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it convulsively, and said, with a deep happy lover. My dear Katherine, I breath, “ It was too late ; Trevanion do not envy him now; look up, sweet was Lady Ellinor's accepted, plighted, wife, look up !"
* Ellinor (let me do her justice) was my father. “Great was the folly, shocked at my silent emotion. No and great the error of indulging human lip could utter more tender imagination that had no basis of sympathy, more noble self-reproach ; linking the whole . usefulness of my but that was no balm to my wound. life to the will of a human creature So I left the house-s0 I never re- like myself. Heaven did not design turned to the law-so all impetus, all the passion of love to be this tyrant ; motive for exertion, seemed taken nor is it so with the mass and multifrom my being so I went back into tude of human life. We dreamers, books. And so, a moping, despondent, solitary students like me, or half worthless mourner might I have been poets like poor Roland, make our own to the end of my days, but that heaven, disease. How many years, even after in its mercy, sent thy mother, Pisis- I had regained serenity, as your motratus, across my path; and day and ther gave me a home long not apprenight I bless God and her, for I have ciated, have I wasted. The mainbeen, and am-oh, indeed, I am, a spring of my existence was snapped happy man!"
-I took no note of time. And My mother threw herself on my therefore now, you see, late in life father's breast, sobbing violently, and the Nemesis wakes. I look back then turned from the room without a with regret at powers neglected, opword,-my father's eye, swimming in portunities gone. Galvanically I tears, followed her ; and then, after brace up energies half palsied by pacing the room for some moments disuse, and you see me, rather than in silence, he came up to me, and rest quiet and good for nothing, leaning his arm on my shoulder, whis- talked into what, I dare say, are sad pered, “ Can you guess why I have follies, by an Uncle Jack! And now I now told you all this, my son ?” behold Ellinor again ; and I say, in
“ Yes, partly : thank you, father," wonder, All this-all this-all this I faltered, and sate down, for I felt agony, all this torpor for that hagfaint.
gard face, that worldly spirit! So is " Some sons," said my father, seat- it ever in life. Mortal things fade; ing himself beside me, "would find immortal things spring more freshly in their father's follies and errors an with every step to the tomb. excuse for their own: not so will you, “Ah!" continued my father, with a Pisistratus."
sigh, “it would not have been so, if “I see no folly, no error, sir-only at your age I had found out the nature and sorrow."
secret of the saffron bag !". “Pause, ere you thus think," said
"And Roland, sir,” said I; “how years. We came into sudden possesdid he take it?'
sion of our little fortunes. His he “ With all the indignation of a devoted (as you may know) to the purproud unreasonable man. More in- chase of the old ruins, and the commisdignant, poor fellow, for me than sion in the army, which had always himself. And so did he wound and been his dream and so went his way, gall me by what he said of Ellinor, wrathful. My share gave me an ex-and so did he rage against me be- cuse for indolence,-it satisfied all my cause I would not share his rage, wants; and when my old tutor died, -that again we quarrelled. We and his young child became my ward, parted, and did not meet for many and, somehow or other, from my ward my wife, it allowed me to resign my that one scholar in a family is enough. fellowship, and live amongst my books Confiding in your sound heart and
still as a book myself. One comfort, strong honour, I turn you thus belong before my marriage, I had con- times on the world. Have I done ceived ; and that, too, Roland has wrong? Prove that I have not, my since said was comfort to him. child. Do you know what a very Ellinor became an heiress - her poor good man has said-Listen and folloir brother died; and all of the estate my precept, not example. that did not pass in the male line de- " The state of the world is such, and volved on her. That fortune made a so much depends on action, that every gulf between us almost as wide as her thing seems to say aloud to every man, marriage. For Ellinor, poor and Do something-do it-doit !!! i portionless, in spite of her rank, I could was profoundly touched, and I rose have worked, striven, slaved. But refreshed and hopeful, when suddenly Ellinor Rich! it would have crushed the door opened, and who or what in me. This was a comfort. But still, the world should come in ; but cerstill the past-that perpetual aching tainly he, she, it, or they, shall not sense of something that had seemed come into this chapter!-On that point the essential of life withdrawn from I am resolved. No, my dear young life, evermore, evermore. What was lady, I am extremely flattered ;-I feel left was not sorrow, it was a void. for your curiosity ; but really not a Had I lived more with men, and less peep-not one! And yet-well then, with dreams and books, I should have if you will have it, and look so coax: made my nature large enough to bear ingly–who, or what I say, should the loss of a single passion. But in come in abrupt, unexpected-taking solitude we shrink up. No plant so away one's breath, not giving one much as man needs the sun and the time to say, “By your leave, or with air. I comprehend now why most of your leave," but making one's mouth our best and wisest men have lived in stand open with surprise, and one's eyes capitals; and therefore again I say, fix in a big round stupid stare, but
THE END OF THE CHAPTER.
