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consequence of the immense extent of is it applicable to the present time, the demand for agricultural produce that were we to write anew on the which its expenditure occasioned, without subject, we should certainly reproduce feeling any of the burdens which neu the same ideas, and probably, in a tralised its extension in this country. No

great degree, make use of the same poor's rates are levied on her landhold

words. It affords a remarkable proof ers—in other words, they are levied on England and Scotland instead-and this

of the manner in which Ireland has island is in consequence overwhelmed by

been influenced, in all periods of its a mass of indigence created in the neigh

history, by the same causes; and of the bouring kingdom, but which British in- way in which all its natural advandulgence has relieved them from the tages have been thrown away, by the necessity of maintaining. The amount of indolence and want of energy in its the suns annually paid by the Parlia- inhabitants, joined to the unhappy ment of Great Britain to objects of cha- extension to it, through British conrity and utility in Ireland almost exceeds

nexion, of the privileges, excitement, belief, and is at least five times greater

and passions, consequent on a free than all directed to the same objects in

constitution, for which it was unfitted both the other parts of the empire taken to

by its character, temperament, and gether. Yet with all their good deeds, past, present, and to come, Ireland is the

state of social advancement. most discontented part of the United

Need it be said how precisely the Kingdom. She is incessantly crying out same truths have been illustrated in against her benefactor, and recurring to later times, and, most of all, in the meold oppression rendered necessary by her morable year in which we now write? passions, instead of present benefactions. The melancholy tale is known to all : of which her democratic population have it is written in characters of fire in proved themselves unworthy by their in- England's annals. Such was the state gratitude.

of excitement, anarchy, and licen“ Notwithstanding all the efforts of tiousness to which the Irish were her demagogues to distract the coun

brought under the Whig rule, by the try, and counteract all the liberality and beneficence of the English Government,

combined operation of the Reform Ireland has advanced with greater rapi

mania, and the Repeal agitation, that dity in industry, wealth, and all the real

Lord Grey, albeit the most impassources of happiness, during the last sioned opponent of Mr Pitt's preventhirty years, than any other part of the tive policy, was compelled to adopt it; empire. Since the Union, she has made and the celebrated Coercion Bill of a start both in agricultural and manufac. 1833 invested Government with exturing industry, quite unparalleled, and traordinary powers, and for a time much greater than Scotland had made superseded. by martial law, in some during the first hundred years after her districts of Ireland, the ordinary adincorporation with the English dominions.

ministration of justice. The result, It is quite evident that, if the demagogues would let Ireland alone-if the

as much as the anarchy which had prewounds in her political system were not

ceded it, demonstrated where the continually kept open, and the passions

secret of Ireland's ills was to be found, of the people incessantly inflamed, by her and what was the species of governpopular leaders, she would become as ment adapted for its unsettled, impasrich and prosperous as she is populous— sioned, and semi-barbarous inhabithat, instead of a source of weakness, tants.* Instantly, as if by enchantshe would become a pillar of strength to ment, the disorders ceased: midnight the united empire-and instead of being fires no longer illuminated the heaoverspread with the most wretched and

vens, midnight murders no longer squalid population in Europe, she might eventually boast of the most contented

struck terrorinto the inhabitants. The

savage passions of the people, growing and happy.

out of the civilised license unhappily So far what we wrote in December allowed them under British rule, were 1832. We make no apology for the rapidly coerced, and, instead of Irelength of this quotation. So precisely land exhibiting an amount of agrarian

* We mean those in the south and west. The other, of Ulster, are of British descent, and undistinguished from the rest of the Anglo-Saxon race.

outrage and atrocity unprecedented in tem of governing Ireland, by yielding any Christian land, even her worst pro- to its selfish passions and fostering its vinces returned to their usual, though political vices, received its full deveyet serious and lamentable average.* lopment; Whig journals, reviews, and

