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PROLOGUS.

HECYRA est huic nomen fabulæ ; hæc cum data est
Nova, novum intervenit vitium et calamitas,
Ut neque spectari, neque cognosci, potuerit;

Ita populus studio stupidus in funambulo
5 Animum occuparat. nunc hæc plane est pro nova :

Et is, qui scripsit hanc, ob eam rem noluit
Iterum referre, ut iterum possit vendere.
Alias cognostis ejus; quæso, hanc noscite.

This prologue of eight lines was delivered, the end. R. D. cognosci,] | See And. as appears in the sequel, on the occasion of prol. 24. the second attempt to gain a hearing for the 4. Ita] See And. i. 2. 2. studio stupiplay; the first attempt having, from the ca- dus] i. e. studio spectandi et admiratione price of the populace, proved utterly unsuc- stupens. R. D. So timidus for timens ; Virg. cessful. This second attempt succeeded so Ecl. vi. 20. “ timidisque supervenit Ægle.” far as that attention was given to the first D. in funambulo-occupárat.] 1 A similar Act; and it was not till the third attempt, construction occurs, And. v. 1. 10. “Hoon the occasion of which the alter prologus mini adolescentulo in alio occupato amore.” was pronounced, that the entire piece was 5. occupárat,] [ Had engaged their mind heard out.

so as to exclude from it every thing else as an 1. IAMBIC TRIMETERS.-Hecyra] [This object of attention. This is the proper force is one of the plays which were not borrowed of the verb. pro nova :] | Though not from Menander; it is supposed that the basis actually new (nova), as having appeared beof the Hecyra is due to Apollodorus. Hecyra] fore; yet new to all intents and purposes He opens this with giving the name, that it (pro nova), as not having been heard. may have the recommendation, ipsâ facie, of 6. ob eam rem] “ For that very reason," being new. D. data est] i. e. acta est. Cic. on that consideration.” scil, that it can now Tusc. Quæst. i. 1. “Livius fabulam dedit.” appear “ pro novâ.” noluit] | Scil. at the R. D.

time; when it was rejected, and place given 2. Nova, novum] So Hom. Od. ú. 40. to the funambulist. Κεϊτο μέγας μεγαλωσει λελασμένος ίπποσυνάων. . 7. Iterum referre,] To bring it back on D. intervenit] Interrupted its success. See the stage, when the rope dancers should have And, iv. 3. 17. and Heaut. ii. 3.40. vitium] withdrawn; as D. seems to explain. ut i. e. impedimentum. Metaphor from augury; iterum possit vendere] ( That he might by for augurs applied the term vitium, if there its consequently (i. e. because he would not had been thunder or hail, or if any portend had then iterum referre) appearing pro nová, be been observed, sufficient to cause the dissolu- able to demand at some ensuing games a price tion of the comitia. Hence magistrates vitio for it again. The first iterum in this line is creati, elected under bad omens, who were not otherwise necessary than to give better obliged to resign their office. R. D. On force to the second. Posset, where we might calamitas, see Heaut. ii. 3. 14.

rather expect possit, may be accounted for 3. spectari, -cognosci,] These were, re- by considering that the action implied in pospectively, the vitium and the calamitas. D. sit is now in performance, “ that he might, as Spectari is to be understood, as the sequel he now is, be able,” &c. See Heaut. v. 2. 30. shows, for prospectari, to be viewed even to 8. Alias cognóstis] Of the Andrian, his

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ALTER PROLOGUS.

ORATOR ad vos venio ornatu prologi:
Sinite exorator ut sim, eodem ut jure uti senem
Liceat, quo jure sum usus adolescentior,

Novas qui exactas feci ut inveterascerent, 5 Ne cum poeta scriptura evanesceret.

In his, quas primum Cæcili didici novas, first, he speaks in another strain: “Ut pernos- —2. ůvce poginós (or ifitientixós) relativus, in catis ecquid spei sit relliquum: Posthâc quas which retorts were made to an adversary, or faciet de integro comædias,” &c. R.D. noscite,] thanks returned to the people ;—3. útodetixés

The action noscendi precedes cognoscendi; (or, dpapa tixós) argumentativus, containing we must know a thing, before we can judge the argument of the play ;—4. puxtós, mixtus, of it. Thus he again impresses on his hearers containing a combination of the foregoing the novelty of this play, in as much as they three.—The prologue to the Andrian, then, have yet to become acquainted with it. is of the second kind; for he complains that

