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and the Wo Reviews x); and though they liatei each other, 'I love thfW all. Liberty, Sii, liberty is the Briton's boaft; and by- all m$- coilDines In Cornwall y), 1 reverence Its guardians,4! „Then It Is to be hoped," cried 1, „yoii revM rence the king," „Yes," returned nry- entertil ner, when he does what we would have hlmil but If he goes on as he has done 6f late,- 'HI never trouble myftlf more with his matters. 1 fay nothing. 'I thlnh only, 'I could have directed f6me things better. "I don't think then has been a fufflcient number 6f advifers: hj i Xhoiiid advire with every perfon willing to giva him advice, and then we fhould have thmgl d6ne In another gueTs z) manner."
„1 wlXh," cried 1, „that fuch intrudinl advifers were fixed In the pillory a). 'It fhould
x) Lamer Namen periodifcher Schriften, toahrfckeinlidl i grbfitentheils felitifchcn Inhalts. Den Namen Reviewl fnhren nock jetzt zwei, jedoch gtlehrte Zeitfihrifttn, * deren eine the critical, die andert th« monthly H*- 1 view htifit. V
y) Cornwall, tine Landfchaft in England, in der viit i Kupfer und Zinn gewtnnen wird. Steinkshlen ivirdtn' daftlbft wakrfcheinlich auch geftinden, wiewol nach iit _gewohnlichen Angabtn tiicht in einem fo grofsen Vtbt<fluffi alt in andern Gegenden. Sollte htzteres mirklia der Fall feyn, fo wiirrfe die an Jich fchon lackerlick Betheitrung noch lachtrlicher feyn.
z) in another guefs manner, tine genuine fchlechte Art det Ausdrucks, fits: in another manner.
*) pillory, Schandpfahl; Befirafang durch Sffentliekt Amftellur.g tines Vtrbrechers, erne Strafe, ivomit zuwiilc* audi Leutt belegt werdtn, die Jich politifche yer[ikungen haben zti Schulden kommen Itffen. ~ Da dit Strafbaren w'ahrtnd Hirer Ansj'tellung den Angriffn tines, fie oft mit Koth, faulen Eiem, Steintn n.f. m Jb the duty of honeft m^n to affift the weaker fide qf 6ur conftitution; that facred power that' has for f6me years been every day declining, ind lofing its due fh.ire of influence in the liate. But thefe ignorants full continue the cry >f liberty, and if they 1m ve any weight, barely throw It into the fubfiding fcale."
„H(')W," cried one of thi ladies, „do 1 'ive to fee one fo bafe, fo fordid, as to be an snemy to liberty, and a defender of tyrants? Liberty , that facred gift of heaven , that glorious privilege of Britons!"
„Can it be poffible," cried our entertainer, ,,that tke;re fhould be any found at prefent advocates for flavery? 'Any who are for meanly giving up^ the privileges 6f Britons? Can any, Sir, be fo abject?" . .
„No, Sir," replied 'I, „'I am for liberty, that attribute of gods! Glorious liberty! that theme 6f modem declamation. 'I would have all men kings. 'I would be a king myfell. We have all naturally an equal right to the throne: We arefell originally equal. This is my opinion , and was once the opinion of a fet 6f honeft men who were called LeVellers t>). They
angreifenden z&gelhfen Pdiels ausgejetzt find, ft Ian* fen fie' Gefahr, ihr Leben an verlieren. Man fehe liber diefcn Gegenftand Wendeborn's Znft and u, f. u>, •v on Gr of sbritannien, Theil II. S. }g.
V) In der Armee, vielche unter dew Anfehen des Parliaments mid miter AnfUhrung Cromwell's gegen Karl den Erften gebraucht wurde, cntj'tand einc Faklion, die im Militair- niid Civilftavde alle Rar.gerdnutig nbjchaffen, ur.d eine GIeic!>heit der Guter eiufitbren violin. Man gab ihr daher den fclamen Levellers, d. h. Lente, die alles gleich machen wollen (von to level, ebnen, gleich machen'). Da fit %u visit gingen, fo nnttrdriickte fie Cromivell felbft.
