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40 Chronological sequence for books in certain classes

Arrange by date within the classification:
(a) Incunabula

(b) Bible texts

(c) Liturgical books

(d) Editions of the same work

(e) Scientific books in a scientific library

Convenient notations for books to be kept in order of date are: Biscoe numbers; Merrill numbers for dates; or the dates written out in full.


41 Works treating a subject limited in scope to a single country or locality

(a) Class first by topic, secondly by local subdivision. E.g. (1) Animal life in Italian painting. By William Norton Howe (London, 1912). Class under painting of animals, not under Italian painting. (2) Internal revenue taxation in the United States. Class under internal revenue, whether subdivided by country or not, and not under taxation in the United States.

The tendency which some classifiers as well as some systemmakers have of making exceptions to the rule of "topic first, place second" is contrary to the principle of close classification. Country divisions are seldom subdivided by topic; hence when works on special topics are placed under country subdivisions of larger scope than the topic, these works are lost. If every special topic is given a place, however, local subdivision under it is easily made, if desirable.

(b) Works treating of local conditions exclusively: Class locally, whether the title reads so or not. E.g. A history of university reform from 1800 A.D. By A. I. Tillyard (1913). Treats only of higher education in England, although the title suggests a wider field.

(c) Works manifestly designed to treat a topic in a general way but using local data or illustrating the theme by describing local conditions: Class under the general topic.

In other words if local conditions form the theme of the book, class locally; if local conditions are merely illustrative of general principles, class with the general topic. If all books making use of local conditions to illustrate a general theme were to be treated as local in scope, there would be little literature left under the general topic. Such a question as "protection or free trade," if treated by an American, will deal largely with American conditions, if by an Englishman, it will be based on English conditions; yet the book may be a general treatment of the question.

42 History of the theory of a subject, treated locally

Class with theory, not history, of the subject, subdivided by country, if desired.

History of economic thought in England may be viewed in three ways (1) as theory, (2) as history, (3) as English economics. If classed as theory, it would come (in Dewey) in 330.1; if classed as history of economic thought, it would come in 330.9; if classed as English economics, it would come in 330.942. By classing such a work in theory of economics, subdivided, if desired, by country, it is separated from literature of quite different scope, namely, economic conditions. Similarly, history of esthetics in England should be separated from history of art in England.

The John Crerar Library rule is: "Class the history of the political theory of a special country, e.g. history of Hindu political theories, under the history of political science in that country instead of under theory of political science in general. This would apply also under other subjects, e.g. history of Hindu statistical theories, history of Hindu economic theories, history of Hindu banking theories, etc. This decision is debatable. Some libraries have found it advisable to class such material under either the theory of the subject or under the history of the subject." Classing under theory always conforms to the principle: class by subject, subdividing by country. Theory, not economic conditions, is the subject here. Another example is: International arbitration amongst the Greeks. By Marcus Niebuhr Tod (Oxford, 1913). Class under international arbitration, not under Greek history or foreign relations.

43 Great Britain vs. England

If a distinction is made between Great Britain and England in classing books treating of one or the other: Class (a) books of travel strictly according to the territory covered; but (b) books in other fields under either

England or Great Britain, as preferred, but without separation.

Separation in other subjects than travel is both impracticable and inconvenient. The term "British" is often used without definite connotation; even works that can be differentiated cover much the same field and are better classed in the same section. E.g. A dictionary of English and folk-names of British birds. By H. Kirke Swann (London, 1913). The bibliography given in this volume mentions his work upon "English" and twenty other works on "British" birds; yet most of the birds are English. History of Great Britain is largely England for the earlier period; international relations are handled in London and the three "kingdoms" act as one unit, so far as the classifier is concerned.



44 Definition and scope of the class

Dewey No. 010

“Bibliography in its broadest sense treats of all that appertains to the outward form of books, their materials, printing, publishing and care. Called by various names, this material is grouped together in all classifications. The term bibliography, however, is generally restricted to lists of books of various kinds, either covering many topics, publishers' catalogs, dealers' lists, library catalogs; or restricted in scope." (Pettee). Bibliographies covering but one field or topic of knowledge are in some systems grouped together by some scheme or arrangement; in others provision is made under each subject for its bibliography.

