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Non ita dissimili sunt argumento; sed tamen
Dissimili oratione sunt factæ, ac stilo.

Quæ convenere, in Andriam ex Perinthia
Fatetur transtulisse, atque usum pro suis.

15 Id isti vituperant factum; atque in eo disputant,
Contaminari non decere fabulas.

Faciunt næ intelligendo, ut nihil intelligant:

Qui, cum hunc accusant, Nævium, Plautum, Ennium,

11. ita] For valde, admodum. Nepos in Pelop. 2. "Magnæ sæpe res non ita magnis copiis sunt gesta." Liv. iv. 12. "Haud ita multum frumenti advectum est;" where see Drakenborch. R. D. Our use of so is sometimes similar. argumento;] That this word was sometimes a trisyllabic, by elision of u, is evident from Plautus, who twice so contracts it in the prologue to his first play. H. At all events, we could avoid the elision by making dissimili and sunt interchange places. sed] B. would read et, on account of the metre, and for elegance. But H.'s remark satisfies us on the point of the metre; and the adversative here seems more natural: for line 12 is a palliative of Non ita dis. s. arg., which has the air of a censure on Menander.

12. oratione ac stilo.] Oratio is in the sense, stilus in the words. D. The Greeks call oratio diavola; stilus, Xigos. R. D. I prefer oratio to mean diction in general; and stilus, a feature and ornament of it. Cic. Orat. iii. 49. "Cum exercitatione, tum stilo -formanda nobis oratio est.

13. Quæ convenere, &c.] In the first scene of the Perinthian, an old man holds conversation with his wife, as in Terence's Andrian Simo does with his freedman; but in Menander's Andrian, the old man is alone. D. Terence confesses that, though his Andrian is formed on the model of Menander's

Andrian, he yet transposed into it passages from that poet's Perinthian. Thus one play is made out of two, and the Greek originals in a measure contaminantur, the charge brought against our poet. ex Perinthia] Read hic after Perinthia, that Terence, not Menander, may be understood. B. The Poeta, with which the prologue opens, is here implied to fatetur.

14. usum] i. e. usum esse. 15. isti] The former syllable in iste, istic, istuc, ille, illic, illuc, ipse, &c., as we pronounce them rapidly, is most commonly shortened by the ancient comic writers. H. Let it be observed, once for all, that in the comic senarian an amphibrach (~~) is often put for a tribrach (~~) and a

bacchee (-) for an anapast (~~). The second syllable, though long, was often pronounced rapidly at the beginning of a verse; as was natural in a place where no emphasis was laid. So below, i. 1. 15, 16, 39.

This liberty was rarely taken, when the vowel, though long by position, was not, in its natural quantity, short; or in any foot but the first. isti] In using isti, he has insultingly changed the number, meaning only one. BAR. By this pronoun hatred and contempt are usually intended, as in line 21: but ille is oftener used in an opposite sense. R. D. vituperant] eyovo, from vitium and paro. disputant,] Disputure with the ancients is not so much to strive in words, as to discuss dispassionately, or converse upon. R. D. Its vulgar acceptation, however, appears more congenial to the sense of the passage before us.


16. Contaminari] Contamino primarily means to touch or mix by handling; from tago (ancient form for tango), whence tagimen, and by syncope tamen and tamino. Heaut. prol. 17. R. D. decere] AI. debere. L. Decere of course is impersonal, and fabulas subject to contaminari; literally, "that it is not becoming for plays to be adulterated."

17. Faciunt næ, &c.] This instance of oxymoron Terence has taken from Menander, in whose Fragments is preserved: govev páraiov iorì nai oůdèv Ogoviìv. R. D. Thus Cic. 1. Cat. 8. "cum tacent clamant;" and Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 271. "Insanire paret certa ratione modoque.” E. and B. read ne with a mark of interrogation; while D. and H. prefer it without interrogation, and rendered nimis; multum. In the two passages (Cic. Cat. ii. 3. and Ter. Ad. iv. 2. 1.) which D. quotes in favour of this, ne admits the import profecto, with equal probability. The interpretation "nimis intelligendo" seems forced, and I can find no decisive parallel.