tried to erect themfelves into a comtnnniff, Were all fhould be equally free. But, alas!k Would never anfwer; for there were fome among them ftronger, and fome more cunning than others, and thefe became mafters of tltj reft; for as Eire as your groom rides your hum fes, becaufe he is a cunninger animal thk they, f6 furely will the animal that is otiimager or ftr6nger than he, fit upon his fhouldert in turn. Since then it is entailed upon humanity to fuhmit, and fome are born to command, and others to obey, the queftion is, as then muft be tyrants, whether it is better to him them in the fame houfe with us, or in the fame village, 6r ftill farther off, in the metropM lis. Now, Sir, for my own part; as 'I natural-j ly hate the face of a tyrant, the farther m he is removed from roc, the better pleafed ami 'I. The generality 6f mankind alfo. are of Td$ way of thinking, and have unanimouQy created! one king, whofe election at once dim'nifhes the number of tyrants, and puts tyranfly at the greateft diftance from the greateft number of people. Now the great who were'", tyranfs themfelves before the election of one tyrant, are naturally averfe to a pdwer raited1, over them, and whofe weight muft ever lean heavieft 6n the fubordinate orders. 'It is the intereft of, the great, therefore, to dim'nifh kingly power as much as poffible; becaufe whatever they take from that, is naturally reftored to themfelves; and all they have to do in the ftate, is to undermine the fingle tyrant, by which they refume their primaeval authority. Now the ftate may be fo circumftanced, 6r its laws may oe fo difpofed, or its men of opulence fo minded, as all-to confpire in caxryiitg on this biilinek
6f undermining monarchy. For, in the firft iplace, if the clrcumftances of 6ur ftate be fuch, 4s to favour the accumulation of wealth, and imike the 6pulent full more rich, this will iencreafe their ambition. 'An accumulation of krealth, however, muft neceffarily be the cunjfeqnence, when as at prefent more riches flow In from external commerce than ariTe from in<pernal induftry: f6r external commerce can only |be managed to advantage by the rich, and they pave alio at the fame time all the emoluments •riling fr6m internal induftry: f<> that the rich, fcpitri lis, have two fources of wealth, whereas the poor have but one. F6r this reafon, wealth, fa all commercial ftates, is found to accumulate, and all ftich have hitherto in time become Wiftocratical. Ag;'iin, the very laws alfo 6f this country may contribute to the accumulation of fcrealth; js when by their means the natural fees th#t lnnd the rich and poor together are (broken, and it is ordained, that the rich fhall iinly marry with the rich: or when the learned ire hem unqualified to ferve their country as tcounfellors merely from: a defect of opulence, and wealth is thus made the object 6f a wife man's ambition; by thefe means, 1 fay, and fiich means as thefe, riches will accumulate. Now the poffeffor of accumulated wealth, when furnifhed wiih the neceffaries and pleafures of fife, has no other method to employ the fuperfluiry of his fortune but in purchafing power. That is, differently fpeaking, In making dependants, by piirchafing the liberty of the needy or the venal, 6f men who are willing to bear the mortification of contiguous tyranny f6r bread. Thus each very opulent man generally gathers round him a circle if the pdoreft of the people; 4nd the polity abounding in acciimulated wealtli, may be compared to a Cartefian fyftem, each 6rb with a. vortex of its own c). Thofe, however, who are willing to move in a great man's v6rtex, are 6nlv fuch as mub be flaves, the rabble 6f mankind, whofe fouls and whole education are adapted to fervitude, and who know nothin" of liberty except the name. Bill there muft ftill be a large number of the people without the fphere of the opulent man's influence, namely, that order 6f men which fubfifts between the very rich and the very rabble; thole men who are poffeft of too large f 'rtunes to fubmit to the neighbouring man in power, andi
Jet ire too poor to fet tip for tyranny themelves. In this middle order of mankind are generally to be f6und 411 the arts, wi'fdom,-anJ virtues of fociety. This order alone is Known to be the true ^referver />f freedom ,t and may be called the people. N6w it may happen that this middle order 6f mankind may lofer^all its influence in a ftate, ind its voice be Ufca manner drowned in that 6f the rabble: for if the fortune fufficient for qualifying a perfon at jarefent to give his voice in ftate affairs, be ten times lefs than was judged fufficient upon f6rmins» the conftitution, it is evident that threat numbers 6f the rabble will thus be introduced into the political fyftem, and they ever moving ia the v6vtex of the great, will follow where
c) a Cartefian fyftem etc. Renatus Cartefias, geltrtn «k Tours i7» Frankrtich ijf6geftorben iiSfo, tin hfuhv.ter Philofoph nnd Mt\thematiker, nahm an, deft isr Aether in eintr befthndigen whbelnden Beweguni fey , nnd daft in dem grefsen IVirbel, der die Planettn vm die Sonne treibt, fich klcinert befandtn, wcduHh die Planeten urn ihre Axe bewegt iviirdin.