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punished, but it is a wanton attempt to scale heaven, in order to attack the gods. It seems therefore to allude to a different period from either the celestial revolt or the great flood, and that can be no other than the catastrophe at Babel ; where the grand drama was opened by man's presumptuous confederation to build a tower and city, and to defy the Divine purpose of spreading far and wide over the various countries of the earth.

I am far, however, from insisting upon the relation of the gigantic war to the defeat at Babel, with that confidence which I feel bound to express as to the connexion between the slain gods and the promised Messiah, or that between the deluges of different lands and the great “flood of waters” in the days of Noah. And this more especially, because I think we have no proper warrant for applying the final destruction and punishment of the rebels to the Babelites in any way. We have before seen that the lightnings and thunders of Jove are most probably drawn from the flaming artillery of heaven, employed, or universally supposed to have been employed, against Satan and his rebellious crew; and the final punishment in Tartarus, and “ earth's deepest recess,” is totally inapplicable to the multitude at Babel ; for we are told in scripture, that “they left off to build the city,” being “scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth," not destroyed, por imprisoned within it.

In fact, the overthrow of these impious and heaven-confounded men seems to have been a grand moral spectacle, not a physical, and far less an atmospheric one. Poets, painters, and traditionmakers have enriched the scene with thunderbolts, « tempestuous winds," and flames of fire ; but the inspired narrative in Genesis ix. mentions none of these. It says, in a style of grand and severe simplicity, which man in vain attempts to improve, with his own additions of earthquakes, whirlwinds, and crashing ruins, that “ the Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the children of men builded,” that he there “ confounded their lip,” (often rendered language,) and that “they were scattered abroad from thence over the face of the whole earth,” and “ left off to build the city.”

The exact means by which this miraculous dispersion was effected have been variously stated by an. cient and modern authors; but as the scripture is here silent, while we have no distinct tradition of the event which can supply the deficiency, I will offer no elucidation of the point, and shall here close the series of scriptural doctrines and facts which are supported by Pagan mythology. · We have examined a sufficient number of antiquity's religions to prove that the grand outline, or rather the general features of each, are the same. We may sum them up as follows. Every nation believed in an eternal, omnipotent, creative God, who made the universe by his power, and from whom the other deities were emanations in various ways; that three among these deities sustained a close relationship to each other, the first being another name for the great first cause, the second a personification of divine wisdom, almost always in a female form, and the third being the son of the first, a divine hero, and usually the destroyer of a dragon or serpent, who descended into hell, and was himself slain, though victorious ; or if the first of the trinity were

the slain deity, this third member of it was a resurrection of him; while other gods or godmen performed any parts of this character which might be omitted in the actions of this third deity, so that the whole was completed, as to the various exploits, though they might be achieved under different names : farther, that they believed in the rebellion, defeat, and subterraneous imprisonment of certain super-human intelligences, who had revolted from under the divine authority, a defeat in which all the inmates of heaven took part, but which was chiefly accomplished by the thunderbolts of the supreme god; that they believed in a former happy, virtuous, and deathless state of the world, under the government of the superior deity himself, which was terminated by the appearance or revolt of the evil principle; that this happy state was to be restored to earth by the sufferings, conflicts, and resurrection of the divine hero ; that they believed (and that all heathen nations to this day do believe) in a great flood of waters, sent from heaven to punish man's wickedness, which swept over the whole world, and drowned all its inhabitants, excepting two or more, who, divinely warned, escaped with animals and food, in a boat or vessel, or on the top of a mountain ; and finally, that there are some traces of their recording a great overthrow of impious giants, when they attempted to scale the walls of heaven, by piling mountains on each other.

I will ask any candid reader to cast an impartial glance at this system of theology, which I have proved, at length, to be tolerably complete in the Egyptian, Persian, Indian, Scandinavian, Greek, and other systems of religion; and I shall have no fear in asking him, or her, whether it is not a clear and undeniable testimony, not only to the traditionary origin of Pagan mythology, but reflectively to the truth of revelation.

If we find whole nations, in the days of the Pharaohs, Zoroaster, or Hesiod, believing, as past facts, those events and prophecies which the infidelity of our own and past days would reject as modern inventions, or fables of an interested prieftcraft, 'what shall we say to these things ?' Surely we can say no other than that the scriptural word is not only witnessed as truth by the divine authority which inspired it, but that the very heathen who rejected, or were ignorant of it, as a written revelation, have all unconsciously borne the fullest and most unquestionable testimony to its declared truths, of a self-existing omnipotent Creator—the divine trinity in unity—the fall of the angels– the garden of Eden-the promise of a divine Redeemer-and that avenging flood of God's indignation which swept from the burdened earth at once the sins and the existence of its first dwellers.

X. Q.

It is impossible that human nature can ever be above the need of Christianity. And if ever man bas for a time fancied that he could do without it, it has soon appeared to him clothed in new youth and vigour, as the only cure for the human soul; and the degenerate nations have returned with new ardour to those ancient, simple, and powerful truths, which in the hour of their infatuation they despised.—D'Aubigné.


No. IV.


A BRIGHT newly-risen, or I might say, more properly, just rising sun, would probably have drawn me towards the cottage which was now the habitation of sorrow; (the word cottage, I must acknowledge, is not exactly Irish, but that of cabin does not seem to convey the idea appropriate to the abode of Kate Conolly.) I had however, as my friends said, unfortunately acquired English ways, and I feared to be thought intrusive. I had sometimes passed that road before the sun was high: for I was an early riser, and here rejoiced in the magnificence of mountains in the wildest part of wild Ireland, alone and fearless at the hour of four in the morning, when the grey clouds, sluggishly creeping up their sides, were whitening beneath the action of the king of day, and curling into distorted and fantastic shapes, seemed loth to depart from their beds below till he was up in his brightness,

• Laughing away the clouds as if in scorn,
And smiling as if earth contained no tomb.'

But to descend from this sublimity. I had sometimes, too, in my morning rambles, in very different scenery and circumstances, passed by Widow Con

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