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qualled majesty above the other edi, the vicinity of the metropolis, and fices with which the southern front of blend the interest of recent events the Calton Hill is covered ; and give with the delightful recollections of the last finish to that romantic group ancient glory. And we cannot help of towers, rocks, and castellated thinking, that as the Calton Hill is buildings, which are collected on that the most conspicuous and the most interesting spot. From Prince's Street beautiful situation which the city can it would form the appropriate back- afford, so it is the only one worthy of ground to the magnificent vista of the sublime purpose to which the naWaterloo Place, and exhibit at the tional monument is destined, and close of that beautiful Grecian Street alone fit to be the depositary of a nathe most splendid of Grecian triumph- tion’s gratitude for the memorable al edifices. From every side it would events and unrivalled glory of the give a classical air to the scenery in present age.


In his Essay on English Poetry, Mr have remained silent when such an acCampbell has found fault with Mr cusation was repeated or echoed by one Bowles for certain alledged observa. of the greatest poets of the age. We tions on the genius and moral charac- think that Mr Campbell, though one ter of Pope. Mr Bowles feels himself of the fairest and most generous of rather unfairly dealt with by the dis- critics, has altogether misconceived the tinguished Critic, and in a very tem- scope and tendency of Mr Bowles's obperate and manly letter has pointed servations, and that this may be put out his unintentional misrepresenta- in a clear light in a very few words. tions. It is always to be lamented Mr Bowles courteously but plainly when any misunderstanding takes place tells Mr Campbell, that he could not between men of genius, - more espe- have read his criticism on Pope, excially with regard to those subjects cept in the pages of the Edinburgh dearest to their hearts, and on which Review where it is so grossly misreit is natural to believe their opinions presented, and therefore he gives it, would perfectly harmonize, were they verbatim, as follows: fully and clearly expressed. Mr

“ • All images drawn from what is BEAUBowles is evidently much hurt at be

TIFUL or SUBLIME in the WORKS of NAing held up by so high an authority as

TURE, are MORE beautiful and sublime Mr Campbell as an unfair and unphi- than images drawn from art, and are therelosophical critic on the genius of a fore more poetical. In like manner, those poet whom it has lately been the vul- Passions of the HUMAN HEART which gar fashion to decry, and we think he belong to nature in general, are, per se, has done perfectly right in thus pub- more adapted to the HIGHER SPECIES of

poetry than those which are derived from licly vindicating himself from such a

incidental and transient manners.' charge. It must have been unpleasant

“ The reader will instantly perceive, that enough to Mr Bowles to hear this these propositions are connected and conmost unfounded charge against him secutive ; and to prevent the possibility of widely circulated by the Edinburgh their being understood otherwise, I added, Review-and chanted by so many as illustrations, the following instances, mocking birds from all the shrub- equally connected and consecutive. beries of criticism,—but while it would " • A description of a forest is more have been beneath his dignity to no- poetical than a cultivated garden ; and the tice the abuse of those

is whose

passions which are pourtrayed in the EPIs.

TLE OF Eloisa, render such a poem more professed trade,” he says, “is misre- poetical, (whatever might be the difference presentation,” it would have shewn of merit in point of composition) intrinsicaleither a consciousness of its truth or ly more poetical, than a poem founded on an indifference to its falsehood, to the characters, incidents, and modes of

The Invariable Principles of Poetry; in a Letter addressed to Thomas Campbell, Esq. ; occasioned by some critical observations in his Specimens of British Poets, particularly relating to the poetical character of Pope; by the Reverend W. L. Bowles. London, Longman & Co. 1819.


artificial life ; for instance, the Rape of fiction, as to make the exquisite description the Lock.'

of them no less characteristic of genius than “ The reader will see, in this statement, the description of simple physical appeara general proposition connected with its il. The poet is creation's heir. He lustrations. Further, to prevent miscon- deepens our social interest in existence. It ception, I added,

is surely by the liveliness of the interest * • Let me not, however, be considered which he excites in existence, and not by as thinking that the subject alone consti- the class of subjects which he chooses, that tutes poctical excellency. The execution is we most fairly appreciate the genius or the to be taken into view at the same time; for, life of life which is in him. It is no ir with LORD HARVEY, we might · full asleep reverence to the external charms of nature over the CREATION of BLACKMORE, but to say, that they are not more important to be alive to the touches of animation and a poet's study than the manners and affecsatire in Boilcau.' By execution, I mean not tions of his species. Nature is the poet's only the colours of erpression, but the design, goddess; but by nature no one rightly unthe contrast of light and shade, the mas- derstands her mere inanimate face-howterly management, the judicious disposition, ever charming it may be or the simple and, in short, every thing that gives to a landscape painting of trees, clouds, preciGREAT SUBJECT INTEREST and anima- pices, and Aowers. Why then try Pope, or tion.'

