainly talk from cell to cell. The kitchens in this design, of which there are but two, appear to me to be much too small, nor do I see how such of the prisoners, as may be allowed to dress their own food, in addition to some from each of the other classes, could have access to them, without a greater degree of communication between prisoners of different descriptions than would be desirable: more kitchens however might perhaps be made, by taking for that purpose the rooms intended for store-rooms, and making store-rooms at the farthest end of the prisoners' buildings. I mean here to dwell upon those objections only which seem to show, that the windmill plan is not well calculated for a large pri


I believe it will be found, that no one form of building will be advantageous for prisons of all sizes-the windmill plan may possibly be the best for prisons which are too small to admit of their enclosing the court-yards within the buildings, and in which, there being only one or two officers to take care of all the prisoners, it is very convenient that the keeper should reside in the midst of them; but where many prisoners are to be provided for, it appears to me that convenience, inspection, and security, will be most easily combined in those plans in which the buildings shall be so disposed as entirely to enclose the court-yards, and a passage shall run round the whole prison on each floor. From this passage you may have as many distinct day-rooms as may be found convenient, and as many inspection holes into such rooms as may be necessary to bring every portion of the prisoners within the reach of both the eye and the ear of their officer, whenever he shall find occasion to watch them.

Of the prisons built upon the principle of surrounding the yards there may of course be many shapes. The plans in Mr. Howard's time were chiefly squares and rectangular figures-but the courtyards cannot conveniently be divided or brought under the governor's inspection in such figures, and the modern designs are more commonly polygons, or figures of many sides approaching to circles, but composed of short straight sides, to avoid the inconvenience and expense of the circular form. The plan of the Penitentiary at Millbank, consisting of six pentagons formed on the sides of a hol

low hexagon, in the centre of which is the chapel, could not well be so contracted as to suit a county gaol for three or four hundred prisoners, for the court-yards of a prison similar to that at Millbank, built on a very reduced scale, would not be large enough or sufficiently airy: but I am strongly inclined to think, that a convenient prison for a few hundred prisoners might be formed on a design uniting the windmill plan with that of the polygon-i. e. adding some ranges of building which should join the circumference to the centre. In every prison built on the principle of the polygon, two such ranges of building seem to be necessary:1 one from the porter's lodge to protect the entrance passage to the governor's house from the male prisoners, and the other at the other end of the portion of the prison used for male prisoners, to divide them effectually from the females-but more such ranges of building may perhaps be convenient, for the purpose of separating parts of the prison used for the male prisoners from each other. In this prison the inspection of the governor and matron over the yards used by their respective prisoners would be complete, and the male prisoners would be fenced in by themselves.

But whatever may be considered as the best form for a prison of a particular size, I would earnestly recommend it to Magistrates who may contemplate such an erection, to settle in the first instance not only the number of classes into which their prisoners are to be divided, but the principles by which the treatment of each class is to be regulated-which shall dress dinner in their own wards, and which take it from a public kitchen; which shall be put to hard

In this figure the black lines are ranges of building, and the dotted line is the wall dividing the part of the prison occupied by females from the passage from the porter's lodge to the governor's house.



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labor in the open air, under sheds or arcades, and which be employed in close work-rooms; and where fires shall be made; for the method of heating the buildings is an important point to be arranged in the original plan, the position of coal-cellars and dustholes heing of great consequence in a prison. In general, when architects are applied to for a plan of a prison, they are not furnished with sufficient data. It is common to build the prison first, and to set about making rules and regulations for it when completed; but it would be a wiser course to make the rules, or at least to agree upon the substance of them, and to settle the establishment of officers and servants, before a brick or a stone were laid.







Lex est justorum injustorumque distinctio.








THE following pages are written for the purpose of examining whether the advice, given to the King by his ministers, to exclude the Queen's name from the Liturgy, was consistent with the laws of the realm, and the spirit of the constitution. Many persons who ought to have been better informed, have asserted, that the Queen was prayed for in the different rituals, from the Conquest to the time of Henry the Eighth: this is a mistake; for in all of them the King only is mentioned under the general title of tuo famulo nostro rege.1

The introduction of the King and Queen by name was contemporary with the reformation, when the principles of the established church were first embodied with the law of the land, which makes the present, in a legal point of view, a most important consideration. Henry the Eighth, "a catalogue of whose vices would comprehend many of the worst qualities incident to human nature, first directed their insertion in the litany of the Primer, and he


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Salisbury Ritual, Brit. Mus. 1534., and those of Sarum, York, Bangor, and Lincoln, mentioned in the 2 & 3 Edw. 6. c. 1. in the Lambeth and other episcopal libraries. The author has examined three of the Salisbury Rituals, and is informed by a gentleman of great historical learning, that the more ancient do not contain the name of the Queen: if they had, it would have been evidence of a common law right. The churches within the province of Canterbury used the Salisbury Ritual, as Lynwood mentions, "tota provincia Cantuariensis hunc usum Sarisberiensem sequitur."

2 The litanies and suffrages, the most ancient part of the Common Prayer, in use from the time of Constantine.

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