18. Qui, cum, &c.] An argument from example and authority. D. Nævium, Plautum, Ennium,] Nævius, a comic and tragic poet of Campania, who first imitated the regular dramas of Livius Andronicus. He

Accusant; quos hic noster auctores habet: 20 Quorum æmulari exoptat negligentiam,

Potius quam istorum obscuram diligentiam. Dehinc ut quiescant porro, moneo, et desinant Maledicere, malefacta ne noscant sua. Favete, adeste æquo animo, et rem cognoscite; 25 Ut pernoscatis, ecquid spei sit relliquum: Posthac quas faciet de integro comœdias, Spectandæ, an exigendæ sint vobis prius.

served in the first Punic war.-M. Accius, born at Sarsina in Umbria, was surnamed Plautus from splay feet, a defect common in his country; he raised himself from the grade of a corn-grinder to that of the celebrated comic poet, who flourished about B. C. 200. to whom the Latin language owed the polish and improvement, which relieved the rude style of Ennius; though his repute sensibly declined in the refinement of the Augustan age.-Ennius, born at Rudii in Calabria, B. C. 237, was the contemporary of Nævius, and became illustrious by his Annales of the Roman republic, and some dramatic and satiric pieces. Admiration of the vivid energy and fire of his expressions is calculated to withdraw the eye of scrutiny from the defects of diction, attributable to the age in which he lived.

19. auctores] Those who prescribe any course or action by their own example. Hor. Sat. i. 4. 122. "Habes auctorem quo facias hoc." R. D.

20. exoptat] Put in its proper signification for eligit. Cic. Off. i. 32. "Quæ majori parti pulcherrima videntur ea maxime exoptant." R. D.

21. obscuram] Ignobilem. H. Or, obscure, embarrassing.

24. adeste] Adsum is common in the judicial sense, "to be an advocate;" as also "to stand by, to succour," on any occasion. Æn. iv. 578. "Adsis o, placidusque juves." rem cognoscite ;] A judge, while examining into a matter at issue, is properly said rem cognoscere. R. D.

25. relliquum:] Some consider this the genitive plural conforming to comediarum, in which case relliquum, posthac, de integro, would be tautology. Donatus makes it adverbial-rò ov-which is also forced. The full structure is: "quid negotium spei sit relliquum (i. e. relinquatur) de comœdiis quas com." &c. See note on line 3 above.

27. Spectanda,] In conformity to Grecian usage; as there were at Athens particular censors, who passed judgment on comic performances. L. exigenda] i. e. excludenda; as Hec. prol. "qui exactas feci," &c. Pareus interprets this examinandæ, sc. by the censors. FAR. This was done by the spectators beating with their feet to mark disapprobation; whence the propriety of the term explodere, frequently used in this sense. R. D.



Vos istæc intro auferte: abite. Sosia,

Adesdum paucis te volo. So. Dictum puta :

Nempe ut curentur recte hæc. SI. Imo aliud. So. Quid est, Quod tibi mea ars efficere hoc possit amplius?

5 SI. Nihil istac opus est arte ad hanc rem, quam paro : Sed iis, quas semper in te intellexi sitas,


Fide et taciturnitate. So. Exspecto quid velis.

1. IAMBIC TRIMETERS.-This play opens with Simo making a confidant of his freedHe first comments on the good dispositions of his son;-mentions the consequent promise of Chremes to give his daughter Philumena to Pamphilus,—his own accidental discovery of Pamphilus' disgraceful amour,and how Chremes had, in consequence of such rumours, retracted his promise of Philumena: thence broaches his design of making a mock show of nuptials, to have an opportunity of ascertaining his son's mind, and of reprimanding him, in case he should refuse to marry,-requires Sosia's assistance, and enjoins secrecy.-This scene is justly admired for the cleverness with which it conveys to the audience the subject matter of the piece, without the irksomeness of a prologue for that purpose, or the postponement of scenical action. istac] scil. obsonia, or olera, as is evident from curentur, properly a culinary expression. Plaut. Merc. iii. 3. 21. "obsonium curamus. R. D. Not obsonia, (for Davus below says "paululum obsoni,") but tapestry, beams, or other apparatus for counterfeiting the nuptials. FAR. auferte: abite.] Simo thus obtains a private interview with Sosia, without awakening suspicion in the others. We use aufero, where we feel disgust; fero, where we treat the subject with some deference. D.

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2. Adesdum:] Ades, the imperative, and dum, an instance of parelcon. D. The addition of dum may express impatience to have the request gratified, as in manedum, ehodum, &c. paucis te volo.] i. e. paucis verbis te alloqui volo. R. D. I prefer making te the object of volo; "I want you (i. e. your attention) to a few words." See note on

nolit below, i. 2. 1.. Dictum puta:] i. e. I understand what you mean, although you say nothing; therefore you may suppose that you have said it. R. D.

3. curentur recte] Be properly cooked. D. But why should the more extensive (and, I am persuaded, the more genuine) import of curo be here discarded ?— Imo aliud.] Ellipsis of volo. D.

4. ars] From grǹ, virtue. D. Or from gs, agros, obsolete, from age, necto. However, the most prevalent meaning of ars seems to be, the means or instruments, whether artificial or otherwise, whereby any object, good or bad, is acquired. Consistently with this idea, ars is thought to differ from scientia, in being the means or process through which the latter is arrived at.-efficere] Facere is, to be engaged in a work; efficere implies its completion. D.