any other poet, exclusively by his powers «s« The SUBJECT and the EXECUTION of describing inanimate phenomena ? Naare equally to be considered ; the one, res- ture, in the wide and proper sense of the pecting the poetry ; the other, the art and word, means life in all its circumstances talents of the poet. With regard to the nature moral as well as external. As the first, Pope cannot be placed among the subject of inspired fiction, nature includes HIGHEST ORDER of POETS : with regard artificial forms and manners. Richardson to the second, NONE WAS EVER HIS su- is no less a painter of nature than Homer. PERIOR.'

Homer himself is a minute describer of We think that all this is so very ra

works of art ; and Milton is full of imagery

derived from it. Satan's spear is compared tional, judicious, and true, that neither to the pine that makes the mast of some Mr Campbell nor any other person can great ammiral,' and his shield is like the have a single word to say against it. moon, but like the moon artificially seen Mr Campbell, however, has somehow through the glass of the Tuscan artist. The or other taken up an erroneous view of spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife, Mr Bowles's opinions, and in the fol- the royal banner, and all quality, pride, lowing well-written, and indeed beau- pomp, and circumstances of glorious war,'

are all artificial images. When Shakspeare tiful paragraph, he is obviously com

groups into one view the most sublime obbating a shadow.

jects of the universe, he fixes first on the “ Pope's works have been twice given to cloud-capt towers, the gorgeous palaces, the the world by editors who cannot be taxed solemn temples.' Those who have ever with the slightest editorial partiality to- witnessed the spectacle of the launching of wards his fame. The last of these is the a ship of the line, will perhaps forgive me Rev. Mr Bowles, in speaking of whom I for adding this to the examples of the subbeg leave most distinctly to disclaim the lime objects of artificial life. Of that specslightest intention of undervaluing his ac- tacle I can never forget the impression, and knowledged merit as a poet, however freely of having witnessed it reflected from the and fully I may dissent from his critical es- faces of ten thousand spectators. They timate of the genius of Pope. Mr Bowles, seem yet before me—I sympathise with in forming this estimate, lays great stress their deep and silent expectation, and with upon the argument, that Pope's images are their final burst of enthusiasm. It was not drawn from art more than from nature. a vulgar joy, but an affecting national soThat Pope was neither so insensible to the lemnity. When the vast bulwark sprang beauties of nature, nor so indistinct in de from her cradle, the calm water on which scribing them as to forfeit the character of she swung majestically round gave the ima. a genuine poet, is what I mean to urge, gination a contrast of the stormy element without exaggerating his picturesqueness. on which she was soon to ride. All the But before speaking of that quality in his days of battle and the nights of danger writings, I would beg leave to observe, in which she had to encounter, all the ends of the first place, that the faculty by which a the earth which she had to visit, and all poet luminously describes objects of art, is that she had to do and to suffer for her coun. essentially the same faculty which enables try, rose in awful presentiment before the him to be a faithful describer of simple na.

mind; and when the heart gave her a beture ; in the second place, that nature and nediction, it was like one pronounced on a art are to a greater degree relative terms in living being." poetical description than is generally recol- Mr Bowles then makes some remarks lected ; and, thirdly, that artificial objects on this passage, which we think admie and manners are of so much importance in rably expressed, and therefore quote.


“ I beg you to observe, Sir, that, in

Take away the waves, the my first proposition, I do not say that winds, the sun, that, in association with WORKS OF ART are in no instance poeti- the streamer and sails, make them look so cal; but only that " what is sublime or beautiful! take all poetical associations beautiful in works of nature is MORE SO!' away, ONE will become a strip of blue The very expression more sois a proof bunting, and the other a piece of coarse that poetry belongs, though not in the same canvass on three tall poles !! degrce, to both. I must also beg you to “ You speak also of the poetical effect remark, that, having laid down this posie of the drum and fife! Are the drum and tion, I observe, in the very next sentence, fife poetical without other associations ? In (lest it should be misunderstood as it now the quotation from Shakspeare, which you is, and was by a writer in the Edinburgh adduce, the fife is . ear piercing,' and 'the Review,) substantially as follows,—that drum is á spirit stirring ;' and both are asthe general and loftier passions of human sociated, by the consummate art of Shaknature are more poetical than artificial speare—with what ?with PRIDE, POMP, manners; the one being eternal, the other and CIRCUMSTANCE of GLORIOUS WAR!' local and transitory.

