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moro ordinary and less precarious miseries of the middle passage; though modes of earning a subsistence. An in truth this transition is accomplished cnormous population is brought toge- with pain and difficulty, and after ther, educated, so far as their indus- much struggle, and is rather done in trial habits are concerned, in no inde- the second generation than the first, pendent labour, but taught merely to it being rather the children of the perform a part in the great machinery shoemaker that are added to the poof a cotton-mill, themselves a part of pulation of the factory than the shoethat machinery, and trusting, they maker himself. and their families, for their necessary We see here that the mere calculabread, to the successful sale of the tion of profit and loss, such as it might great stock of goods, the annual figure in a debtor and creditor account, amount of which they are annually would justify the extreme advocate of increasing. Although the home mar- free-trade. But there are, surely, ket may absorb the greatest portion other considerations which may proof these goods, yet the foreign market perly rank a little higher than such a takes so considerable a share, that tradesman's balance of profit and loss; any derangement of the external com- we are surely allowed to follow our merce throws a large number of this inquiries a little further, and ask who densely-congregated multitude out of is enriched, and how? and what employment. Is there nothing pecu- branch of industry is promoted, and liarly hazardous in this condition of what destroyed or curtailed ? It is things ? Granted that nothing can, not our object here to contend against or ought to be done to restrain the what is called the factory systementerprising capitalist from speculat. We accept it with its evil and its good; ing too freely with the lives of men, we are not calling for measures directly is it a state of things to be aggra- hostile to it; but we certainly should vated ? Now, at this juncture comes exclaim against the sacrifice of a the apostle of free-trade, and demands branch of household, stable, perma(for illustration's sake) that French nent industry, to be compensated by boots and shoes be admitted duty-free. an increase in this already enormous He employs the well-known, and, to system of factory labour, which, togeits own legitimate extent, unanswer ther with much good, brings with it able argument of the political econo- so dreadfully precarious a condition of mist. He tells us that, by so doing, thousands and tens of thousands of we shall purchase better and cheaper men. The political economist has boots and shoes, and sell more of our proved that free-trade is the condition cotton; that, in short, by manufac- under which the industry of man, so turing more cotton goods, in which far as the amount of its products is we marvellously excel, we shall pro- concerned, can be exercised with the -cure better boots and shoes than greatest advantage: be bas established by the old process of making them this principle; it is an important one, ourselves. We are evidently the and we thank him for its lucid expogainers. Let us see the gain. The sition; but he shall be no legislator of gentleman pays something less for his ours until he has learned to submit shoes, and is somewhat more luxu- his principle to wise exceptions, until riously shod. The owner of the he has learned to estimate the first cotton-mill, too, finds that trade is necessity of steady and well-remulooking up. To balance this, we have perated employment to the labourer, so many shoemakers driven from their until he is prepared, in short, to give employment- the very steady one of their due weight to other consideramaking shoes for their own country- tions besides that of multiplying the men-and added to the number of gross products of human industry. men working at cotton-mills for the We have been viewing the question foreign market,-a mode of industry of free-trade from the position of an which we know, by painful experience, opulent manufacturing people from to be precarious in the extreme. We the position of England, in shortdescribe the superfluous shoemaker as and we see that there may be ground going over directly to the artisans of even here for exception. But the the factory: we say nothing of the case is much stronger, and the claim

for exception still plainer, which with what, to the whole of the people, might be made out by a less opulent is a superfluous quantity of food. mation, desirous of fostering its own Those who own large portions of the rising manufactures. These wisely land have a superfluity of produce, refuse a reciprocity of free-trade mea- which they exchange for other articles sures. Even on the mere ground of either at home or abroad; but prothe increase of national wealth, and bably no people ever grew a greater without considering the advantage quantity of corn, or other grain for derived from a variety of employ- food, than it could very willingly have ments, and a due admixture of a man consumed itself, could we conceive it nufacturing population, they are fully distributed amongst all who had justified in their protective policy. mouths to consume, and half-filled The economist will tell them that they stomachs to stow it away in. Judge, deprive themselves of the opportunity therefore, whether our little island of purchasing cheaper and better would not, in a few years, be much goods than they can produce. We better off for refusing the visit of the admit that, for a season, they must great ships, and setting to work to forego an advantage of this descrip- weave its own cotton into garments. tion; but at the end of a few years The political economists always talk how will the account stand? If the of so much labour diverted from one protective duty has fostered a home employment to another; they seem manufactory that would not other to have forgotten that there is such a wise have existed, and this is an as- thing as so much idleness converted sumption which the political econo- into so much labour. mist himself is compelled to admit,) . In the work of John Stuart Mill, to then is there in that country a new which we have now to call the attenindustry-then amongst that people is tion of our readers, the science of pothere more labour and less idleness, litical economy has received its latest and therefore more of the fruits of and most complete exposition. Nor, labour. It has created for itself what as the title itself will inform us, is the it otherwise would have had to pur- work limited to a formal enunciation chase with its corn and oil.