The evil days of conciliation and magazines, lauded the policy to the concession, however, soon returned. skies, and predicted from its effects When Sir R. Peel assumed the helm the speedy removal of all the evils for a brief period in 1835, he which had arisen from the Tory syssaid, that his chief difficulty was tem of coercion and repression in the Ireland. It was so in truth-not Emerald Isle. from the difficulties, great as they T he results were soon apparent. were, with which the administration Assured of countenance and support of Ireland was surrounded, but from from high quarters-cordially supportthe monstrous delusions on the subed by the Popish hierarchy and priest. ject with which the Whigs, then pos- hood-intrenched, beyond the power sessed of the chief influence in the of assault, in almost all the boroughs state, had imbued the public mind. -possessed of considerable support So feeble was Government under his or connivance in the rural magistracy successors, from 1835 to 1841 - SO -backed, in many parts of the counthoroughly had they drenched the try, by the torch of the incendiary or people of Great Britain with the be the firelock of the assassin-wielding lief that severity of rule was the sole at once the delegated powers of Gocause of the miseries of Ireland, and vernment, the daggers of desperadoes, that conciliation and concession were the enthusiasm of the people, O'Contheir appropriate remedy-that powers nell proceeded with the step of a conthe most disastrous, privileges the queror in the work of agitation. The most undeserved, were bestowed on Temperance movement, headed by the Irish people. The very agitators Father Mathew, came most opporwere lauded, flattered, and promoted. tunely to aid its funds, by diverting O'Connell was offered a seat on the the vast sums hitherto spent by the Bench; the whole, or nearly the people on physical, to support the whole, patronage of the country was cause of mental agitation. Seventy surrendered into his hands. The temperance bands were soon estabgreater part of the police were nomi- lished to head the temperance clubs ; nated according to the suggestions of the uniforms of the musicians were himself or his party; the Orangemen so made, that, by being merely of the north — the bulwark of the turned, they could be converted into throne — were vilified, prosecuted, the bands of so many regiments; and discouraged ; self-government be- the Rent flourished; whisky-shops came the order of the day; municipal were ruined; the grand Intoxicareform was conceded ; an ignorant, tor demolished his inferior compepriest-led, half-savage people were in titors; Conciliation Hall boasted of trusted with one of the highest duties its three thousand pounds a-week! of civilised citizens—that of electing The distilleries were bankrupt. The their own magistrates. O'Connell, simple, misled people of England beunder the new municipal constitution, lieved that, under the combined inwas elected Lord Mayor of Dublin; fluence of political agitation, municia majority, both of the constituencypal reform, and suddenly-induced and members of Parliament, ere long sobriety, Ireland was to be effecbecame Repealers. The Whig sys- tually regenerated, and the Celt was


Serious Crimes. * Last Quarter of 1829.-Catholic Emancipation passed in March, 300 Do. of 1830.Do.

499 of 1831.- Reform Agitation,

814 Do. of 1832.—Reform and Repeal Agitation,

1513 By the Coercion Act the Serious crimes were reduced at once to a fourth of their number. See Hansard, Parl. Debates, Feb. 9, 1834.

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at once to leap into the privileges of Ireland had the extreme imprudence the Saxon, without going through his to write a letter, which found its way seven centuries of painful apprentice- into the public prints, and was soon ment. Monster meetings became placarded over Ireland, in which it general Assemblages said to consist was stated generally, and without of eighty or a hundred thousand, qualification, that every Irishman was and which really contained twenty or entitled to possess and carry arms. thirty thousand persons, were held in Nay, this was made the cheval de ba. the whole south and west of Ireland. taille between the two parties; and Meanwhile industry was paralysed; when Sir R. Peel was turned out in capital shunned the agitated shores; July 1846, it was on the question of labour was diverted from the field to the bill for prohibiting the possession the platform; the earnings of the of arms in Ireland. The Whigs came poor were wrenched from them, by into power on the basis of the Irish priestly influence and the terrors of peasantry being entitled to be armed. purgatory, to aid in the great work of It covers, like charity, a multitude dismembering the empire. Instead of of sins in Sir R. Peel, that he left attending to their business-instead office on the same question. of working at their lazy-beds or tend- But the laws of nature are more ing their cattle-instead of draining durable in their operation than the their bogs or reclaiming their wastes, revolutions of statesmen. The effects the people were continually kept run- of twenty years' agitation and disning about from one monster meeting order in Ireland ere long became apto another, and taught to believe that parent. The reign of murder, incenthey were to look for happiness, not diarism, and terror, brought down an through the labour of their hands, or awful retribution on its authors. Agrithe sweat of their brows, but in swell- culture, neglected for the more ing seditious processions, listening to agreeable and gainful trade of agitreasonable harangues, and extending tation or assassination, had fallen the ramifications of a vast and atro- into such neglect, that the land, in cious Ribbon conspiracy throughout many parts of the country, had beIreland.

