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(b) Songs and ballads set to music or accompanied by tunes: Class in music.

The only uncertainty arises in classing some collections of old "Songs" i.e. poems, in which occasional tunes are introduced. The intent of the author so far as ascertainable, should determine whether such a book is music or poetry.

192 Duets, Instrumental

Dewey No. 786 Class by the solo instrument. E.g. Duets for piano and violin. Class under violin music.

"The rule for all instrumental duets is to classify them as though they were music for the instrument other than the piano or organ. Other duets are very rare, but with them the only rule would be to classify the work according to the instrument which has the higher average compass, since that instrument will naturally claim a larger share of the melodic material.”(L. R. McColvin. Music in public libraries, p. 40).

193 Chamber music

Dewey No. 787

L. R. McColvin's definition and delimitation of chamber music is a useful one for the classifier to bear in mind:

"Chamber music is that music which is written for combinations of three or more players, primarily intended not for public performance, but for rendering in a room (though that is merely a theoretical point) and in which none of the parts is intended to be performed by more than one player. This last is an important element in the definition. If it were intended that parts should (or could) be duplicated the work would belong to the genre of orchestral music."-(Music in public libraries, p. 39).

194 Drama vs. Theater

THEATER

Dewey No. 792

Distinguish drama in the sense of literature from theater in the sense of acting.

The two terms are frequently used interchangeably by writers, so that the title-page should always be interpreted by the contents of the book.

195 Theatrical travel

Tours of theatrical persons: Class under their biography. E.g. Henry Irving's impressions of America, narrated in a series of sketches, chronicles and conversations.

By Joseph Hatton (Boston, 1884). Class under biography of Henry Irving.

The reasons for this are: (1) interest centers in the person always; (2) the narrative deals with theatrical doings primarily, not with travel; (3) in case of doubt between a person and events in which he is concerned, choose the person.

The alternative rule given by the New York State Library: "Depends upon whether personal or travel element predominates," is difficult of application. The subject catalog will always supply the deficiencies of a rule consistently followed.

LANGUAGE
PHILOLOGY

196 Definition and scope of the class

Dewey No. 400

Philology as a science is closely associated with literature. Some languages are so remote from ordinary culture that the question arises whether works in these languages shall be classed as literature at all and not rather be treated as texts for the study of the language in which they are composed. The decision will depend largely on the type of library. Popular libraries ordinarily class foreign fiction in translation as if in English. Should they acquire other works in little known languages, they will prefer to treat them as linguistic texts. University and other libraries of research may consistently treat such languages as follows:

197 Foreign languages and literatures

(a) Works of the imagination, such as poetry, drama and fiction: Class by language.

(b) English translations of foreign fiction: Class with English fiction in a popular library, but with the originals in other libraries.

(c) Selections, chrestomathies, and even single works, specially arranged for the study of the language in which they are printed: Class by language.

(d) Books of non-fiction in foreign languages: Class

together by language in popular libraries, but by subject, without reference to the language, in reference, technical and university libraries. But cf. the special cases that follow.

(e) Specimens of dialects, patois and little-known literatures: Class by language, not by subject, in all libraries. E.g. Specimens of Basque, Italian dialects, American Indian, African and Oriental works (in the original) except versions of the Bible or its parts.

Catechisms in such languages are partly of religious and partly of philological interest; but only theological libraries will class catechisms printed in obscure languages under the subject. Translations of the Bible or of its parts into the less known languages are better kept together under Bible, but references should be made under the language in the subject catalog.

(f) The Bible or its parts in foreign versions: Class under Bible.

(g) Complete works of belles-lettres in the lesser known languages, e.g. Indic, Semitic and Hamitic: Class under those literatures.

As only libraries of research are likely to acquire such works, there is no reason for making exceptions.

(h) Liturgies in Oriental languages: Class in ritual.

(i) Literature of a religious sect written in an Oriental language: Class by topic. E.g. The Sanskrit Buddhist literature of Nepal. By Rájendralála Mitra (Calcutta, 1882). The subject of this analysis is Buddhism; the language is Sanskrit; the material, manuscript. Class by subject.

See also Translations into artificial languages 200b.

An alternative rule is: "Class all works by topic without regard to the language in which they are written, except in the case of the lesser known languages. Make language divisions under topics when necessary."-(Pettee).

198 Foreign words or foreign constructions in a language Dewey No. 400

Class under the language affected. E.g. Norse elements in English dialects. By G. T. Flom (London, 1911). Class under English dialects.

199 Dictionaries of two languages

Dictionaries of two languages: Class under the foreign language if foreign-English; under the ancient language if ancient-modern; under the less generally known of two modern languages. In case of doubt, class under the language that is foreign to the country in which the dictionary appears. E.g. (1) C. E. Georges: Dizionario latino-italiano; tr. con aggiunte condetta da Ferruccio Calonghi. 2. ed. (Torino, 1913). Class under Latin. (2) Dictionnaire italien-français de tous les (7852) verbes italiens. Par V. Rossi-Sacchetti (Paris, 1909). Class under Italian.

200 Translations

The general treatment of translations is discussed under 29. Some special cases are the following:

(a) Extracts in translation from unfamiliar languages, brought together to illustrate a topic: Class under the topic. E.g. The wheel of the law; Buddhism illustrated from Siamese sources. By Henry Alabaster (London, 1871). Class under Buddhism.

(b) Translations into artificial languages such as Esperanto or Volapük: Class with "readers" for students of that language, not with the originals. E.g. Robinsono Kruso [Robinson Crusoe in Esperanto]. (Phila. 1908).

LITERATURE

201 Definition and scope of the class

Dewey No. 800

The term literature is used by the classifications in the restricted sense of belles-lettres. If the distinction is drawn between the literature of the imagination and the literature of information, this subject group rigorously excludes the latter. Newman's Idea of a university, Burke's Essay on the American revolution are noble examples of literary masterpieces, but the material of these works, contributory to very definite topics of the subject classification, classes the books rather with a topic than with literature. As a general rule, a work of prose, whatever its claims to literary style, if it can be classed under a specific topic, has no place in literature. This restricts the class literature to (1) literary criticism, (2) literary history and biography, and (3) works of the imagination that fall under the various literary forms,—fiction, poetry, prose, etc.—(Pettee).

See Cutter classification, class Literature, for discussion.

202 Individual authors (in belles-lettres)

Works of individual authors in the fields of belleslettres (e.g. poetry, drama) will in nearly all systems be grouped by the language used by the author, with American literature separated from English. Under each literature, arrangement by kind (e.g. drama) or by period (e.g. Elizabethan) or by both may be prescribed by the system used.

In classing the works of individual authors the classifier will do well to observe two rules:

(1) Separate the works of a given author as little as possible.

(2) Use as few divisions by kind as possible; put together all such works of an author as do not fall into well defined kinds like drama or poetry.

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