of abstract principles, (as was the The political economists love an case with the brief compendium of Mr extreme case. In order to test the Mill, senior,) but it proceeds to apply universality of the principle of free. those principles to the discussion of trade, we give them the following:— some of the most vital and momentous There is a little island somewhere in questions with which public opinion is the Pacific, and it grows corn, and at present occupied. There are things grapes, and the cotton plant. Two or in these volumes, as may easily be three great ships come annually to this conceived, in which we do not concur island, bringing a store of Manchester - views are supported, on some suhgoods, and taking away a portion of jects, to which we have been long and the corn and the wine. But the wise notoriously opposed; but there is, in men of the island meet and say, Let the exposition of its tenets, so accurate us learn to make our own cotton into a statement, so severe and lucid a stuff for raiment; so shall we have reasoning, and, withal, so genuine and clothes without parting with our corn manly an interest in the great cause and wine. Would the people of the of humanity, that we cannot hesitate island be very foolish if they consented a moment in awarding to it a high to wear, for a time, a much coarser rank amongst the sterling literature raiment, in order that they might of our country. This magazine has practise this new industry, and thus never been slow-it has been second provide themselves with raiment, and to none-in its hearty recognition of keep their provender? We suppose great talent and ability, from whatever that the same unequal distribution of quarter of the political horizon these property is found in our island as in have made their appearance. We the rest of the world that there are were amongst the first to give notice rich and poor. Now, when a people to all whom it concerned of the adexchanges its articles of food for arti- dition to the students' shelf of the cles of clothing, it rarely, if ever, parts profound and elaborate work, The System of Logic, by the same author. "I cannot," he says, “regard the staThe present is a work of more general tionary state of capital and wealth with interest, yet it has the same severe the unaffected aversion so generally macharacter. In this, as in his logic, nifested towards it by political economists the author has sacrificed nothing

of the old school. I am inclined to bedeemed by him essential to his task,

lieve that it would be, on the whole, a to the desire of being popular, or the

very considerable improvement on our

present condition. I confess I am not fear of being pronounced dry the

charmed with the ideal of life held out word of most complete condemnation by those who think that the normal state in the present day. Dry, however, of human beings is that of struggling to no person who takes an interest in the get on; that the trampling, crushing, actual condition and prospects of elbowing, and treading on each other's society, can possibly find the greater heels, which form the existing type of portion of this work. For, as we social life, are the most desirable lot of have already intimated, that which humankind, or any thing but one of the honourably distinguishes it from other

disagreeable symptoms of one of the professed treatises of political economy

phases of industrial progress. The noris the perpetual, earnest, never-for

thern and middle states of America are a

specimen of this stage of civilisation in gotten interest, which accompanies the

est, which accompanies the very favourable circumstances ; having writer throughout, in the great ques apparently got rid of all social injustices tions at present mooted with respect and inequalities that affect persons of to the social condition of man. Mr Caucasian race and of the male sex, while Mill very wisely refused to limit him the proportion of population to capital self to the mere abstract principles of and land is such as to insure abundance his science; he descends from them, to every able-bodied member of the comsometimes as from a vantage ground, munity who does not forfeit it by misinto the discussions which most con conduct. They have the six points of cern and agitate the public mind at