* Remains of the Ret. Richard Cecil, p. 349.
POLITICAL ECONOMY, BY J. 8. MILL.
In the old feud between the man of of experience and common sense more experience and the man of theory, it fully justified in holding back and sometimes happens that the former looking long before he yielded assent obtains a triumph by the mere acti- to his new teachers. Stranger paravity of the latter. Cases have been doxes were never broached than some known where the theorist, in the cla- that have lived their day in this rifying and perfecting his own theory, science; and paradoxes as they were, has argued himself round to those they claimed immediately their share very truths which bis empirical anta- of influence in our legislative meagonist had held to with a firm though sures. A learned professor, a lumiless reasoning faith. He stood to his nary of the science, demonstrated that post; the stream of knowledge seemed absenteeism could have nothing whatto be flowing past him, and those who ever to do with the poverty of Ireland. floated on it laughed at his stationary So the Greek sophist demonstrated figure as they left him behind. Nes that Achilles could never catch the vertheless he stood still; and by-and- tortoise. But the Greek was the by this meandering stream, with the more reasonable of the two: he rebusy crew that navigated it, after quired of no one to stake his fortune many a turn and many a curve, have on the issue of the race. The profesreturned to the very spot where he sor of political economy not only had made his obstinate halt..
teaches his sophism-he would have This has been illustrated, and we us back his tortoise. venture to say will be illustrated still Although it has been our irksome further, in the progress of the science task to oppose the application to of political economy. The man of practice of half-formed theories, ill experience has been taunted for his made up, and most dangerously inobstinacy and blindness in adhering complete, yet we surely need not say to something which he called common that we take a genuine interest in the sense and matter of fact; and behold! approximation to a sound and trustthe scientific economist, in the course worthy state of the science of political of his own theorising, is returning to economy. That, notwithstanding its those very positions from which he obliquities, the new science has renderhas been endeavouring to drive his ed a substantial service to mankind, opponent. The present work of Mr and is calculated, when thoroughly J. S. Mill, the latest and most com- understood, to render still greater plete exposition of the most advanced service-that it embraces topics of doctrines of the political economists, the widest and most permanent inmanifests, on more than one occasion, terest, and that intellects of the highest this retrograde progress,-demolish order have been worthily occupied in ing, on the ground of still more scien- their investigation - this, let no tific principles - the value of which strain of observation in which from time, however, must test—those argu- time to time we have indulged, bc ments by which his scientific prede- thought to deny or contravert. To cessors had attempted to mislead the explain the complicate machinery of man of experience or of empirical a modern commercial state, is assurknowledge.
edly one of the most useful tasks, and When, moreover, we consider, that by no means the most easy, to which the errors of the political economist a reflective mind could address itself. are not allowed to remain mere errors When Adam Smith, leaving the arena of theory, but are pushed forward into of metaphysical inquiry, in which he practice, thrust immediately into the had honourably distinguished himself, vital interests of the community, we turned his analytic powers to the must admit that never was the man examination of the common-place yet
Principles of Political Economy, with some of their applications to Social Philosophy. By JOHN STUART MILL. 2 vols.
intricate affairs of that commercial Be it admitted at once, and ungrudgcommunity in which he lived, he acted ingly, that Adam Smith and some of his in the same enlightened spirit which led successors have done a substantial serBacon to demand of philosophy,that she vice in assisting to explain the machishould leave listening to the echoes of nery of society-the organisation, so to the school-room, and walk abroad into speak, of a commercial body. Until nature, amongst things and realities. this is done, and done thoroughly, no The author of The Wealth of Nations, proposed measure of legislation, and like him of the Novum Organum, no course of conduct voluntarily struck out a new path of wisely utili- adopted by the people, can be seen tarian thinking. If the one led phi- in all its bearings; the true causes losophy into the real world of nature of the most immediate and pressing and her daily phenomena, the other evils can never be certainly known, conducted her into a world still more and, of course, the efficient remedies movel to her footsteps--the world of can never be applied. Our main commerce, of buying and selling, of quarrel - though we have many manufacture and exchange. It may, with the political economists is on indeed, be said of both these men, this ground-that, having constructed that in their leading and most valu- a theory explanatory of the wealth of able tenets, they were but announcing nations, they have wished to enforce the claims of common sense ; and this upon our legislature, as if it that, in doing this, they had from had embraced all the causes which time to time, and in utterances more conspire to the wellbeing of nations ; or less distinct, been anticipated by as if wealth and wellbeing were others. But the cause of common synonymous. Having determined the sense is, after all, the very last which state of things best fitted to procure, in obtains a fair and potent advocacy; general, the greatest aggregate amount and the philosophy of one age is of riches, they have proceeded to deal always destined, if it be true, to be with a people as if it were a corporate come the common sense of succeeding body, whose sole object was to inages, and it detracts very little from crease the total amount of its possesthe merit of an eminent writer who sions. They