come incapable of bearing grain crops. Society could not long exist under Nothing would do but lazy-beds, in such a system ; but it was long ere which often & wretched crop was the Liberal party saw the error of raised in the centre of the ridge, on a their ways—when Sir Robert Peel's third of the land, while the remaingovernment, in 1843, at length be- ing two-thirds were under water. came convinced that the evil had come The potato famine came, in 1846, upon to such a height that it could no longer a country thus prepared for such a be endured, and that society would be visitation-wasted by agitation, disdissolved under its influence. The graced by murder, impoverished by meeting, accordingly, at Clontarff was the protracted reign of terror. Its proclaimed down; O'Connell was pro- effects are well known. Ireland, secuted, and a conviction obtained. wholly incapable, from its infatuated But the Whigs were not long of system of self-government, of doing coming up to the rescue. A majority any thing for itself, fell entirely as a of three Whig law peers to two Con- burden on England. Great part of servative ones-Lords Lyndhurst and Scotland was wasted by a similar Brougham being in the minority-over- calamity, and in regions—the West ruled the opinion of the twelve judges Highlands and Islands-far more of England, and quashed the prose- sterile and barren than the south and cution. Elated with this victory, agi- west of Ireland. But Scotland had tation resumed its sway in Ireland; not been torn by political passions, but it did so under darker auspices, nor palsied by repeal agitation. Scotand with more dangerous ends. Or- land righted itself. It bore the visitaganisation, with a view to insurrec- tion with patience and resignation. tion, was now avowedly set on foot; It neither sought nor received aid arms were purchased in large quan- from England. Not a shilling was tities; and the Whig Secretary of advanced by the Exchequer to relieve Scotch suffering. Ten millions were from Parliament; for, since they were given by the nation to relieve that of admitted into it, the distractions of Ireland: of this immense sum eight Ireland have gone on constantly inmillions were borrowed, and remain a creasing, and its pauperism and mendilasting charge on Great Britain. cancy have advanced in an accelerated Hundreds of thousands, raised from ratio. It is entirely owing to this, the suffering and won by the labour that England has given Ireland instiof England and Scotland, followed in tutions and political franchises, for the the same direction. In return, the exercise of which it is wholly disqualiIrish gave us contumely, defiance, and fied by temperament, habit, aud poliingratitude. The Nation thundered tical advancement. We have put forth weekly its fiendish vituperation edged tools into the hands of chilagainst the people who had saved its dren, and we are astonished that they countrymen. It was eagerly read by have mangled their limbs. We have hundreds of thousands who owed emancipated from necessary control their existence to British generosity. the Bedouin or the savage, and we The beggar gave place to the bully. are disappointed he does not exercise Great part of the funds, lavished with his newly-acquired powers with the misplaced humanity on Irish suffer- discretion of an Englishman or an ing, was employed in the purchase of American. We have plunged a youth arms to destroy their benefactors; of sixteen, without control, into the and the unparalleled munificence of dissipation of London or Paris, and England to Ireland in 1847, was suc- we are surprised he has run riot in ceeded by the unparalleled rebellion excess. Thence it is that all the conof Ireland against England in 1848. cessions made to Ireland have instant

