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tum operculi is perceptible. The fecond Chapter treats on the roots, the ftamina and leaves of the mofs; Chapter III. relates to its organs of generation; and Chapter IV. to its fructification; all of which are taken from Hedwig's Fundamentum Hiftoriæ naturalis Muftorum frondoforum. But the affertions of the author, in the fifth and fixth Chapters, on the phyfiology and economy of plants are defective and partly unfounded: he is of opinion that dried mofs will again germinate; but the contrary has been ascertained by feveral late experiments. In the feventh Chapter the numerous uses of mofs are explained, as well in agricultural as domeftic economy. The eighth and ninth Chapters contain the hiftory of the difcovery of mofs, previous to the time of Hedwig; and in the eleventh Chapter this plant is arranged according to the ample manner of that celebrated naturalist.

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The fecond part contains the different fpecies, in which the author frequently and unneceffarily introduces changes in the fpecific characters, while he pays too little attention to inveftigation, and is too credulous with refpect to the fynonymes, which have been adopted, though, on the contrary, he has ftated feveral feveral new kinds with which we were before unacquainted: as for example, the Sphagnum Magellanicum, condenfatum, javenfe. Pterigynandrum catenulatum. Polytricum Magellanicum, dendroides, algirianum, et aureum; Sphlacnum Magellanicum; Fontinalis minor; Fiffidens nova Hollandia; Dicranum Billardierii; Barbula Atlantica, &c. These are, indeed, given in the fifth and fixth plates, but in our opinion the representations are not fufficiently clear and intelligible. The four remaining plates contain fpecimens of moffes in general, for the purpose of elucidating the different fections of the work, and are avowedly copied from HEDWIG.

ART. IV. Tentamen Difpofitionis methodica Fungorum in Claffes, Ordines, Genera et Familias. Cum Supplemento adjecto. Auctore C. H. Perfoon. 8vo. PP. 76. With four Plates, price 155. grofch. Leipfig, Wolf. ́ 1797.

ART. V. C. H. Perfoonii Commentatio de Fungis clavæformibus, fiftens fpecierum hucufque notarum Defcriptiones, cum differentiis fpecifis, nec non auctorum fynonymis. Accedunt Tab. IV. colore fucatæ. 8vo. Pp. 118. Price 2 Rix Dollars. Leipfig, Wolf.

HE firft of thefe articles appeared in the year 1794, in been augmented by the addition of feveral new fpecies, it is


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now published in the form of a pamphlet. The second may be confidered as an appendix to the text of the work, published by Holmfkiold, entitled, “ Coryphæi Clavarias Ramariafque complectentes. Cum brevi ftructure interioris expofitiore, auctore THEODORO HOLMSKIOLD. Denuo cum adnotationibus editi, nec non commentatione de Fungis clave formibus aucti a C. H. PERSOON. Accedunt Tab. IV. ana;" Lipfiæ, apud Wolf.

Having perufed these tracts, we here venture to recommend them from a conviction that they will prove worthy the attention of claffical epicures in mushrooms.

ART. VI. Flora Europea inchoata: a Joh. Jac. Romer, M. D. Fafciculus I. II. et III. 8vo. Nuremberg. 1799. Price 2 Rix Dollars. 4 grofch.


HE Doctor, in an ample preface, informs his readers of the intent and plan of this work: it is principally to confift of extracts and perfect illuftrations from the best botanical productions, together with a variety of new defigns. Of these the following are given in the first number: the Soldanella Alpina, and Centaurea cæfpitofa, from Cyrillo: in the fecond number is a reprefentation of the Epimedium Alpinum, and in number III. the Alyfum finuatum. The copied plates are taken from Smith's and Sowerby's English Botany: they confift of the Cucubalus otites, Malaxis paludofa, Lathyrus Niffolia, Sagittaria faggitifolia, Ophrys monorchis, Ophrys Loëfelii, Holofteum umbellatum, Hypericum elodes, Campanula hederaceà, Dianthus deltoides, and Trientalis Europea. From Smith's Spicil. Botan. the Cypripedium bulbofum, Saponarea lutea, Juncus filiformis and Lycoperdon phalloides: from Curtis's Botanical Magazine, the Campanula carpatica; from Jacquin's Mifcellanies, the Valeriana fupina, and Vicia lathyroides; from Jacquin's Icon. plant rar. the Cortufa Matthioli; and the Hydnum decipiens, from the German Botanical Magazine.

The defcriptions appear to be collected with confiderable attention from the abovementioned, as well as many other botanical writers; and the latest terminology and fynonimes have been added by the author.

Among the late importations of literary works, received by us, from Germany, are a variety of volumes on Botany: with the exception of the preceding articles, however, they are in general of a local nature. Such, for inftance, are the Flora von Hildesheim, or a defcription of the wild plants in the principality of Hildesheim, &c. by P. C. Wagner and F. Gruber; the Saltzburgifche Flora, by Braune; and many others of a


familar kind; which, on a prefumption of their exciting no general intereft among English readers, we shall pass over, and proceed to the examination of works more important in their nature, and more generally interefting in their contents.

ART. VII. Ueber die Entstehung der Gebirge, &c. i. e. On the
Origin of Mountains and their prefent Condition.
By M.
Herrmann. Imperial Aulic-Councillor of Ruffia, &c.
8vo. PP. 146. Leipzig, Jacobaer. 1799.