Chartism, and no poverty; and all that the present day ; and, if his conclu

these advantages do for them is, that the

life of the whole of one sex is devoted to sions are not always, or even generally,

dollar-hunting, and of the other to breedsuch as we can wholly coincide with,

ing dollar-hunters. This is not a kind of there is so penetrating an intelligence social perfection which philanthropists to in his remarks, and so grave and seri- come will feel any very eager desire to ous a philanthropy pervading his book, assist in realising... that it would be impossible for the most « That the energies of mankind should complete opponent of the work not to be kept in employment by the struggle rise a gainer from its perusal. From for riches, as they were formerly by the what else can we gain, if not from in struggle of war, until the better minds tercourse with a keen, and full, and succeed in educating the others into sincere mind, whether we have to

better things, is undoubtedly more desirstruggle with it, or to acquiesce in its

able than that they should rust and stag

nate. While minds are coarse, they reguidance ? There are passages in this

quire coarse stimuli, and let them have work, didactic as its style generally

them. In the mean time, those who do is, which have had on us all the

not accept the present very early stage effect of the most thrilling eloquence, of human improvement as its ultimate from the fine admixture of severe type, may be excused for being comparareasoning and earnestness of feeling. tively indifferent to the kind of econo

For instance-to give at once an mical progress which usually excites the idea of the more elevated tone this congratulations of politicians—the mere utilitarian science has assumed in the increase of production and accumulation. work of Mr Mill—it is no little novelty For the safety of national independence, to hear a political economist speak in it is essential that a country should not

fall much behind its neighbours in these the following manner of the mere ele

things. But in themselves they are of ments of national wealth. The author

little importance, so long as either the has been discoursing on that station

increase of population, or any thing else, ary state to which all opulent nations

prevents the mass of the people from are supposed to tend, wherein, by the

reaping any part of the benefit of them. diminution of profits, there is little I know not why it should be matter of ms and no temptation to further congratulation, that persons who are Wulation of capital :

already richer than any one needs to be,

should have doubled their means of con- induce a high standard of comfortable suming things which give little or no subsistence. It is a delusion to suppleasure, except as representative of pose that the low standard of comfort wealth ; or that numbers of individuals and enjoyment prevailing amongst the should pass over every year from the

multitude is the result of excessive middle classes into a richer class, or from

population. If Neapolitan lazzaroni the class of the occupied rich to that of the unoccupied. It is only in the back

are contented with macaroni and sunward countries of the world that increased

shine, it matters not whether their production is still an important object;

numbers are five hundred or five in those most advanced, what is econo thousand, they will labour for nothing mically needed is a better distribution, of beyond their macaroni. We would which an indispensable means is a stricter challenge the political economist to restraint on population. Levelling in prove that in England, at this present stitutions, either of a just or an unjust time, or in any country of Europe, kind, cannot alone accomplish it ; they

the prevailing standard of comfort may lower the heights of society, but

amongst the working classes has been they cannot raise the depths."-(Vol. ii.

permanently determined by the amount p. 308.)

of population. This standard is slowly It will be already seen, from even rising, from better education, mechathis brief extract, that the too rapid nical inventions, and other causes, increase of population presents itself and it will ultimately control the into Mr Mill as the chief, or one of the crease of population. That wages chief obstacles to human improve- occasionally suffer a lamentable dement. Without attempting to repeat pression, owing to the numbers of all that we have at different times any one class of workmen, is a fact urged upon this head, we may at once which does not touch the point at say here that, in the first place, we issue. We say that, whether a popunever denied, or dreamt of denying, lation be dense or rare, you must first that it was one of the first and most excite, by education and the example imperative duties of every human of a higher class, a certain taste for being, to be assured that he could comfort, for a cleanly and orderly provide for a family before he called mode of life, amongst the mass of one into existence. This has been at labouring men; that until this taste all times a plain, unquestionable duty, is called forth, it would be in vain to though it has not at all times been offer high wages, for men would only clearly understood as such. But, in work one half the week, and spend the the second place, we have combated other half in idleness and coarse inthe Malthusian alarm, precisely be- temperance; and that, this taste once cause we believe that the moral checks called forth, there will be no fear of to population will be found a sufficient the class of men who possess it being balance to the physical law of increase. permanently degraded by over-popuWe have repudiated the idea that lation, unless the excess of population there is, in the shape of the law of po- were derived from some neighbouring pulation, a constant enemy to human country, unhappily far behind it in the improvement, convinced that this law race of civilisation. will be found to be in perfect harmony We now continue our quotation. with all other laws that regulate the “There is room in the world, no doubt, destiny of man. A certain pressure and even in old countries, for an immense of population on the means of sub increase of population, supposing the arts sistence has been always recognised of life to go on improving and capital to as an element necessary to the pro