He must be blind indeed who can- ly and rapidly augmented its political not read in this rapid summary the maladies, and that the only intervals real causes of the long-continued mi- of rest, tranquillity, and happiness it sery and distraction of Ireland. It has has enjoyed for the last two hundred arisen in a great degree from English years, have been those in which it has connexion, but in a way which the for a brief period been coerced by the Irish do not perceive, and which they wholesome severity of vigorous gowill be the last to admit. It is all vernment. Thence it is that Whig owing to a very simple cause--so solicitude, fastening on the grievsimple that philosophers have passed ances of Ireland as its battle-field, it over as too obvious to explain the and winning for the inhabitants priviphenomena, and party-men have re- leges for which they are not fitted, jected it because it afforded no handle has in every instance so grievousfor popular declamation, and gave them ly augmented its wretchedness and no fulcrum whereon to rest the lever crimes. This is the true key to Irish which was to remove an opposite history. Viewed in this light, it is party from power. It is not owing perfectly clear, intelligible, and conto the Roman Catholic religion, -for, sistent with what has occurred in if so, how have so many Roman Ca- other parts of the world. Without tholic countries been, and still are, such guidance, its annals exbibit & great, and powerful, and happy? It chaos of contradictions ; and Ireland is not owing to the confiscation must be considered as a casus singuof the land, for confiscation as laris--an exception from the princigreat followed the establishment of ples which elsewhere have ever reguthe Normans in England, and the lated mankind. victories of Robert Bruce in Scotland; The whole machinery of a free conand yet, in process of time, the ghastly stitution -- those institutions under wound was healed in both these which the Anglo-Saxons have so long countries, and from the united effort flourished on both sides the Atlanticof the Britons, Saxons, and North- are utter destruction to the semi-barmen, have arisen the glories and barous Celtic race to wbich they have wonders of British civilisation. It been extended. Grand juries and is not owing to the exclusion, from petty juries, self-governments, muni1608 to 1829, of the Roman Catholics cipalities, county and burgh elections, popular representatives, public meet- selfishness, agitation, and the cry for ings, hustings' declarations, platform repeal, have plunged it. But we would exaggerations, a licentious press, and intrust little of this grant to the disall the other attendants on republi- tribution of the Irish themselves. We can or semi-republican institutions, would not again be guilty of the enorare utterly destructive to the impas- mous error of committing a magnifisioned, priest-ridden, ignorant Celtic cent public grant to hands so unfit to tribes in the south and west of Ireland. direct it, that we know from the A paternal despotism is what they highest authority—that of the Lordrequire.

lieutenant himself — that great part We are far from wishing that of the fund was misapplied in private despotism to be severe—on the con- jobbing, and the remainder wasted in trary, we would have it beneficent making good roads bad ones. We and humane in the highest degree- would execute the works by Irish we would have it give to Ireland hands, but distribute the funds, and blessings tenfold greater than it will guide the undertakings, by English ever earn for itself in senseless at- heads. We would deprive the Irish, tempts at self-government. We would till they have shown they are fit to commence the work by the grant of wield its powers, of the whole rights sixteen millions of British money, to of self-government. We would comset on foot the chief arteries and rail- mence with a rigorous and unflinching roads of the country!—that grant administration of justice, executed by which, proposed by the patriotic wis- courts- martial in cases of insurrection, dom of Lord George Bentinck, was and by judges without juries in ordidefeated by the insane resistance of nary cases. A powerful police, double the Irish members themselves.* We its present strength, should give sewould in every imaginable shape curity to witnesses, who, if they desire stimulate the industry of Ireland, and it, should be provided with an asylum aid the efforts of its really patriotie in the colonies at the public expense. children, to extricate their country “Every thing for the people, and from the bottomless gulf into which nothing by them," which Napoleon

*“It was not so much through the hostility of the English members, as through the desertion and hostility of the Irish members, (many of them Repealers,) that in February 1847, Ireland lost the opportunity of obtaining a loan of sixteen millions of English gold at £3, 7s. 6d. per cent, to stimulate the construction, by private enterprise, of railways in your country

“ Unanimous in Palace Yard, on one Tuesday in favour of the proposition I then brought forward, on the Thursday se’ennight the same sixty gentlemen, having seen the prime minister at the Foreign Office in the interval, voted two to one in the House of Commons against giving railways to Ireland.

“Out of a hundred and five representatives which Ireland possesses, twenty-eight only, if my memory serves me correctly, would vote for that loan to Ireland. Twothirds of the Irish representatives present declined the measure-the rest took care to be non est intentus at the division, which was the hour of Ireland's need

* Read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest the division list, and you will find many more true friends of Ireland, on that occasion, among the supporters of the Union than among the Repealers.

“ Is it surprising that, where Irish representatives voted two to one against the acceptance of that measure, and when but twenty-eight, out of Ireland's hundred and five, could alone be found to say 'ay,' that a majority of Englishmen could not be found willing to make a sacrifice of English interests, to force upon Ireland a boon which the majority of Irish members rejected ?

“It is not Repeal of the Union that Ireland wants ; she wants men to represent her, who, understanding her material and substantial interests, are able and willing to promote and maintain them; and will not, on the other hand, to gain the shouts of the mob, divert public and parliamentary attention to phantom reforms, that have no substantial virtue in them-or, on the other hand, sell their votes to win the smiles, or may be something more valuable in the gift of the minister of the day.-I am, Sir your humble servant,


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