he is obliged “ to write prologues," qui male

voli Veteris poetæ maledictis respondeat. The L. Ambivius Turpio in this prologue, or prologue of the Heautontimoreumenos is, rather defence, pleads in behalf of the Hecyra, from 1. to 10, úrobetıxós, from 10. to end it which had failed of a favourable hearing, twice, is, as there stated, not properly a prologus at under his auspices. He adduces an example all; though that part certainly partakes of the in the plays of one Cæcilius, which he, in his Suotatixós and evapogixós to a degree. This youth, had attempted to bring forward; but prelude to the Hecyra wears no feature whatin which, severally, he had either been entire- ever of the prologue. ly bañed, or had procured but a partial hear- 2. exorator] | This word means a person ing. He goes on to say, that, notwithstand that is successful in a thing quod orat. See ing this discomfiture, rather than allow Cæci- Heaut. prol. 11, note. uti senem] IT ut liceat lius' ardour to be damped, and his talent re- me, qui jam senex sum, uti (frui) eodem tarded, he resolved to strain every nerve, and jure. eodem-jure uti] i. e. eandem condirisk the exhibition once more. His exertions, tionem habere. Jus is often conditio, status. he states, were so far crowned with success, R. D. 1 He requests that, by pleading, he as to draw admiration to the pieces, and fame may meet with the same justice (the same to the poet. Thence he argues that he has decision-the same sentence) at their tribunal

reason to doubt ultimate success for now, as he had done in the case of Cæcilius' Terence in the Hecyra ;- Terence, of whose plays; may obtain justice in favour of his plays this had been the first which, in any client's cause. The jus to which he alludes, degree, failed; in whose case, therefore, the as having obtained it then, and as seeking a prospect was not nearly so disheartening, as similar to it now ;-is explained lines 4, 5. in that of Cæcilius, for whom, however, he 4. Novas-exactas] | New plays which had faced—and with effect-the brunt of had been expelled from the stage; had not as popular uproar.--It is thought that Ambivius yet obtained a hearing. For “nova-exactæ must have been a man of no common talent, feci ut inveterascerent.” On this idiom see as well as a favourite with our poet.

Heaut. i. 1. 32. inveterascerent,] | That 1. TAMBIC TRIMETERS. Orator] See they might become veteres, and be nove no Heaut. prol. 11. ornatu prologi ;] In the longer, becoming, as it were, old and well dress, character, of a prologue-speaker. Simi- known acquaintances with the people. The larly, Heaut. prol. 11. “Oratorem esse voluit antithesis here is, I think, one of our author's me, non prologum.”-i. e. when he ought, best. strictly, to deliver the prefatory introduction, 5. Ne cum poetá] In order that the technically called a prologus, he comes for- thing written might not, as it were, acward as an orator, a pleader. - Prologus company the poet to oblivion and the grave; (opūtos aóyos) was divided according to that it might survive him. Or, if you preÈvanthius into four species, called by the fer,--lest it might, along with the poet, perGreeks:-1. Suoratixós, commendatitius, in ish into obscurity, be taken no notice of. which the poet or the piece was commended; 6. In his.] “In these plays,” of which

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Partim sum earum exactus, partim vix steti.
Quia sciebam dubiam fortunam esse scenicam,

Spe incerta, certum mihi laborem sustuli:
10 Easdem agere cæpi, ut ab eodem alias discerem

Novas, studiose; ne illum ab studio abducerem.
Perfeci ut spectarentur. ubi sunt cognitæ,
Placite sunt. ita poetam restitui in locum,

Prope jam remotum injuria adversarium
15 Ab studio, atque ab labore, atque arte musica.

Quod si scripturam sprevissem in præsentia,
Et in deterrendo voluissem operam sumere,
Ut in otio esset, potius quam in negotio ;
Deterruissem facile, ne alias scriberet.

tem earum.

I have begun to speak, “which (1 allude to 13. Placitæ sunt:] See And. iv, 1. 21. those of Cæcilius) at first I learned, when they ita] [Thus, in this way. Or, to such a were as yet new.” didici] a See Heaut. degree. prol. 10.

14. jam] By repeated failures. inju7. Partim--earum] 1 i. e. Quoad par- riá] T Until I obtained jus (3) for him.

See Heaut. v. 1. 55. exactus,] adversariúm] 1 He speaks as if Cæcilius' 9 From ex and ago; literally, driven off the unfavourable reception was due to some few stage; as line 4. steti.] Actors or plays are personal enemies. But this is merely to said stare when they please, and are approved avoid giving offence to the present audience, by, the spectators. Phorm. prol. 9. “Olim as the people were really the cause, who cum stetit nova.” On the other hand, they would, in this, be convicted of fickle caprice. are said cadere, when they fail. Hor. Ep. ji. 15. atque atque] Marking the empha1. 176. “Securus cadat an recto stet fabula sis; to draw attention to the losses which this talo." R. D. Stood my ground; was poet would have sustained, had not his pernot driven off;—the contrary of exactus, a severance saved him; for thus Ambivius has person not able to maintain his footing. more abundant excuse for persevering now in

8. sciebam] From this knowledge he in- the Hecyra. studio,] Not, “pursuit,” ferred that the failure was not the fault of the for then labore, would not have so much point, poet, but of casualty. D. dubiam fortunam] as is evidently marked by atque. Translate, 1 Horace might well say, Ep. ii. 1. 177. therefore, “ enthusiasm, zeal” for contest and “Quem tulit ad scenam ventoso Gloria curru.' competition. So, Virg. Georg. iii. 498. The gale of fortune here is as capricious, as 6 studiorum atque immemor herbæ.” Ov. the people, the governors of it, were giddy Amor. iii. 268. “Cui studeás video: vincet (arbitrio popularis auræ). There is allitera- cuicunque favebis.” Thus, the poet would tion of a in this line; See Heaut. prol. 41. be discouraged (ab studio);-his labour lost