increase. But, although it may be innogress of society-especially at that

cuous, I confess I see very little reason early stage when bare subsistence is

for desiring it. The density of populathe sole motive for industry. When

tion necessary to enable mankind to ob

tain, in the greatest degree, all the not only to live, but to live well, be

advantages both of co-operation and of comes the ruling motive of men, then social intercourse, has, in all the more come into play the various moral populous countries, been attained. A checks arising from prudence, vanity, population may be too crowded, though and duty. But the mere thinness of all be amply supplied with food and population will not, in the first place, raiment. It is not good for man to be

kept perforce at all times in the presence shall be under the deliberate guidance of of his species. A world from which soli. a judicious foresight, can the conquests tude is extirpated is a very poor ideal. made from the powers of nature, by the Solitude, in the sense of being often alone, intellect and energy of scientific discois essential to any depth of meditation or verers, become the common property of of character ; and solitude, in the presence the species, and the means of improving of natural beauty and grandeur, is the and elevating the universal lot."-(Vol. ii. cradle of thoughts and aspirations which p. 311.) are not only good for the individual, but which society could ill do without. Nor

These are not the times when truth is there much satisfaction in contem- is to be withheld because it it is displating the world, with nothing left to agreeable. There is a morality conthe spontaneous activity of nature-with nected with wealth, its uses and abuses, every rood of land brought into cultiva- not enough taught, certainly not tion which is capable of growing food for enough understood. The rich man, human beings-every flowery waste or who will not learn that there is a duty natural pasture ploughed up---all quad

inseparable from his riches, is no better rupeds or birds, which are not domesti

fitted for the times that are coming cated for man's use, exterminated as his

down upon us, than the poor man who rivals for food-every hedgerow or su

has not learned that patience is a duty perfluous tree rooted out, and scarcely a place left where a shrub or flower could peculiarly imposed upon him, and that crow, without being eradicated as a weed the ruin of others, and the general in the name of improved a griculture. If panic which his violence may create. the earth must lose that great portion of will inevitably add to the hardships its pleasantness which it owes to things and privations he already has to enthat the unlimited increase of wealth and dure. If society demands of the poor population would extirpate from it, for man that he endure these evils of his the mere purpose of enabling it to support lot, rather than desperately bring a larger, but not a better or a happier

down ruin upon all, himself included; population, I sincerely hope, for the sake of posterity, that they will be content to

surely society must also demand of be stationary long before necessity com

the rich man that he make the best pels them to it.

use possible of his wealth, so that his “It is scarcely necessary to remark,

weaker brother be not driven to madthat a stationary condition of capital and

ness and despair. It demands of him population implies no stationary state

that he exert himself manfully for that of human improvement. There would safety of the whole in which he has so be as much scope as ever for all much more evident an interest. For, kinds of mental culture, and moral and be it known-prescribe whatever resocial progress ; as much room for medies you will, political, moral, or improving the Art of Living, and religious—that it is by securing & much more likelihood of its being im- certain indispensable amount of wellproved, when minds ceased to be en- being to the multitude of mankind that grossed by the art of getting on. Even

the only security can be found for the the industrial arts might be as earnestly

social fabric, for life, and property, and as successfully cultivated, with this sole difference-that, instead of serving

and civilisation. If men are allowed no purpose but the increase of wealth,

to sink into a wretchedness that saindustrial improvements would produce vours of despair, it is in vain that you their legitimate effect, that of abridging show them the ruins of the nation, and labour. Hitherto it is questionable if all themselves involved in those ruins. the mechanical inventions yet made have What interest have they any longer in lightened the daily toil of any human the preservation of your boasted state being. They have enabled a greater po- of civilisation? What to them how soon pulation to live the same life of drudgery it be all a ruin? You have lost all and imprisonment, and an increased num

hold of them as reasonable beings. ber of manufacturers and others to make

As well preach to the winds as to men large fortunes. They have increased the comforts of the middle classes ; but they

thoroughly and bitterly discontented. have not yet begun to effect those great

Those, therefore, to whom wealth, or changes in human destiny which it is in

station, orintelligence, has given power their nature and in their futurity to ac- of any

of any kind, must do their utmost to complish. Only when, in addition to just prevent large masses of mankind from institutions, the increase of mankind sinking into this condition. If they

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