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PROTOCOL IV.

Record of the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the fourth con

ference held at Geneva, in Switzerland, on the 17th day of June, 1872.

Adjournment.

The conference was held pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitrators were present.

Mr. J. C. Bancroft Davis and Lord Tenterden attended the conference as agents of the United States and Her Britannic Majesty, respectively.

The protocol of the last conference was read and approved, and was signed by the president and secretary of the tribunal and the agents of the two governments.

Mr. Bancroft Davis stated that he was still without definite instructions from his Government regarding the request of the British agent for adjournment, and suggested a further adjournment of the tribunal until Wednesday, the nineteenth instant.

Lord Tenterden said that he could make no objection. The conference was then adjourned to Wednesday, the 19th instant, at 2 o'clock.

FREDERICK SCLOPIS.
J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS.
TESTERDEN.
ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary.

PROTOCOL V,

Arbitrators

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damges.

Record of the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the fifth confer

ence held at Geneva, in Switzerland, on the 19th of June, 1872. The conference was held pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitrators were present.

Mr. J. C. Bancroft Davis and Lord Tenterden attended core the the conference as agents of the Cnited States and ller for computation of Britannic Majesty, respectively.

The protocol of the last conference was read and approved, and was signed by the president and secretary of the tribunal and the agents of the two governments.

Count Sclopis, as president of the tribunal, inquireil whether Mr. Bancroft Davis had yet received letinitive instructions from liis Government.

Mr. Bancroft Davis replied that he had not.

Count Sclopis then, on behalf of all the arbitrators, made the following statement :

The application of the agent of Iler Britannic Majesty's government being now before the arbitrators, the president of the tribunal (Count Sclopis) proposes to make the folosing communicatiou on the part of the arbitrators to the parties interesteil:

The arbitrators wish it to be understood that in the observations which they are about to make they have in view solely the application of the agent of ler Britannic Jlajesty's government, which is now before them, for an ailjournment, which might be prolonged vill the month of February in next year; and the motives for that application, viz, the difference of opinion which exists between Her Britannic Majesty's government and the Government of the United States as to the competency of the tribunal, under the treaty of Washington, to deal with the claims alvanced in the case of the United States in respect of losses under the several heads of-Ist, " The losses in the trausfer of the American commercial marine to the British tay;" 21, " The enhanced payments of insurance;" and 31, “ The prolongation of the war, and the addition of a large sum to the cost of the war and the suppression of the rebellion;" and the hope which Her Britannic Majesty's government does not abandon, that if sufficient time were given for that purpose, a solution of the difficulty which has thus arisen, by the negotiation of a supplementary convention between the two governments, might be found practicable.

The arbitrators do not propose to express or imply any opinion upon the point thus in difference between the two governments as to the interpretation or effect of the treaty; but it seems to them obvious that the substantial object of the adjourment must be to give the two governments an opportunity of determining whether the claims in question shall or shall not be submitted to the decision of the arbitrators, and that any difference between the two governments on this point may make the adjournment unproductive of any useful effect, and, after a delay of many months, during which both nations may be kept in a state of painful suspense, may end in a result which, it is to be presmed, both governments would equally deplore, that of making this arbitration wholly abortive. This being so, the arbitrators think it right to state that, after the most careful perusal of all that has been urged on the part of the Government of the United States in respect of these claims, they have arrivedl, individually and collectively, at the conclusion that these claims do not constitute, upon the principles of international law applicable to such cases, good foundation for an award of compensation or computation of damages between nations, and should, upon such principles, be wholly excluded from the consideration of the tribumal in making its award, even if there were no disagree?nent between the two governments as to the competency of the tribunal to decide thereon.

With a view to the settlement of the other claims to the consideration of which by the tribunal no exception has been taken on the part of Her Britannic Majesty's gorerument, the arbitrators have thought it desirable to lay before the parties this espression of the views they have formed upon the question of public law involved, in order that after this declaration by the tribunal it may be considered by the Government of the United States whether any course can be adopted respecting the first-inentioned claims which would relieve the tribunal from the necessity of deciding upon the present application of Her Britannic Majesty's government.

Count Sclopis added that it was the intention of the tribunal that this statement should be considered for the present to be confidential.

Count Sclopis then asked whether the agents or either of them wished to say anything touching the declaration just made.