have overlooked the has been the means of impressing any equally vital questions concerning the great truth upon the minds of men, distribution of these possessions, and 'either at home or abroad, that others of the various employments of manhad obtained a view of it also, and kind. Full of their leading idea, and given to it an imperfect and less effec accustomed to abstractions and genetive enunciation. Let due honour, ralities, they forget the individual, therefore, be paid to our countryman and appear to treat their subject as if Adam Smith, the founder, on this the aggregate wealth of a community side of the Channel at least, of the were to be enjoyed in some aggregate science of political economy-honour manner, and a sum-total of possesto him who turned a most keen intel- sions would represent the comforts lect, sharpened by those metaphysical and enjoyments of its several members. studies for which his fragmentary To know what measures tend to inEssays, as well as and still more than crease the national wealth is undoubthis Theory of Moral Sentiments, prove edly of great importance, but it is not him to have been eminently quali- all; the theory of riches, or of comfied — turned it from these capti- merce, is not the theory of society. vating subtleties to inquiries into As political economy arose with a the causes, actually in operation, of metaphysician, and has been prosethe prosperity of a commercial people. cuted by men of the same abstract He left these regions of mazy labyrin- turn of mind, it very soon aspired to thine thought, which, if not as beauti- the philosophical character of a ful as the enchanted gardens in which science. It laid down its laws. But Tassó imprisoned his knight, are, to it has not always been seen that the a certain order of spirits, quite as harmonious and systematic form it ensnaring, to look into the mystery has been able to assume was owing of bills of exchange, of systems of to an arbitrary division of social banking, customs, and the currency. topics, which in their nature, and in
their operation on human welfare, are but what it obtains from his perhaps inextricably combined. They laid too sanguine calculations of his own down laws, which could only be con- profit and loss? Is it any consolasidered such by obstinately refusing tion that he bankrupts himself in to look beyond a certain number of ruining others, and adding immensely isolated facts; and they persisted in to a pauper population ? Commerce governing mankind according to laws free! Good. It will increase your obtained by this imperfect generalisa- imports, and multiply by an advantion.
tageous exchange the products of With regard to the main doctrine of your industry. But what if your the political economists, that of free measure to promote this freedom of trade their advocacy of unfettered in- commerce foster a mode of industry dustry, whether working for the home at home essentially of a precarious or foreign market-one sees plainly nature, and attended with fearful that there is a truth here. Looking at political and social dangers, at the the matter abstractedly from other expense of other modes of industry considerations, what doctrine could of a more permanent, stable, peaceful be more reasonable or more benign character-must nothing still be heard than that which instructs the sepa- of but free commerce ? Must the rate communities of mankind to throw utmost amount of products, at all aside all commercial jealousies, all hazard, be obtained, whatever the unnecessary heartburnings-to throw mode of industry that earn it, or the down their barriers, their custom fate of those called into existence by houses, their preventive stations-to the overgrown manufacture you enlet the commerce and industry of courage? Is it no matter how won, the world be free, so that the peace or who enjoys ? Is the only question of the world, as well as the wealth of that the wealth be there? What if nations, would be secured and ad- England, by carrying out, without vanced? What better doctrine could pause or exception, the doctrine of be taught than this ? Did not free-trade, should aggravate the most Fénélon, mildest and best of arch- alarming symptoms of her present bishops, reasoning from the dictates social condition-must this law of the of his own Christian conscience, arrive political economist be still, with unat the same conclusion as the philo- mitigated strictness, urged upon her ? sophical economist? What better, She pleads for exception, for delay; we repeat, could be taught than a but the political economist will not doctrine which tends to make all see the grounds of her plea-will not nations as one people, and the most recognise her reasons for exception : wealthy people possible ? But hold full of his partial science, which has a while. Take the microscope, and been made to occupy too large a pordeign to look somewhat closer at the tion of his field of vision, he cannot little interests of the many little men see them. that constitute a nation. Condescend England, by a series of well-known to inquire, before you change the mechanical inventions, extended in a currents of wealth and industry, surprising manner her manufacture of (though to increase both,) into what cotton, and with it her foreign comhands the wealth is to flow, and what merce in this article. It is unnecesthe class of labourers you diminish or sary to repeat figures that we have multiply. Industry free! Good. But given before, or which may be found is the capitalist to be permitted, at in any statistical tables. Enough all times, to gather round him and that her operations here have been on his machinery what multitudes of a quite gigantic scale. Recollect that workmen he pleases-workmen who this is the channel into which must are to breed up families dependent for run the industry and capital which their subsistence on the success of your measures of free-trade may drive some gigantic and hazardous enter- from their old accustomed course. prise? Is he to be allowed, under Look for a moment at the nature of all circumstances, to do this, and give this species of industry, and ask the state no guarantee for the lives of whether it would be wise to foster and these men and women and children, augment it at the expense of other