I think the mere and passions and pictures are called up; stating of these circumstances will be suf- those of fortitude, of terror, of pity, &c. ficient to shew, that both the Edinburgh &c.; arms glittering in the sun, and banReview and yourself have completely mis- ners waving in the AIR. It is these picrepresented my meaning. With respect to tures and passions from GENERAL NAthe images FROM ART, which you have TURE, and these alone, which make a adduced as a triumphant answer to what I drum or fife poetical ; and let the same laid down, I shall generally observe, that drum or fife be heard before a booth in a your own illustrations are against you. fair, or in a regiment with wooden guns, The Edinburgh Review, in the same man- and this poetical effect will be lost. ner, had spoken of the Pyramids. Now therefore turn your own instances against the Pyramids of Egypt, the Chinese Wall, you. &c. had occurred to me, at the time of Having laid down my first position, I writing, as undoubtedly POETICAL in proceeded to speak of a minor province of works of ART ; but I supposed that any the poet's art, descriptions of external na. reflecting person would see that these were

I had spoken of the higher order of poetical, not essentially as works of art, but poetry, as derived from the loftier passions from associations both with the highest of NATURE. What I said of the knowfeelings of nature, and some of her sub- ledge of EXTERNAL NATURE was not limest external works. The generations with a view of shewing that a poet should swept away round the ancient base of the be a botanist, or even a Dutch paintPyramids, the ages that are past since their er ; but that no one could be


preerection, the mysterious obscurity of their eminent,' as a great (descriptive) poet, withorigin, and many other complex ideas, en- out this knowledge, which peculiarly distinter into the imagination at the thought of guishes CowPER and Thomson. The these wonderful structures, besides the objects I had in view, when I used the exassociation with boundless deserts ; as the pressions objected to, were Pope's Pastorals Wall of China is associated with unknown and Windsor Forest ; and I thought my rocks, mountains, and rivers. Build a pyr- meaning could not have been misunderamid of new brick, of the same dimensions stood. I will appeal to your own quotaas the pyramids of Egypt, in Lincoln's Inn tion from the first of these poets. Why is Fields, and then say how much of the poet- CowPER so eminent as a descriptive poet ? ical sublimity of the immense and immortal for I am now speaking of this part of his piles in the deserts of Egypt is derived, not poetical character alone. Because he is from art, but from the association with the most accurate describer of the works of GENERAL NATURE! Place your own external nature, and for that reason is su. image of the GIANT OF THE WESTERN perior, as a descriptive poet, to Pope. STAR' upon such a pyramid, if it could be Every tree, and every peculiarity of colour made as high as the Andes, and say whe- and shape, are so described, that the reader ther it would be considered as poetical as becomes a spectator, and is doubly internow it appears, looking from its throne of ested with the truth of colouring, and the clouds o'er half the world. I had often beauty of the scene, so vividly and so deconsidered these and such instances gene- lightfully painted from nature herself ; and rally and specifically ; and think, if you you yourself have observed the same in reflect a moment, you will agree with me, your criticism on this exquisite poet, in that though they are works of art, they are WORDS AS DECISIVE AS MY OWN. rendered POETICAL chiefly by those moral “ Having thus merely stated my sentior physical associations of GENERAL NA- ments in general, as they stand in order ture with which they are connected. But and connection in the Essay on the Poetic to come to your most interesting example. Character of Pope, I shall now pursue Let us examine the ship which you have your arguments more in detail. described so beautifully. On what does the “ You say, “as the subject of inspired poetical beauty depend ? not on art, but fiction, nature includes artificial forms and



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manners.' • RICHARDSOx is no less a “ But Richardson and Homer are not painter of nature than HOMER !! I will sufficient to overwhelm me and my hypoth. not stoop to notice your vague expression esis; and it is remarked, as if the argument of inspired fiction ;' but will admit that was at once decisive, that Milton is full of RICHARDSON is not less a painter of na- imagery derived from art ; • Satan's spear,' ture than HOMER. For, indeed, Rich. for example, is compared to the • MAST OF ARDSON,

SOME GREAT ADMIRAL! Supposing it is, Irritat, mulcet, falsis terroribus implet, do you really think that such a comparison Ut magus !

