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hope to enjoy. You may bewail your own loss, but not my death, which, being so honourable, ought not to be lamented by any. My soul, for nothing else is left to me, I bequeath to you. You will receive it as the thing in this world which you value most. I do not write to my father, Pero Lopez, because I dare not; for though I have shewn myself to be his son in daring to lose my ife, I have not been the heir of his good fortune. I will not attempt to say any thing more, that I may not tire the executioner, who waits for me ; and that I may not excite a suspicion, that, in order to prolong my life, I lengthen out my letter. My servant Sosia, an eye-witness, and to whom I have communicated my most secret thoughts, will inform you of what I cannot now write; and thus I rest, expecting the instrument of your grief, and of my deliverance.

90. REASON AND THE AFFECTIONS. If the affections in themselves were pliant and obedient to reason, it were true, there would be no great use of persuasions and insinuations to the will, more than of naked proposition and proofs ; but in regard of the continual mutinies and seditions of the affections,

Video meliora proboque,

deteriora sequor; reason would become captive and servile, if eloquence of persuasions did not practise and win the imagination from the affections' part, and contract a confederacy between the reason and imagination against the affections; for the affections themselves carry ever an appetite to good, as reason doth. The difference is, that the affection beholdeth merely the present, reason beholdeth the future and sum of time. And therefore the present filling the imagination more, reason is commonly vanquished; but after that force of eloquence and persuasion hath made things future and remote appear as present, then upon the revolt of the imagination reason prevaileth.


91. DANGER OF EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATION IN AN ESTABLISHED SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. An established system is not to be tried by those tests, which may with perfect correctness be applied to a new theory. A civilised nation, long in possession of a code of laws, under which with all its inconveniences they have found means to flourish, is

not to be regarded as an Infant Colony, in which experiments in legislation may without much charge of presumption be hazarded. A philosopher is not entitled to investigate such a system by those ideas, which he has fixed in his own mind as the standard of excellence. The only unerring test of every old establishment is the effect it has actually produced. For that must be held to be good, whence good is derived. The people have by degrees moulded their habits to the law which they are compelled to obey. For some of its imperfections remedies have been found; to others they have reconciled themselves; till at last they have from various causes attained the object, which the most sanguine visionary could promise to himself from his own perfect unembodied system. Not indeed that a superstitious regard for antiquity ought at any time to stay the hand of a temperate reform: but the task is delicate and full of danger, perilous in its execution and extremely doubtful in its issue. A newly discovered remedy may introduce more mischief into the system, than the evil occasioned by the original disorder ;-neutralized as that disorder shall have become by long incorporation with the several juices and humours of the body itself.


92. GROUNDS OF CRITICISM IN TRAGEDY. To instruct delightfully is the general end of all poetry. Philosophy instructs, but it performs its work by precept; which is not delightful or not so delightful as example. To purge the passions by example is therefore the particular instruction which belongs to tragedy. Rapin, a judicious critic, has observed from Aristotle, that pride and want of commiseration are the most predominant vices of mankind; therefore to cure us of these two, the inventors of tragedy have chosen to work upon two other passions, which are fear and pity. We are wrought to fear by their setting before our eyes some terrible example of misfortune, which happened to persons of the highest quality ; for such an action demonstrates to us that no condition is privileged from the turns of fortune: this must of necessity cause terror in us, and consequently abate our pride. But when we see that the most virtuous, as well as the greatest, are not exempt from such misfortunes, that consideration moves pity in us, and insensibly works us to be helpful to, and tender over, the distressed; which is the noblest and most godlike of moral virtues.


93.. THE EXTENSIVE FORCE OF NOVELTY. In every species of creatures, those who have been least time in the world appear best pleased with their condition: for, besides that to a new comer the world hath a freshness on it that strikes the sense after a most agreeable manner, being itself unattended with any great variety of enjoyments, excites a sensation of pleasure; but, as age advances, every thing seems to wither, the senses are disgusted with their old entertainments, and existence turns flat and insipid. We may see this exemplified in mankind; the child, let him be free from pain, and gratified in his change of toys, is diverted with the smallest trifle. Nothing disturbs the mirth of the boy but a litttle punishment or confinement. The youth must have more violent pleasures to employ his time; the man loves the hurry of an active life, devoted to the pursuits of wealth or ambition; and lastly, old age, having lost its capacity for these avocations, becomes its own insupportable burden. And as novelty is of a very powerful, so is it of a most extensive influence. Moralists have long since observed it to be the source of admiration, which lessens in proportion to our familiarity with objects, and upon a thorough acquaintance is utterly extinguished. But I think it hath not been so commonly remarked, that all the other passions depend considerably on the same circumstances. What is it but novelty that awakens desire, enhances delight, kindles anger, provokes envy, inspires horror? To this cause we must ascribe it, that love languisheth with fruition, and friendship itself is recommended by intervals of absence: hence monsters, by use, are beheld without loathing, and the most enchanting beauty without rapture. That emotion of the spirits, in which passion consists, is usually the effect of surprise, and as long as it continues, heightens the agreeable or disagreeable qualities of its object; but as this emotion ceases (and it ceases with the novelty) things appear in another light, and affect us even less than might be expected from their proper energy, for having moved us too much before.