Mr. Bancroft Davis said that he was necessarily without instructions to meet the contingency which had arisen from the action thus taken by the arbitrators. He therefore left it with the tribunal to say whether, in view of this fact, it ought not of its own motion to make an adjourn. ment suflicient to afford time for the proper consideration of the new position created by the announcement of the tribunal.

The tribunal then ordered this conference to adjourn until Wednesday the 26th instant, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon.

FREDERICK SCLOPIS.
J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS.
TENTERDEN.
ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary.

PROTOCOL VI.

Record of the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the sixth con

ference held at Genera, in Suitzerlanul, on the 25th of June, 1872.

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The conference was held pursuant to a call by the president, Count

Sclopis. All the arbitrators were present.

Mi. J. C. Bancroft Davis and Lord Tenterden attended

the conference as agents of the United States and Her Britannie Majesty, respectively.

Count Sclopis, as president of the tribunal, stated that he had received from Mr. Bancroft Davis the information that he was prepared to communicate to the tribunal the action authorized by his Government respecting the declaration made by the arbitrators at the last conference.

Count Selopis added that, being desirous of advancing the work of the tribunal, he had, therefore, convoked the conference this day, instead of Wednesday, the day to which the adjournment had been made.

Mr. Bancroft Davis stated as follows: The declaration made by the tribunal, individually and collectively, respecting tho claims presented by the United States for the award of the tribunal for- 1st. “The losses in the transfer of the American commercial marine to the Britislı tlag ;" 211. “ The eubanced payments of insurance ;” and 3d. The prolongation of the war and the addition of a large sun to the cost of the war and the suppression of the rebelliou," is accepted by the President of the United States as determinative of their judgment on the important question of public law involved.

The agent of the United States is authorized to say that, consequently, the abovementioned claims will not be further insisted upon before the tribunal by the United States, and may be excluded from all consideration in any award that may be inade.

Lord Tenterden then said : I will inform my government of the declaration made by the arbitrators on the 19th instant, and of the statement now made by the agent of the Cnited States, and request their instructions.

The conference was then adjourned to Thursday, the 27th instant, at 11 o'clock in the morning.

FREDERICK SCLOPIS.
J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS.
TENTERDEN.
ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary.

PROTOCOL VII.

Decision made offi.

British arguInent filed. Sir R.

Motion

argumetit.
denied

Recoril of the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the serenth

conference, held at Genera, in Sicitzerlanı, on the 27th of June, 1872. The conference was ineld pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitrators were present.

Mr. J. C. Bancroft Davis and Lord Tenterden attended cial the conference as agents of the United States and Her Perler COLES Britannic, Majesty, respectively.

The protocol of the last conference was read and approved, and was signed by the president and secretary of the tribunal, and the agents of the two governments.

Count Sclopis, as president of the tribunal, inquired whether Lord Tenterden had received the instructions from his government for which be had said that he would apply at the last conference.

Lord Tenterden then read the following statement: " The undersigned, agent of Her Britannic Majesty, is anthorized by Her Majesty's government to state that Her Majesty's government find in the communication on the part of the arbitrators, recorded in the protocol of their proceedings of the 19th instant, nothing to which they cannot assent, consistently with the view of the interpretation and effect of the treaty of Washington hitherto maintained by them; and being informed of the statement made on the 25th instaut by the agent of the United States, that the several claims particularly mentioned in that statement will not be further insisted upon before the tribunal by the United States, and may be excluded

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from all consideration in any award that may be made; and assuming that the arbi. trators will, upon such statement, think fit now to declare that the said several claims are, and from henceforth will be, wholly excluded from their consideration, and will embody such declaration in their protocol of this day's proceedings; they have instructed the undersigned, upon this being done, to request leave to withdraw the application made by him to the tribunal on the 15th instant for such an adjournment as might enable a supplementary convention to be concluded and ratified between the high contracting parties; and to request leave to deliver the printed argument, now in the hands of the undersigned, which has been prepared on the part of Her Britannic Majesty's government under the fifth article of the treaty with reference to the other claims, to the consideration of which by the tribunal no exception has been taken on the part of Her Majesty's government.

“ TENTERDEN." Mr. Bancroft Davis said that he made no objection to the granting of the request made by Lord Tenterden to be permitted to withdraw his application for an adjournment, and to file the argument of Her Britannic Majesty's government.