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5. paro:] I am designing, plotting, contemplating. Thus, Hor. Od. i. 37. S. "funus imperio parabat." Id. Sat. ii. 3. 13. "Invidiam placare paras, virtute relicta ?"

6. Sed iis,] i. e. artibus opus est.

7. Fide et taciturnitate.] Fides in any one is a quality, in himself or something connected with himself, which induces others to confide in, or believe him. Whence it was particularly accounted an attribute of the heathen gods, and one to which frequent appeal was made. Fides can also be ascribed to inanimate objects, such as actions, words, manners, &c., according as they are calculated to inspire a certain confidence or belief. So, "multa fidem promissa levant;" and below, v. 2. 16. "in verbis fides." Liv. vi. 13.Manifesta fides, publica ope Volscos

SI. Ego postquam te emi, a parvulo ut semper tibi

Apud me justa et clemens fuerit servitus,

10 Scis feci, e servo ut esses libertus mihi, Propterea quod servibas liberaliter.

Quod habui summum pretium, persolvi tibi.

So. In memoria habeo. SI. Haud muto factum. So. Gaudeo, Si tibi quid feci, aut facio, quod placet, Simo: 15 Et id gratum fuisse adversum te, habeo gratiam. Sed hoc mî molestum est: nam istæc commemoratio

hostes adjutos," "an evident (indication whereby we may believe, or, an evident) proof that the Volscian foemen," &c. A man's taciturnitas is subsidiary to his fides. 8. Ego postquam, &c.] This is in commendation of the character which Sosia holds in the play; lest anything tending to a son's disparagement should seem to be confided to a slave of empty character. D. a parvulo] Græce, Tures: II. A. 223. Tórys ges δόμοις ἔνι τυτθὸν ἐόντα. Donatus connects a parvulo scis. In some texts the comma appears after parvulo.

9. justa et clemens] Justa, in which nothing is ordered which is not warranted by the right of a master over his slave; clemens, in which much even of that right is not exercised. D. servitus,] Put for dominatus. D. and C. Servitus is, the state and condition of slave, which was justa et clemens to Sosia.

10. E servo ut esses libertus] In the Fragments of Menander is given the following from his Andrian: 'Eyá os douλov övr en ἐλεύθερον. W. E servo] i. e. when you had been previously a slave. Æn. x. 221. “Numen habere maris, nymphasque e navibus esse. Manil. iv. 719. "ex exule consul." R. D. mihi,] With emphasis: as much as to say, You have become freedman to me, not to my son; that Sosia might not fear his son, to whom he owed not the gift of liberty. D. and E.

11. servibas] The imperfect tense, to show that he could yet serve him again and again. Æn. vi. 114. "Atque omnes pela gique minas, cœlique ferebat Invalidus." -implying that he, although weak, could how ever, even yet, endure toil and fatigue. D. Write servibas for the metre. Nor is it at variance with the ancient orthography and pronunciation. B. liberaliter.] i. e. as if you were free and ingenuous; you were not driven to your duty, like other slaves, from fear. Whatever becomes a free man is called liberale; whence the liberales artes are those which are suitable to persons of respectable birth. At this day, because gene

rosity is most becoming to such a man, we are beginning to use liberalis for largus. R. D.

12. Quod habui] Habui, i. e. potui, xov. Mu. The meaning might be that which I considered as the highest reward. So Cic. Nat. Deor. iii. 22. "Quem Ægyptii nefas habent nominare." Liv. xxiii. 22. "Id obliviscendum, pro non dicto habendum." &c. &c. summum pretium,] Dio Prusæus, περὶ δουλείας: φασὶ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν μέγιστον räv äɣatāv. L. persolvi] He modestly calls it (not a benefit conferred, but) a reward paid, as being due to Sosia "quod servibat liberaliter."

13. In memoria habeo.] i. e. I am grateful for it. Haud muto factum.] For the ancients, if they regretted anything, used to say infectum velle. It would be unsuitable for Simo to allude here to the law sanctioning the degradation of freedmen, if ungrateful, to their former slavery. Multo is also read; i. e, condemn, disprove. D. I agree with E. in not seeing how allusion to the law would ill become Simo. Bentley reads "muto. S. Factum gaudeo."-Nollem, in the same sense as muto here, occurs Phorm. v. 3. 13. "C. Jam illi datum est argentum ? D. Curavi illico. C. nollem datum;" and Ad. ii. 1. 11. "nollem factum."

15. id gratum] Id (as here) hoc (as in the next line), is and hic, are often short, even though a consonant follows. H. See prol. 15. adversum te,] Contra always indicates a design of injuring; adversus does not always mark opposition, and sometimes implies even good will. R. D. This remark on contra does not hold good, when, for instance, it means opposite to, towards, in the presence of, in reply to. Liv. iii. 26. "Trans Tiberim, contra eum locum, ubi nunc navalia sunt." Plin. viii. 7. "Elephanti tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut," &c. Charisius says that contra refers more to place, adversus to the mind, but confesses that they are used indiscriminately.