9. Spe incerta,] For spei incerta, or shall (ab labore);—and the drama (arte musica) we understand in? D. The ablative ab- would lose a votary who might prove an acsolute. “ Where hope was uncertain.” in- quisition. certa, certum] Antithesis and paronoma- 16. in præsentia,] | Under these circumsia; compare, 10. Easdem--eodem; 11. stu- stances then being present. See Heaut, v. 2.9. diose-studio; 18. otio-negotio ; 23, 24. ves- 17. operam sumere] | We find, Operam tra- nostra. 29. Vetere-nova; 36. mihi sumere in aliquo, dare alicui ad aliquod, predatum est: vobis datur; tempus-potestas; stare alicui ad aliquid, navare alicui. 46. inique iniqui; 47. causa causam. These 18. negotio ;] From ne (or, perhaps, figures, when judiciously employed, have a sine) and otium. See on 9. powerful effect on a multitude; and were, in 19. Deterruissem] [ Scil. potest esse ut ancient days, a chief recommendation to dra- det. “I might easily have frightened Cæcilius matic pieces.

from writing others,”—by allowing the same 11. studiosé; ne illum] 1 See the argu- blank prospect to stand before him. ment to this prologue ; illum means Cæcilius.

20 Nunc quid petam, mea causa æquo animo attendite,

Hecyram ad vos refero, quam mihi per silentium
Nunquam agere licitum est, ita eam oppressit calamitas.
Eam calamitatem vestra intelligentia

Sedabit, si erit adjutrix nostræ industrie.
25 Quum primum eam agere coepi, pugilum gloria,

(Funambuli eodem accessit exspectatio,)
Comitum conventus, strepitus, clamor mulierum
Fecere, ut ante tempus exirem foras.

Vetere, in nova, cæpi uti consuetudine, 30 In experiendo ut essem : refero denuo.

Primo actu placeo: quum interea rumor venit,
Datum iri gladiatores, populus convolat:
Tumultuantur, clamant, pugnant de loco.

Ego interea meum non potui tutari locum.
35 Nunc turba nulla est: otium, et silentium, est.

Agendi tempus mihi datum est: vobis datur

20. æquo animo] | Compare Heaut. prol. in nová fabulá; not well. cæpi] I Com27. and 35.

pare its similar position in line 10, where he 21. per silentium] See Heaut. prol. 36. speaks of a similar, though different, circum“ with the advantage of a calm.”

stance, 22. ita] See 13. oppressit] | Quashed 30. In experiendo ut essem.] i. e. ut it, overwhelmed it; like the hurricane ; from experirer. “Esse in aliquâ re means “in which a metaphor is probably intended here; aliquâ re versari.” R. D. So ibi esse, in observe Sedabit.

Heaut. v. 2. 30. and ib. iii. 1. 63. refero 25. Quum primùm] I See argument to denuo ;] Tre and denuo, redundancy, to first prologue. pugilum gloria,] Periphrasis, mark his perseverance. Refero, placeo, venit, for pugiles gloriosi. Virg. Ân. v. 368. &c. are instances of the præsens historicum; “ vastis cum viribus effert Ora Dares, see Heaut. v. 2. 30. magnoque virúm se murmure tollit." D. 32. Datum iri] | This form is consistent The loud boasting of boxers.

with the præsens historicum, pervading this 26. eódem] | To the same scene of con- forcible and eloquent sentence; for, otherwise fusion. accessit] Bentley, to avoid inter- it should be dandas esse, as expressing that a ruption in the sentence, would read “ acce, thing, at a time past, was about to take place. dens.” exspectatio,] 1 They were expecting gladiatores :] First exhibited by M. and a rope dancer; another incentive to the up. D. Brutus at funeral games in honour of

their father, in the consulate of Claudius and 27. Comitum] As I know not, how this Fulvius. We are told that sometimes even can mean either the favourers of the pugilists, women fought with the sword in the empire. or servants attendant on their masters; perhaps There existed a college of these men at we might read comiti, from comitium. Þ. Rome, as early, at least, as 177. A. D. They strepitus,] T Al. studium, with the meaning were forbidden by Constantine; and after him which I attach to studio. 15. From this by Honorius. passage it is inferred that on that occasion 34. meum locum.] | There is a drollery the Hecyra was introduced in an amphi- in the juxta position of loco and locum, as theatre.

referring to his own place (i. e. the stage), and 29. Vetere] 1 I began to resort to my old the place (i. e. seats), for which the people custom, scil. trying again and again, as in were fighting ;-how could he retain that the case of Cæcilius. in nová] | Scil. con- concerning which a whole multitude was at suetudine, implied; in this new custom of war ? expelling a play written by Terence; a thing 36. datum est :] By the ædiles. D. unprecedented. This is otherwise explained,

roar.

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