"Material in this class is concerned strictly with the history of books as books, their editions, dates, and form; it is not concerned with discussion upon the ideas of the author. It is difficult sometimes to draw the line between the history of a book and the history of the subject matter of the book. But theoretically the latter has no place in bibliography; it belongs in history of literature, art, science or technology."-(Pettee).

45 Bibliography vs. Catalogs

Disregard the distinction between the bibliography of a subject and catalogs of books in some collection relating to the subject. Class under bibliography of the topic. E.g. (1) Books on the great war. By F. W. T. Lange

(London, 1915

). (2) European war collection [in] Princeton university library (Princeton, 1918). Class both under bibliography of the war.

The only objection to this ruling is that a collection of books belonging to an individual has a certain association with him, and one connected with an institution forms part of the resources of that institution; but the subject catalog or even the author catalog, will bring out this aspect of the book.

46 Literary history of a topic

Dewey No. 010 Class with history, not bibliography, of the topic. E.g. (1) English historical literature in the fifteenth century. By Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (Oxford, 1913). Class in history of England, subdivision historiography. (2) Essai sur l'histoire de l'idée de progrès jusqu'à la fin du xviii. siècle. Par Jules Delvaille (Paris, 1910). A history of the idea, not of the literature, of progress; hence to be classed with history of the topic. (3) Die Geschichtsphilosophie Hegel's und der Hegelianer bis auf Marx und Hartmann. Von Paul Barth (Leipzig, 1890). Class is historiography. It is also an example of Topic vs. school, 67.

The alternative is classing such works in bibliography of the subject, which may be preferred if the work is largely a list of books.

47 Bibliography of individuals

Dewey No. 012

(a) Bibliography of persons who are not writers or not ranking as such: Class in bibliography of individuals. E.g. Bibliography of Napoleon. By F. Kircheisen (London, 1902).

(b) Bibliography of individual writers: Class in literature when their collected works and works about them are placed there. E.g. Chaucer, a bibliographical manual. By Eleanor P. Hammond (New York, 1908). But class in bibliography of the special topic illustrated by their writings when these writings themselves are classed elsewhere than in literature. E.g. Bibliography of the works of Father Louis Hennepin. By Victor H. Paltsits

(Chicago, 1903). Class in bibliography of travel in the Mississippi Valley.

New York State Library rule is, with very few exceptions, to class bibliography of writers in that special section (D. C. 012), not with the collected works of the author or under the subject illustrated by them. This is undoubtedly the easiest place to find the bibliography of an author. The decision will rest largely upon whether subject bibliography is kept together or is scattered by subject.

If a distinction is made between history of an author's writings and bibliography of his works, the books can be divided only by literary form; lists of titles in alphabetical or chronological sequence being treated as bibliography, and narrative text being treated as biography.

48 Local bibliography (Bibliography of books about a place) Dewey No. 015

Class with bibliographies of works published in that place, unless limited to one aspect of the place, e.g. travel, art, literature. In other words, mix subject bibliography with national bibliography when the scope is general in content but local in extent. E.g. (1) Bibliography of Rhode Island . . . publications relating to Rhode Island. By J. R. Bartlett (Providence, 1864). (2) Rhode Island imprints . . . 1727-1800 (Providence, 1915).

A possible reason for separation of the two classes of books, namely, that works about a place may include foreign publications, is outweighed by the consideration that works published in a place include a still larger proportion of works concerning it in one way or another.

New York State Library classes bibliographies of miscellaneous works about a place with bibliographies of the history of the place. Cutter, on the other hand, would class general bibliography of books about a place with bibliography of description of the place.

The author's experience, covering many years, in mixing bibliography of works printed in a place with bibliography of works about it, satisfies him as to the wisdom of the above rule.

49 National vs. subject bibliography

A work of bibliography covering works printed in a country as well as works treating of it but printed elsewhere: Class under national bibliography.

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