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by that the hórse he steals is ás múch his próperty ás inìne. 'If thén 'I have any right, it must be fróm á cómpact måde between ús, that he who deprives the other of his horse Thall die. Bút thís ís á false cómpact; because nò mán hás à right tó bárter his life, nò mòrel thán tó take it away, as it is not his own. 'And beside, the compact is inadequate, and would be set aside even in à court of modern équity, as there is a great pénalty fór á very trifiing convenience, since it is far better tha two ren thould live, thán that one máy Thould

ride. Bút à compact that is false between two - mén, ís equally sò between án húndred, ór át hundred thousand; fór ás tén millions of circles can never make a square, lò the united voice of myriads cannot lend the smallest foundation to falschood. 'It is thús that reason fpeaks, and untùtored nature láys the same thing. Savages that are directed by nátural law alòne áre véry tender of the lives of each óther, they séldoin Ihéd blood bút tó retáliate fórmer cruelty. - ;

Our Sáxon r) ancestors, fiercé as they were in war, had bút few execùtions in times

r) Nachd:111 die Römischen Legionen Britannien verlast

hatten, baten die Engländer, um sich vor den Einfal. len der, unter dem Namen der Picken und Scoten be kiinnten, nordlicher Bewohner diefer Insel zu schätzen, die Angel - Sachsen um Hülfe (449 nach Christi Gburt). Diese kamen auch unter der Anführung des llengist und Horfa nach Britannien, und leisteten den Einwohnern Beistand. Da es ilunen aber auf die Injel beffer gefiel, als in ihrem Vaterlande, so beschloSen sie, nachdem sie sich noch durch mehrere ihre Landsleute verstärkt hatten, 21. b!:iben. Nun flohet viele Britteil, theils nach Doctagne, theils nach Wallis die Sachsen bemachtigten sich indeljen das grösste: Thiels diefes Landes, und stifteten die bekannte Heptarchie, welche in der Folge (827) Egbert in Einen Staat ver-,

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bf peace; and in all cominéncing governments hát' have thé prínt of nature still strong upon hém, scarce any crime ís héld cápital. 1 'It is among the citizens of à refined compùnity that pénal laws, whích áre' in the ands of the rich, áre laid upón the poor. povernment, while it grows òlder, seems to equire the morúseness of age; and as if our róperty were become dèarer în proportion ás

increased, as if the more enórinous our pealth, thé mòre extensive our fears, all our offéfiions are påled úp with new édicts every lay and húng round with gibbets tó scare pery invader. . ¡ 'I cannot tell whether it is from the umber of bur penal laws, úr the licentiousness fóur people, that thís country should shev ivre convicts in a year, than half the domíons bf Eŭrope united s). Perhaps ít ís owing both; fór they mùtually prodùce each other. hen ly indifcriminate penal laws a nation eholds thė làme punishment t) affixed to difmilar degrees of guílt, from perceiving nò iltinction in the penalty, the people are léd lfe áll sense of distinction in the crime,

einigte. 5) Ich glaube Cragt Wendeborn in reiner melirinals angeführten Schrift, Theil II. S. 44), dass der Gefougnisse in keinerii Lande unehr und dass sie so voll sind, als in England. Der Verbrecher ist iminer eine na glaubliche Menge, und die Zahl derer, welche Schulder

wegen ihrer Freiheit beraubt sind, ist fast unglaublich. D) So hat in England jeder den Galgen verwirkt, wenn er dem andern so viel stiehlt, als sich der Werth eines Strickes zum Henken beläuft, d. h. dreizehn Pence.

ánd this distinction is the búlwark óf áll 'mo. rálity: thús the múltitude of lawas prodùçe new vices, and new vices call fór frélh restraints.