Count Sclopis, on behalf of all the arbitrators, then declared that the said several claiins for indirect losses mentioned in the statement made by the agent of the United States on the 25th instant and referred to in the statement just made by the agent of Her Britannic Majesty, are, and from henceforth shall be, wholly excluded from the consideration of the tribunal, and directed the secretary to embody this declaration in the protocol of this day's proceedings.

He at the same time informed Lord Tenterden that the tribunať as. sented to his request for leave to withdraw his application for a prolonged adjournment, and also to his request for leave to deliver the printed argument which had been prepared on the part of Her Britannic Majesty's government.

Lord Tenterden then presented copies of the argument in duplicate to each of the arbitrators and to the agent of the United States.

Count Sclopis stated that the tribunal no longer desired the proceedings to be considered confidential so far as publication of them by the United States antl British governments is concerned.

He then proceeded to read an address as follows: MESSIEURS: Au moment où le næud qui menaçait d'entraver pour longtemps encore l'exécution du traité de Washington vient d'étre si heureusement tranché, i l'heure où nos travaux vont prendre un cours libre et régulier, permettez-moi de vous dire, mes. sieurs et très-honorés collègues, combien j'apprécie l'honneur de siéger avec vous dans ce tribunal (l'arbitrage, sur lequel sont fixés anjourd'hui les regards du monde civilisé.

Laissez-moi ensuite vous exprimer tout ce que j'éprouve de reconnaissance pour la marque flatteuse de confiance qu'il vous a plu de m'accorder en m'appelant à ocenper ce fauteuil.

Je comprends parfaitement tout lo prix de cette distinction si peu méritée; mais je comprends mieux encore le besoin que j'aurai d'être soutenu par le concours de vos lumières, et par l'appui de votre indulgence dans l'exercice des fonctions que vous m'avez confiées. Ce sera à vous que je le devrai, si jo ne vais pas paraitre trop au-dessous de ma tâche.

La réunion de ce tribunal «l'arbitrage signale, à elle senle, une nouvelle direction imprimée aux idees qui gouvernent la politique des nations les plus avancées sur la voie de la civilisation.

Nous sommes arrivés à une époque où, dans les sphères les plus élevées de la politique, l'esprit de modération et le sentiment d'équité commencent partout à prévaloir sur les tendances des vieilles routines d'un arbitraire insolent ou d'une indifference conpable. Diminuer les occasions de faire la guerre, atténuer les malheurs qu'elle traine à sa suite, placer les intérêts de l'humanité an-lessus de ceux de la politique, voilà l'een vre vers laquelle se dirigent toutes les grandes intelligences, tous les cours haut placés. Aussi avec quel bonheur n'a-t-on pas salué le vau si uoblement exprimé par le congrès de Paris en 1856, que les états entre lesquels s'élèverait un dissentiment sérieux, avant d'en appeler aux armes, eussent recours, en tant que les circonstances l'admettraient, anx bons offices des puissances amies ! Que de bons ettets n'avait-on pas à attendre de la déclaration de ce même congrès concernant l'abolition de la course, et le respect de la propriété privée? Entin nous ne saurions oublier ici cette convention de Genève, qui parvint à placer sous la protection spéciale du droit des gens les élans de la charité sur les champs de bataille.

On a bien dû regretter que les vues si droites et si sages du congrès de Paris n'aient pas été promptement secondées par les événements. De cruels démentis ont été donnés, aux aspirations des âmes d'élite;' mais l'autorité morale des principes proclamés à cette époque ne s'est point affaiblie.

Grâce à l'initiative des hommes d'état qui président aux destinées de l'Amérique et de l'Angleterre, cette idée généreuse commence à porter ses fruits.

Le grand essai de l'application des règles anstères et calmes du droit aux questions ardentes de la politiqne va se faire. L'histoire contemporaine racontera à la postérité que, même dans la chaleur des plus vives récriminations, on a toujours songé des deux côtés de l'Atlantique à tenir ouvertes les voies d'um accommodement acceptable par les anlis de la paix et du progrès.