94. COLONISATION AS SUBSERVIENT TO POPULATION. Suppose a fertile but empty island to lie within the reach of a country in which arts and manufactures are already established; suppose a colony sent out from such a country, to take possession of the island, and to live there under the protection and authority of their native government: the new settlers will naturally convert their labour to the cultivation of the vacant soil, and with the produce of that soil will draw a supply of manufactures from their countrymen at home. Whilst the inhabitants continue few, and lands cheap and fresh, the colonists will find it easier and more profitable to raise corn or rear cattle, and with corn and cattle to purchase woollen cloth, for instance, or linen, than to spin or weave these articles for themselves. The mother-country, meanwhile, derives from this connexion an increase both of provision and employment. It promotes at once the two great requisites upon which the facility of subsistence, and by consequence the state of population, depend, production and distribution; and this in a manner the most direct and beneficial. No situation can be imagined more favourable to population, than that of a country which works up goods for others, whilst these others are cultivating new tracts of land for them.


95. CHARACTER OF M. PORCIUS CATO. In his private life, he was severe morose inexorable, banishing all the softer affections as natural enemies to justice and as suggesting false motives of acting from favour clemency and compassion. In public affairs he was the same; had but one rule of policy—to adhere to what was right, without regard to times or circumstances or even to a force that could control him: for instead of managing the power of the great so as to mitigate the ill or extract any good from it, he was urging it always to acts of violence by a perpetual defiance; so that with the best intentions in the world he often did great harm to the republic. This was his general behaviour; yet from some particular facts explained above it appears that his strength of mind was not always impregnable but had its weak places of pride, ambition and party zeal, which, when encouraged and flattered to a certain point, would betray him sometimes into measures contrary to his ordinary rule of right and truth. The last act of his life was agreeable to his nature and philosophy. When he could no longer be what he had been, and when the ills of life overbalanced the good (which by the principles of his sect was a just cause for dying), he put an end to his life with a spirit and resolution which would make one imagine that he was glad to have found an occasion of dying in his proper character. On the whole, his life was rather admirable than amiable, fit to be praised rather than imitated.

96. ALEXANDER POPE TO HUGH BETHEL. I never am unmindful of those I think so well of as yourself; their number is not so great as to confound one's memory. Nor ought you to decline writing to me, upon an imagination that I am much employed by other people. For though my house is like the house of a patriarch of old, standing by the highway-side and receiving all travellers, nevertheless I seldom go to bed without the reflection that one's chief business is to be really at home: And I agree with you in your opinion of company, amusements and all the silly things which mankind would fain make pleasures of, when in truth they are labour and sorrow. I condole with you on the death of your relation, the Earl of C. as on the fate of a mortal man: esteem I never had for him, but concern and humanity I had: The latter was due to the infirmity of his last period, though the former was not due to the triumphant and vain part of his course.

97. WALLER’S FORCES ROUTED BY PRINCE MAURICE AND THE EARL OF CARNARVON. Therefore the prince took a gallant resolution to give the enemy a brisk charge with his own regiment upon their advance, whilst the earl rallied his and prepared to second him as there should be occasion. This was as soon and fortunately executed as resolved; the prince in the head of his regiment charging so vigorously, that he utterly broke and routed that part of the front that received the impression. But almost half the enemy's horse that being extended larger than his front, were not charged, wheeled about and charged the prince in the rear; and at the same time the earl of Carnarvon with his rallied regiment charged their rear; and all this so thoroughly performed, that they were mingled pallmall one amongst the other and the good sword was to decide the controversy.


98. IRRESOLUTION AND ITS REMEDY. Irresolution on the schemes of life which offer themselves to our choice, and

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