'It were to be wished then that power, instead of contrìving new laws, tó púnish yìce, instead of drawing hard the córds of society till à convulsion come to búrst thém, instead óf cutting away wretches as useless, before wi háve tried their utility, instead of converting correction into vengeance ; ít were to be wished that we tried the restrictive arts of góvernement, and made law the protector, bát nót the týrant of the people. We should then find thát créatures, whose lòuls are héld ás dróss, ònly wanted the hand of à refiner; we should then find that wretches, now ftuck up for long tórtures, lést lúxury should feel à mòmentary páng, might if properly treated, serve to finew the state in times of danger; thát, as their faces áre like ours, their hearts are fò tóo; thát few minds áre fà bàle as that perseverance cannot amend; thật à màn mày Tee his laft crime withbut dýing fór ít; and thát very little blood will serve to cement our fecùrity,

CH A P. XXVIII. Happiness and inisery are rather the result of

prudence than óf virtue in this life. Témporal eyils ór felicities being regarded by heaven és things merely in theinfélves trifling and unworthy

its càre in the distribution. I had now been confined mòre than å fórt. night, bút bád not lince my arrival beèn vísited by my dear Olivia, and 'I greatly longed tó feè hér. Having communicated my wishes

có my wife the next morning the poor girl éntered my apartment, leaning on her sister's irm. The change whích 'I fåw in hér cóunenance strúck me, Thé númberless graces hát ónce refìded there were now fléd, and the hand of death seemed to have moulded bvery feature tó alárm mé. Hér témples were únk, hér fòrehead was tense, and à fàtal paeness sàte upón hér cheek,

„'I am glad to see thée, my dear, cried I; , but why this dejection, Livy? I hope, ný lóve, you have too great à regárd fór me tó permít disappointment thús to undermine à life, whích 'I prize ás my own. Bé chéarful, child, and wè yét may see happier dàys, “ . - „You have ever, Sír" replied Chè, „beén kind to me, and it adds tò mỹ pain, that. 'I shall never have an opportùnity of Chåring that happiness you promise. Happiness, Iofèar, is no longer reserved fór me here, and 'I lóng tó bè rid of a place where 'I have only found

distress. Indeed, Sir, 'I wish you would make | à proper Tubinition to Mr. Thủynhill; ít mày, in some measure indùce hím tó píty you, and it will give me relief in dying.“

„Never, child,“ replied 'I, „néver will I bé brought to acknowledge my daughter å priftitute; for though the world mày lỗols upon your offence with scórn, léd ít bè mìne tò régard ít ás à inárk of credulity, not of guílt. My dear, 'I am nó wày míserable in this place, however dismal ít may seem, and be allured that while you continue to bléis me by líving, he shall never have my consent to make you mòre wretched by marrying another."

'After the departure of my daughter, my féllow prísoner, who was bý át this interview, sensibly enough expóstulated upon iný obstinacy, in refùfing à submission, which promised to give me freedom. Hè obferved, that the rét of iný fárnily was not to be sacrificed to the peace of one child alone, and she thé önly one whó hád offended me. „Belide," added hè, ,,I t know if it be juft thúc to obttruct the union of man and wife, which you dó á présent, by refusing to consent to à mátch which you cannot linder, bút mày render unhappy.“

„Sír,“ replied 'I, „you áre' unacquainted with the man that oppréfles ús. 'I am very sensible that nò submillion 'I can make could procùre mè liberty even fór án hóur. 'I am told that even in this véry room à débtor 6 hís, no later than last year, died fór want. Bút though iný submission and approbation could transfér me fróin hence tá the most beautiful apartment hè ís pofféffed óf; yét 'I would gránt néither; ás something whispers mè, that It would be giving à sánction tò adultery. While my daughter lives, nò óther marriage of bis shåll ever be legal in inỳ eỳe. Wére Chè re. móved, indeed, 'I should be the bàsest of mén, from any resentment of my own, to attempt putting asunder those whó wish fór à union. Nò, villain as he is, I should then wish hím márried, to prevent the consequences óf his future debaucseries. But now Thould 'I not be the most cruel óf áll fáthers, tò fign án 'Instrument which must send iný child to the grave, merely to avoid à prison myself; ánd thús to escape óne páng, breák mỳ child's heart with à thỏusand ?

Hè acquiesced in the justice of this answer, bút could not avoid observing, that he feared

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