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He is himself a clergyman, and in 1835 was appointed pastor of St. Olaf's Church, in Elsinore; in 1840, Knight of Dannebrog; and is now minister of Garnison's congregation, in Copenhagen. He has written the following tragedies: Svend Grathe," "King Sigurd," "Queen Juta of Denmark," and "Erik the Seventh." Under the name of “David's Harp," he published a selection of the Psalms, translated metrically from the Hebrew. His Spiritual Poems and Songs were published between 1833 and 1836, and a new collection in 1840. He is also well known as the translator of the best of Sir Walter Scott's romances and the co-editor of Baggesen's collected works.

HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN

Is sufficiently known to the English reader by his romances, "The Improvisatore," "O. T.," and "Only a Fiddler;" by his Autobiography, and his Stories and Legends for the Young, introduced to the English public by ourselves. The following slight sketch of himself and his productions may therefore suffice. He was born in 1805, in Odense, where his father was a shoemaker. He first thought to attach himself to the theatre. He did not succeed very well there, but attracted the notice of powerful individuals, and, with the liberality to youthful genius so characteristic of Denmark, he was enabled to enter the University, and there passed his examination with credit. He then received a travelling stipend, and visited Germany, France, Switzerland and Italy. To this journey we owe his " Improvisatore," unquestionably the best romance he has written. He afterwards, in 1840, again visited those countries, and extended his travels to Greece and Turkey. He has written a great variety of

poems, plays, operas, travels and stories. Those which we have mentioned are his best. His "Picture-Book without Pictures," and stories for children, will always retain their simple, legendary and fascinating charm. His "Improvisatore," from its vivid portraiture of Italian life; his "O. T.," from its equally graphic painting of the life amid the heaths of Jutland; and his "Only a Fiddler," from the touching truth with which the sorrows necessarily attendant on a spirit with more sensibility than genius are represented, will equally continue to charm. But Andersen's subsequent productions have been failures; those published in England have dropped nearly dead from the press; and the reason for this is very obvious. Andersen is a singular mixture of simplicity and worldliness. The child-like heart which animates his best compositions appears to your astonished vision in real life, in the shape of a petit-maître sighing after the notice of princes. The poet is lost to you in the egotist; and once perceiving this, you have the key to the charm of one or two romances, and the flatness of the rest; for he always paints himself—his own mind, history and feelings. This delights in a first story, less in the second, and not at all in the third; for it is but crambe repartita.

Perhaps much of Andersen's fame in this country arose from the very fact of the almost total ignorance here of the host of really great and original writers which Denmark possessed. Andersen stood forward as a wonder from a country of whose literary affluence the British public was little cognizant, while in reality he was but an average sample of a numerous and giant race.

To this illustrious list we may yet add the names of Hans Peter Holst, a poet of established reputation, and the author of much excellent lyric poetry. His "Farewell," written on the death of Frederick VII., was sung at his funeral in 1839. The same year, he published a collection of his poems; and in 1843 his Romances, as well as his "Out and Home," the result of his foreign travel, containing both prose and poetry. Besides this, he is the author of "Giachino," a play; and in the war with Holstein in 1848, he stood forth in an attitude of strong patriotism with his "Little Hornblower," in which he expressed and at the same time propelled the spirit of the time.

Neither must we here omit the names of Moritz Christian Hansen, the author of a variety of dramas, novels, tales and educational works; of Carl Christian Rafn, so celebrated in the department of the old Northern literature and antiquities; of Henrik Arnhold Wergeland, a poet and dramatist; or of A. M. Goldschmidt, the editor of "Corsaren," the Danish Charivari, of a collection of highly interesting short stories, and still more of the novel “A Jew,” just translated by ourselves into English ; a novel written with remarkable power and feeling, and possessing the peculiarity of showing us the Christian world, from the Jewish point of view; while it is, by the confession of intelligent Jews themselves, a most accurate picture of the domestic and social life of that very extraordinary people.

These are the leading names in the Literature and Romance of Denmark; but besides these, more popular departments of knowledge-those of art, science, antiquities, jurisprudence and public policy-all present names equally numerous and brilliant, and which would well deserve a detailed view did our purpose extend so far. Amongst the chief ornaments of Denmark of present or very recent

date, we name the following; and in naming them, we shall avail ourselves of our friend Miss Bremer's statements, made after a considerable residence in Copenhagen; and such facts from other sources as will make all that we wish to say complete :

Thorwaldsen is too entirely a world's acquaintance to require much more than naming. In artistic form he adhered to the antique, but in vividness of expression, in freshness, in youthful naïveté, he is the child of "the green isles,” he is the son of Dana. This great artist was one of the fortunate of the earth. He was descended from Icelandic parents, and seemed to inherit the genius of that wonderful island. His father was a carver in wood, but was too poor to give Thorwaldsen the advantages necessary for the development of his talents. These, however, soon attracted public attention, and he was gratuitously educated at the Copenhagen Academy of Arts. His progress there was so satisfactory that he obtained two gold medals, and received a travelling stipend for three years, when he set out for Rome. Without friends, however, and therefore without patronage, his period of State assistance about to expire, and his funds, of course, about to expire with it, he was on the eve of returning in despair to his native country, when our countryman, that munificent patron of art, Thomas Hope-Anastasius Hope-who so essentially encouraged the genius of Flaxman, Chantry and Dawe, saw his magnificent model of Jason in his studio, and immediately ordered it to be executed in marble at a price liberally characteristic of the man. Thorwaldsen had not the money necessary for the purchase of the requisite block of marble, but Mr. Hope at once removed this difficulty, and by that single act the reputation of Thorwaldsen was at once made. Orders, honours and fame flowed in rapidly upon him from this time.

In 1819, after an absence of twenty-three years, Thor

waldsen, in the blaze of his fame, revisited for a short time his native country; here he was received, not only with public honours, but with the universal popular enthusiasm which is the first-fruits of immortality. After being distinguished by the King and nobles with marks of the highest respect, and modelling various royal busts, and works of art of a more public kind, he proceeded to Warsaw to an interview solicited by the Emperor Alexander. He then returned to Rome, where the greatest part of his life was spent. He came back, however, and ended his days in Copenhagen. It is not known precisely when he was born, but he died March 24th, 1844, aged about seventy.

The Danish people have, in Thorwaldsen's Museum, raised to him a monument as honourable to the artist as to themselves, who thus know how to value their own great men. In the centre of the museum is Thorwaldsen's grave, which may often be seen covered with fresh-blowing

roses.

The best Danish sculptor before Thorwaldsen, was Wiedevelt, Thorwaldsen's master. The greatest now living in Denmark are Jerichau and Bissen. Of the works of these artists, some specimens were exhibited in the Danish department of the Great Exhibition of 1851, and will be recollected by our readers. By Jerichau there was the group of "Adam and Eve," in plaster; "The Hunter and Panther," in marble; etc. By Bissen, there was the fine figure of "Orestes," "Eros, or Love," "A Fisher-boy Angling," and a bust of Andersen.

Amongst the best painters of Denmark, may be named, Juul, in portrait; and Horneman, in miniature portrait. Eckersberg, historical and marine painter; Dahl, Harder and Möller, in landscape; Gebauer, an admirable animal painter; Lorenzen and Stubb, in historical portrait; Fritsch, Camradt and Martens, flower-painters.

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