16. nam istæc commemoratio] Demos. De Coron. τὸ τὰς ἰδίας εὐεργεσίας ἀναμιμνήσει

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Quasi exprobratio est immemoris benefici.
Quin tu uno verbo dic, quid est, quod me velis.

SI. Ita faciam. Hoc primum in hac re prædico tibi; 20 Quas credis esse has, non sunt veræ nuptiæ.

So. Cur simulas igitur? SI. Rem omnem a principio audies: Eo pacto et gnati vitam, et consilium meum, Cognosces, et quid facere in hac re te velim. Nam is postquam excessit ex ephebis, Sosia, ac 25 Libera vivendi fuit potestas, (nam antea

κειν μικροῦ δεῖν ὅμοιον ἔστι τῷ ὀνειδίζειν. Compare Sallust, in the address of Micipsa. L.

17. immemoris benefici.] Some refer immemoris to benefici, in the passive sense, not remembered. Bentley and others read immemori. The case which the verb exprobrare governs is attached to the verbal noun exprobratio, as is frequent with the ancients. Further, benefici, not beneficii; for the ancients always wrote the genitive of substantives in ius and ium with single i. Bentley on And. ii. 1. 10. was the first who satisfactorily proved this. Such orthography was dropped at the close of Augustus' reign: whence Ovid has familiarized to us the use of the double i. R. D. I defend the reading immemoris; both because I have been unable to find any instance of the dative after exprobratio, except that in Liv. xxiii. 35; and, because we everywhere meet verbal nouns followed by the genitive, no reference being had to the case which the primitive verb governs.

18. uno verbo] In one ἀξίωμα, one sentence. For an aipa is an enunciation comprising a connected and complete communication by one verb. Here the agiwa is has bene ut assimules nuptias. D. In a word, at once, without circumlocution. See D. on Eun. i. 2. 95.

19. Ita faciam.] i. e. uno verbo dicam. D. 20. Quas credis esse has,] Syllepsis. D. "A general notion of syllepsis is presented under the following statement:-When words are employed to express such conceptions, as are usually conveyed, or are expected to be conveyed, by words of other grammatical properties; the construction may turn, not on the expressed words, but on those that are suggested by, and couched under them." Phillips, Latin Exercises, chap. vii. C. The following examples are there given: "Bocchus, cum peditibus, postremam aciem invadunt.-Pars in carcerem acti.-Postridie (i. e. in postero die) ejus diei.—Ubi (i. e. in qua parte) terrarum.-Eo (i. e. ad eum gradum) dignitatis.-Tædet (i. e. tædium habet) me vitæ." From D.'s remarks on

this line, and on prol. 3. above (which see), it would appear that his idea of syllepsis was at least vague. In this passage I see no syllepsis. There is indeed zeugma of hæ to nuptiæ; and it is thus literally rendered: "These nuptials are not real, which you suppose these nuptials to be." quas] Used in the sense of quales, as Eun. ii. 2. 42. "quid videtur hoc tibi mancipium?" R. D.


22. The old man, having premised "quas credis," &c., here prepares for his narration, of which he makes a threefold division. 1. His son's manner of life (23-128). 2. His own design (127-141). 3. What part he wishes Sosia to act (140-end). gnati vitam,] He divides his son's life into two parts, the former good, and the present bad, portion of it. D.

24. is] i. e. Pamphilus; refer is to gnati. -excessit ex ephebis,] Xen. λber i1⁄2 ipńBwy. Plaut. Merc. prol. "Extemplo ex ephebis postquam excesserit." L. Passed his twentieth year; which is to be understood from the habits of the Athenians, among whom ephebi were youths of eighteen years, and were numbered with those who performed duty in arms within the Attic confines, till the age of twenty; when, no longer ephebi, they served outside of Attica. R. D. The gradations of age (aina) with the Romans were infantia (nórns), pueritia (radía), adolescentia (onßía, vsóτní, žßn), juventa, ætas senioris, senectus (yngas).

25. Libera] For liberius, no less at variance with the sense than the metre, read libera; adding ac after Sosia in the preceding verse. From nam to cohibebant is parenthetic. B. Liberius is not the comparative degree; for he could not have lived liberè before, when age, &c. prohibebant. Therefore aliquando is understood. D. Where liberius can find place in Latinity, if it be not the comparative, it is difficult to imagine: nor do I see how ellipsis of aliquando can account for the paradox. Perhaps the apparent difficulty may vanish, if we understand liberius æquo (more licentiously than suitable, or, rather licentiously).

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