HE firft forty-eight pages of this work are filled with the writer's ideas relative to the origin of mountains, and the remainder confifts of extracts from the best writers on Geology, with annotations, by M. Herrmann; but, like many writers of the prefent day, he has introduced the text as like "pegs on which to hang his notes." We are not, however, much inclined to blame him for this practice, because his own reflections on the fubject are well connected, and the reader is, without much difficulty, enabled to follow him. After examining the fyftems of former writers, on the origin of Volcanos, and allowed to each his fhare of merit, he introduces his own opinions, which are entirely different from the others. He conceives that our earth was originally a mass of water, in which the atoms, or component parts of every vifible fsubstance in the prefent globe, were primitively in a ftate of solution, without the leaft connection. As foon as a feparation took place, when the mafs was fet in motion, the most dense particles were certainly first attracted towards the centre, not in confequence of the centripedal power, but, probably, by the centrifugal force of the globe. The lighter particles next adhered, and afterwards the lighteft, namely, thofe of water. Thefe events took place before the formation of those bubbles of thick air which we denominate the atmosphere. At this period another power began to operate upon the fuperficies, namely, the centripedal force. The latter operated externally, and the former internally. Both these powers continued to exift, while a number of heavy particles were perpetually fubfiding towards the interior of the hollow maffes of granite, but which still tended to form new incrustations!

In the course of his work, the author endeavours to elucidate the operations of the centrifugal force, by the formation of the foil of our globe, and introduces a variety of experimental proofs to fupport his theory, which, to the Neptunifts, or thofe who conceive the earth to have been originally in a fluid ftate will appear fufficiently probable. He alfo pretends to

inform us of what we knew long before, that the highest mountains and the heaviest metals are always to be found near the equator, and that the richest veins are ever nearest to the furface. This he feeks to render probable by his hypothefis alone; because, by the rotary motion of the fluid globe, the more folid particles would naturally fubfide in greater abundance towards the equator, and take a direction from North to South, while, on the contrary, the aqueous particles must neceffarily retreat towards the poles. He is of opinion, that many elevations, as well as their fractures, have originated from the fermentation which has taken place beneath the foil. In his defcription of the horizontally stratified mountains, he is brief and perfpicuous, and, on the whole, we have little objection to make to the work; though fuch a diverfity of vague theories as are conftantly produced, can only tend to raise doubts in uniformed minds, on a fubject with which we are fufficiently made acquainted by the holy fcriptures.

ART. VIII. Meine Fuffreife durch die drey Brittischen Konigreiche

i. e. My pedestrian Tour through the three British Kingdoms, preceded by fome Accounts of the Campaign in the Netherlands. By a French Officer. 1 Vol. 8vo. PP. 856. Riga

Hartknoch. I Rix-dollar.


E are are at a loss to conceive why the author has denominated his work a Tour through the three British Kingdoms, as it fhould have been a Tour through Great Britain, or rather through England and Scotland; for as to Wales, he has feen little more than the borders of it: and at Ireland he never touched at all. The work is comprised in four parts; the defcription of the Campaign of the Netherlands, and of the retreat and difbanding of the emigrant corps, of that period, occupy eighty-eight pages. The author's journey through Holland extends to page 116, the description of London and England, to 112, and the remainder relates entirely to Scotland. Although his description of the campaign of the Netherlands is not uninterefting, yet it contains nothing of importance which has not been published before. The author prides himself on the number of emigrant noblemen contained in his corps; but the obfervations which escape him, at different parts of his work, do not imprefs us, very forcibly, with an idea of the correct difcipline of that unfortunate and loyal body of men. At pages 36, 37, he fays, the company which contained no noblemen became diffatisfied, and refufed to continue at the iiege of Diedenhofen, but we


fhall pass over his fubfequent remarks on this army, the miffortunes of which, if his ftatement be correct, muft excite compaffion in the breaft of every loyal and virtuous man. Our readers cannot but be aware of the inconveniences and obstacles which any man, but more especially a foreigner, must fuftain, who makes a tour through England on foot. The author was in the fame predicament as M. von Moritz, whofe travels are well known in this country. He met with endless difficulties, and was fent away from many farm-houses without the leaft affiftance or refreshment. We have obferved nothing in his defcription of London or England worthy of notice. But great allowance must be made for the disadvantages under which he performed this Journey. He was entirely unprepared, and knew fcarcely any thing of our language. Hence his attention being abftracted, by fuch a variety of objects, we were not greatly furprised at finding fome of his accounts entirely falfe. But we are inclined to attribute many of his errors to fome defect in his optic nerves, rather than to a natural propenfity for the marvellous. For inftance, page 122, he fays, "All the fquares in London are ornamented with a great variety of golden ftatues! Page 121, The young ftudents, at Oxford, are dreffed in a large black coat, with pointed fleeves, meaning their academic gowns. At the cathedral of Oxford, he obferved a chapel for performing the ceremony of Baptifm, fimilar to thofe at Pifa, Florence, &c. Page 126, he fays, There is fcarcely a week paffes in which fome criminals are not executed in England. It is needlefs for us to infist on the falfhood of this infinuation; involving an attack upon our code of criminal laws, which always have, and ever will be, the admiration and the envy of Europe. The capacity of a foreigner, and that foreigner a military man and a Roman Catholic, to judge of our religious establishments, may fairly be queftioned. The common duration of a fermon, in England, is, according to the author's account, only twenty minutes, and one of half an hour is confidered as tediously long; though he heard one at Gloucester which lafted two hours. In page 202, he expreffes his furprise at former writers, who have attributed to the English an auftere and referved character: he always obferved that "they were as fond of pleasure as any other people."

The most interesting part of the work is the journey through Scotland, which occupies the remainder of the volume, from page 213. The author was provided with feveral letters of recommendation to perfons in that country, in confequence of which he met with better treatment than what he experienced in England. Befides the civility which was fhewn him, he


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