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CHURCH DICTIONARY.

BY

WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D.,

VICAR OF LEEDS.

SIXTH EDITION.

REVISED AND ADAPTED TO THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH

IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

BY A PRESBYTER OF SAID CHURCH.

PHILADELPHIA:

PUBLISHED BY E. H. BUTLER & CO.

18 54.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1853,

BY E. H. BUTLER & co.,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

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C. SHERMAN, PRINTER,

19 St. James Street.

PREFACE.

The American Editor of this valuable work begs leave to state that it was undertaken with strict reference to the wants of American churchmen. In pursuance of this object, he has left out many articles which relate to the peculiar ecclesiastical laws and institutions of the Church of England; many articles purely architectural in their details; several on the more abstruse and mooted points of theology; and he has modified and amended others, by the introduction of much new matter, relating to the American branch of the Holy Catholic Church, in all those points where we canonically, rubrically, and politically differ from the Church of England.

The Editor firmly believes that, while under his revision it has lost none of its real value as an English work, it has gained something in its better adaptation to the American Church, and the ecclesiastical peculiarities which pertain to the noble daughter of a more noble and venerable mother.

Dr. Hook says, “This edition,” the sixth (of which this is a reprint) “has been enlarged by an addition of more than one hundred articles, the authorities are quoted upon which the statements are made in the more important articles, and, where it has been possible, the ipsissima verba of the authors referred to, have been given.” Dr. Hook also adds :—“The circumstances of the Church of England have changed considerably from what they were when the Church Dictionary was first published. At that time the Protestantism of the Church of England was universally recognised, and the fear was lest her pretensions to Catholicity should be ignored. But now an affectation of repudiating our Protestantism is prevalent, while by ignorant or designing men Protestantism is misrepresented as the antithesis, not, as is the case, to Romanism, but to Catholicism; at the same time, Catholicism is confounded with Romanism, primitive truth with mediæval error, and the theology of the Schools with that of the Fathers : while, therefore, the articles bearing on the Catholicity, orthodoxy, and primitive character of the Church of England are retained, the articles relating to the heresies and peculiarities of the Church of Rome have been expanded; and strong as they were in former editions in condemnation of the papal system, they have been rendered more useful, under the present exigencies of the Church, by a reference to the decisions of the so-called Council of Trent, so as to enable the reader to see what the peculiar tenets of that corrupt portion of the Christian world really are.”

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CHURCH DICTIONARY.

ABBA.

ABBEY.

ABBA. A Syriac word signifying Fa- their souls, they would both mitigate their ther, and expressive of attachment and torments while they lasted, and deliver confidence. St. Paul says, Ye have received themselves from them entirely, after the the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry Abba, lapse of a certain time. Father. (Rom. viii. 15.)

The worship of saints, of images, and of ABBE. The designation assumed in relics, having been encouraged, the ignoFrance, before the Revolution, by certain rant were urged to make large donations persons, who ostensibly devoted them- 10 certain shrines, concerning miracles selves to theological studies, in the hope wrought at which, the most monstrous that the king would confer upon them a falsehoods were related. The merit of real abbey, i. e. a certain portion of the good works, and their power to justify revenues of a real abbey. Hence it became sinners being admitted, the monks easily the common title of unemployed secular persuaded awakened profligates on their priests.

deathbeds to leave large legacies to their ABBEY. (See Abbot, Monastery, Monk.) respective abbeys. The abuse became at The habitation of a society devoted to re- last a public nuisance. As the abbeys ligion. The name Abbey is derived from increased in wealth, the state became Abbas, which occurs in the lower Latin, poor; for the lands which these regulars which is derived from the Hebrew, and (see Regulars) possessed were in mortua signifies Father. The heads of abbeys manu (see Mortmain), and could not be were patres monasterii, or, if females, ma- brought into the market. This inconveni. tres monasterii, and iheir houses were ence gave rise to the statutes against gifts denominated abbeys. An abbey was a in mortmain. monastery, whether of men or women, The abbeys were totally abolished in distinguished from other religious houses England in the time of Henry VIII., who, in the middle ages, and in the existing in the twenty-eighth year of his reign, Romish Church, by larger privileges. The appointed visiters to inspect them. The abbeys in England were exempted from abuses discovered were so many and so all jurisdiction, civil and spiritual, and from disgraceful, that many of the abbeys were all'impositions, and having generally the voluntarily surrendered to the king ; by privilege of sanctuary, for all who fled to which means the abbey lands became inthem were beyond the reach of the law. vested in the crown, and were afterwards They became enormously rich through an granted to the nobility; under which grants appeal on the part of the monks to the they are held to the present day. One superstitious feelings of the age. The hundred and ninety such abbeys were disdoctrine of purgatory being insisted upon, solved. Cranmer begged earnestly of they persuaded the people that by making Henry VIII., that he would save some of endowments for the saying of masses for the abbeys to be reformed and applied to

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