À travers des négociations nécessairement longues, sous l'action des courants variables de l'opinion publique, inévitables chez les gouvernements à base populaire, le but de ces maguanimes efforts ne fut jamais perdu de vue. Personne, certes, ne pouvait en contester l'utilité; mais d'en venir au point d'accepter purement et simplement le systeme de l'arbitrage, de renoncer à ce privilége, si cher aux ambitions vulgaires, de se faire justice de sa main, voilà ce qui exigeait une rare fermeté de conviction, un dévouement à toute épreuve aux intérêts de l'humanité. Aussi le premier ministre d'Angleterre a-t-il eu raison de parler du traité de Washington dans des termes qui caractérisent à la fois la grandeur et les difficultés de l'entreprise. “Il se peut,” disaitil. “ que ce soit une espérance trop éclatante pour être réalisée dans ce monde dle miseres où nous vivons; l'expérience du moins est digne de l'effort. On recherche, s'il est possible, de soumettre ces conflits d'opinion entre deux nations au jugement d'un tribunal de raison, an lieu de l'arbitrage sanglant des armes. L'histoire se souviendra à l'égard des Etats-Unis et du Royaume-Uni que, ayant à vider de sérieux contlits, et se sentant peu disposés de part et d'autre à céder le terrain, ils se sont néanmoins appliqnés à assurer la paix, et non-seulement à régler leurs propres conflits, mais aussi à donner un exemple qui sera fécond en bienfaits pour les autres nations."

On a dit que le triomphe d'une idée utile n'est jamais qu'une question de date. Félicitons-nous, messieurs, d'assister à la réalisation d'un dessein qui doit être fécond des meilleurs résultats; espérons qu'il tiendra dans l'avenir tout ce qu'il promet aujourlui.

Nous avons entendu ce cri terrible “la force prime le droit:" c'est un défi porté à la civilisation. Nous voyons maintenant la politique s'adresser à la justice, pour ne pas abuser de la force; c'est un liommage que la civilisation doit recevoir avec bonheur.

Nenons plaignons pas trop si les questions que nous sommes appelés à résoudre nous arrivent it la suite d'agitations prolongées. Recomaissons plutôt l'importance des dlocuments qui nous ont été fournis et des raisonnements dont ils ont été accompagnés.

Les longues investigations préparent les meilleures solutions. On navigne plus sûrement sur les rivières qui ont été le mieux sondées.

Le droit des gens a été trop souveut regardé comme un sol mobile, sur lequel, au moment où l'on croit avancer, le pied glisse en arrière. Serait-ce un espoir indiscret que celui le parvenir par nos efforts à rendre ce sol un peu mieux rattermi?

L'objet de nos délibérations demande des études anssi variées que sérieuses. Nous aurons à l'examiner à des points de vue différents. Ce sera tantôt avec la large perception de l'homme d'état, tantôt avec l'oeil scrutateur d'un président aux assises, toujours avec un profond sentiment d'équité et avec une impartialité absolue.

Vous nous promettons beaucoup de l'aide empresséu des agents des deux puissances qui ont eu recours à ce tribunal ; leur hante intelligence et leur zèle éclairé nous sont également connus.

Entin le tribunal se contie dans l'assistance des conseils des hautes parties présentes à la barre, de ces jurisconsultes éminents dont le nom vant un éloge. Nous nous attendons qui'ls coopéreront franchement avec nous dans ce qui doit être, non-seulement un acte de bonne justice, mais encore un travail de grande pacification.

Puissions-nous répondre complètement aux louables intentions des puissances qui nous ont honorés de leur choix; puissions-nous remplir, avec l'aide de Dieu, une mission qui mette fin il de longs et pénibles ditférends; qui, en réglant de graves intérêts, apaise de donlourenses émotions, et qui ne soit pas sans quelque heureuse intluence sur le maintien de la paix du monde et les progrès de la civilisation.

1. In the performance of a melancholy duty," dit Sir Robert Phillimore dans la préface à la deuzième édition des Commentaries upon International Law', 1871, “I am obliged to close this chronicle of ovents by the admission that the suggestion contained in the last protocol to the treaty of Paris, 1856, has remained a dead-letter, except perhaps in the case of Luxemburg. Neither of the belligerents in the present horrible war would listen to the snggestion of such an arbitration."

* Discours prononcé par Monsieur Gladstone au banquet d'installation du nouveau lord-maire, le 9 novembre 1871.

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