makes the description of Satan's spear a But let us take Clarissa Harlow, the most whit more poetical; I think much affecting of RICHARDSON's inspired fic. But Milton was not so unpoetical as you tions ! Though Lovelace be a character in imagine, though I think his simile does not ARTIFICIAL LIFE, the interest we take greatly add to our poetical ideas of Satan's in the history of Clarissa is derived from spear! The • mast of the great admiral' FEELINGS of GENERAL NATURE. Its might have been left out; but remark, in great characteristic is PATHOS ; and this I this image Milton DOES not compare Sahave distinguished as a far more essential tan's

spear • with the mast of some great property of poetry than flowers and leaves ! admiral,' as you assert. The passage is, The passions excited are those of GENERAL • His spear, to equal which the TALLEST NATURE ; and so far, and no farther, is RICHARDSON poetical. There is nothing HEWN ON NORWEGIAN HILLS, TO BE poeticab in the feathered hat or the sword

the mast knot of Lovelace ; nor in the gallant but • Of some great admiral, were but a wand ! artificial manners of this accomplished vil. You leave out the chief, I might say the lain. In Sir Charles Grandison the cha- only, circumstance which reconciles the racter of Clementina is poetical, and for the

• mast' to us; and having detruncated Mil. same reasons ; but there is nothing very ton's image, triumphantly say, “ Milton is poetical in Sir Charles himself, or the venerable Mrs Shirley !'

full of imagery derived from art !! You

dextraque sinistraque,' and say, “ I must here observe, that when I

not only Satan's spear is compared to an speak of passions as poetical, I speak of

'admiral's mast,' but his shield to the those which are most elevated or pathetic ;

moon seen through a telescope !' for it is true, passions are described in TER

My dear Sir, consider a little. You ENCE as well as Sophocles; but I con- forget the passage; or have purposely left fine my definition to what is heroic, sub

out more than half of its essential poetical lime, pathetic, or beautiful, in human feel beauty. What reason have I to complain, ings; and this distinction is kept in view when you use Milton thus ? I beseech you through the Essay on the Poetic Character recollect Milton's image. of POPE. SHAKSPEARE displays the

• His pond'rous shield, same wonderful powers in Falstaff as in Lear, but not the same poetical powers;

Hung on his shoulders like the moon,

whose orb and the provinces of comedy and tragedy • Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views will be always separate ; the one relating to abstract emotions, the other combined with

* AtEVENING,FROM THE TOPOFFESOLE, the passing fashions, and incidental varia

Orin VALDARNO,LO DESCRYNEW LANDS, tions of the Cynthia of the minute.'


TY GLOBE.' “ To proceed ; you say, · Homer him. self is a minute describer of works of art !'

“ Who does not perceive the art of the But are his descriptions of works of art

poet in introducing, besides the telescope, as more poctical than his descriptions of the if conscious how unpoetical it was in itself, great feelings of nature ? Nay, the whole all the circumstances from NATURE, cxterof the Odyssey derives its peculiar charm nal nuture. The evening—the top of Fefrom the scenes of NATURE; as the Iliad sole—the scenes of Valdarno,--and the does from its loftier passions. But do you LANDS, MOUNTAINS, and rivers, in the really think that the catalogue of the Gre

moon's orb? It is these which make the cian ships is as poetical as the animated passage poetical, and not the • telescope !' horses of Achilles ; and do you think Ho. This is, we think, a complete and MER would have been so great a poet, if satisfactory explanation ; and we are he had been only a minute describer of sure that none of our readers will find works of art? Jejune as the catalogue of fault with our long quotation. Mr the leaders and ships is, how much more interesting and poetical is it rendered by cusation brought against him of “

Bowles, afterwards alluding to the acthe brief interspersions of varied and na

try. tural landscape, and it is this very circum. ing Pope exclusively by his power of stance that gives the dry account any inter. describing inanimate phenomena," asks est at all. Besides, was the age of HOMER Mr Campbell, an æra of refinement or artificial life? by “ Have I ever tried Pope by the excluwhom not even such a poetical work of art sive power of painting inanimate phenomena? as a bridge is mentioned !

Have I ever denied that nature, in the pro

per sense of the word, means nature moral subject of which are the loftier passions of as well as external ? Have I not, in the very general nature) descriptions of external nafirst sentences of the observations on Pope's ture ought least of all to have place. But Poetical Character, said nearly the same perhaps I ought to thank you for thus bringthing? Could this utterly escape your no- ing me back to the delightful remembrance tice, if you had (I will not say read the cric of the most interesting studies of my youth, ticism,) but only looked at the two first sen- -the tragedies of Sophocles, and particutences ?”

larly the Sperchian fountains, the Lem. Mr Campbell, after speaking of Pope's nian rock, and the solitary cave of Philocpower of description, goes on as follows. tetes.—There no minute description of “ I am well aware that neither these, nor

leaves and flowers ; no, sir, certainly not ; similar instances, will come up to Mr but you have forgotten that the affecting Bowles's idea of that talent for the pictur- story of the desolate Philoctetes displays not esque which he deems essential to poetry. only the higher passions of GENERAL NA• The true poet,' says that writer, should

TURE, but exhibits the interesting admixhave an eye attentive to, and familiar with,

ture of many of the external beauties of her every change of season, every variation of

most romantic scenery, of her most secluded light and shade of nature, every rock, every

solitudes. It is many years since I read it; tree, and every leaf in her secret places. He but recalled to its wild poetic scenery, and who has not an eye to observe these, and impassioned language, I repeated, with a who cannot, with a glance, distinguish every

sigh, hue in her variety, must be so far deficient

Νυν δ' ω κρηναι, γλυκιον σε ποντον, in one of the essential qualities of a poet."

Λειτομεν υμας, λειπομεν ηδη, Every rock, every leaf, every diversity of

Δοξης, 8τοτε τες δ' επιβαντες. hue in nature's variety ! Assuredly this

Xarig', w Anuye widov deye pochov, &c. botanizing perspicacity might be essential to

" It is the rocks, the caves, the wild and a Dutch flower painter ; but Sophocles dis- solitary scenery, the desert island, and the plays no such skill, and yet he is a genuine,

surrounding seas, all images of nature, that, a great, and affecting poet. Even in de mixed with the language of human passions scribing the desert island of Philoctetes, derived from the same general nature, give there is no minute observation of nature's this ancient and unique drama its peculiar hues in secret places. Throughout the charm ; reminding us of the romantic imaGreek tragedians there is nothing to shew gery in the Tempest and Midsummer Night's them more attentive observers of inanimate Dream, so beautifully interwoven by Shak. objects than other men. Pope's discrimi. speare with those interesting dramas. nation lay in the lights and shades of hu

“ The miserable abode of the lonely inman manners, which are, at least, as inte habitant of Lemnos is marked by one image resting as those of rocks and leaves. In drawn from art, which is so minute, and moral eloquence he is for ever densus et in.

sets so strongly before us the wants and poor stans sibi. The mind of a poet employed resources of the desolate exile, that none of in concentrating such lines as these descrip- the minute circumstances which render so tive of creative power, which

natural the narrative of Robinson Crusoe, • Builds life on death, on change duration

can be imagined more affecting. I allude founds,

to the “ αυτοχυλου Εκπωμα φαυλεργέ τινος And bids th' eternal wheels to know their There is nothing poetical in an ill-carved

TixonMaT avöpos' in the cave of Philoctetes. rounds,' might well be excused for not descending cup; but in this place it is rendered so, and to the minutely picturesque. The vindic.

most strikingly affecting, by the associated

circumstances. tive personality of his satire is a fault of the man, and not of the poet. But his wit is and that too striking to be passed over. To

“ I forgot to notice one of your instances, not all his charm. He glows with passion return, therefore, from Sophocles to Shakin the Epistle of Eloisa, and displays a lofty feeling, much above that of the satirist and speare, from general passions to description. the man of the world, in his prologue to

In the quotation from Shakspeare, where Cato, and his Epistle to Lord Oxford. I you triumphantly appeal to the towers, know not how to designate the possessor of

and solemn temples, and gorgeous palaces ;' such gifts but by the name of a genuine recollect, sir, the tower is cloud-capt ;' the

temple is associated with the solemnity of poet -qualem vix repperit unum

religious awe; and “ palaces' with the splenMillibus in multis hominum consultus images are brought into one grand and aw

dour of earthly magnificence: and all these Apollo.


ful picture, to shew the mighty devastation Tothe charge thus eloquently brought of final ruin; and are associated with that forward, Mr Bowles replies, we think, leading idea of the destruction of the globe very triumphantly.

itself, which will leave not a WRECK be. “ The minute knowledge of external na- hind! Thus the cloud-capt towers' become ture, which I laid down as one essential of highly poetical ; nor can I leave this point a great descriptive poet, you apply to trage- without speaking a word of the particular dians, in whose more elevated works (the object of the tower. Pope himself has VOL. V.

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