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ably blended in the mass of the moul- been authorized by law, as a fupreme dering stone.

council for consulting the interefts From the several periods of the of religion, joined their voice of apfixteenth century, when, in the chan- probation to the decrees of the king, ges of government, the fluctuating and concurred in the expediency of councils of administration more or these measures : but the barons, who lefs countenanced the Presbyterian had once tasted the comfort of en. plea for a reform of the religious in- joying the ecclesiastical emoluments, ftitutions are to be dated various and thereby finding their fortunes peculiar revolutions of property, more unembarrassed and free, reluc, which took place as the interests of tantly gave up their claim to the Episcopacy role or felt in the politi- poffeffion, foon profited anew of the cal scale.

opportunities which the fucceeding While it was in agitation, that the distractions of government offered hierarchy of the episcopal communi. them, and favoured the popular reon should be abrogated in Scotland, monstrances of the hardships they fufthe extensive territories which had fered from the alledged tyranny of been devoted by princes and nobles the bishops. to the church, opened a spacious field Laurence the fourth Lord Oliof interest in the reform, where the phant, who served heir to his father ambition of numbers failed not to re. in 1566, is represented in memorials gale their hopes of acquiring addi- of the times as a man of fingular tional fortunes, by the supreffion of merit, a great loyalist, adhering firm. the dignified clergy. Many of the ly to the interests of Queen Mary barons, therefore, readily catched during all the time of the civil wars. the spirit of the prevailing zeal, and His son married a daughter of the warmly espoused the expediency of Earl of Morton. Few families had reducing religion to a fimpler form made a greater figure in Caledonian than was found in the expensive efta. story than his. The race is traced blishment of cathedrals and collegiate up to a Noble Dane, who came over churches: accordingly, during the in the reign of Donald VI. One of minority of James VI. we find the the descendants is found witness to a fchemes of the facrilegious avarice charter of a priory granted by King nearly completed; and while the in- David II. Another, a man of

great fatiable Morton directed the coun- interest and power, inarried Lady Elie cils of administration, the greatest zabeth Bruce, daughter of the impart of the revenues of the church mortal King Robert. were alienated to fecular purposes, Charles the seventh Lord Oli. and to indulge the wilhes of his fa- phant, who, in the end of last centu. vourites. It is true, that when the ry, married a young lady of the faabove monarch ascended the throne mily of Ogilvie of Miltown, built of these united kingdoms, and saw this castle, which still retains bis how far the stability of his crown Their only fon died when was to be maintained by the influ. young; and their lands in the barony ence of the fpiritual lords, by royal of Keith were recognized, by adju. authority the lands and revenues of dication, to be then the property of the church were to be restored, and the Earls of Findlater. They had the Bishops of Scotland ordained to been of old in the possession of that resume their feats ju Parliament, as family; and after' various fortune resome balance to the turbulent fpirit stored, continue annexed to the exand encreasing power of the barons. tenfive territories, which constitute The General Asembly, which had their present fo valuable eftate.

SHORT

name.

5 SHORT RECAPITULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS

OF 1795

Dec. 30. 1754. PARLIAMENT with 31 fail of the line and u Fria

meets. -The gates. Returns to port without meetaddress on his Majesty's speech car. ing an enemy. ried in the House of Lords, 107 to Immense mischief done in England 12;in the Commons 246 to 73. by the sudden thaw-A number of

Jan. 4. 1795. Earl Fitzwilliam, bridges, &c. carried away. In Scotbeing appointed Lord Lieutenant' of land the frost itill continues. Ireland, arrives at Dublin.

Feb. 4. Mr Pitt brought down a 16. Intelligence received that the message from his Majesty respecting French had crossed the Waal, and the Austrian loan. On the address were rapidly advancing into Holland. in answer to this, an amendment was As they proceed, the different towns moved by Mr Fox, which was nega. 'are surrendered to them without op- tived, 173 to 58. position. The British army, unable 12. The snow lies excessively deep to cope with a force so infinitely lạ. in the streets of Edinburgh and in perior in numbers, retreats flowly in the neighbourhood - Three hundred to Germany, encountering many hard- soldiers and labourers employed by fhips, in their march, from the incle- the Magistrates to clear the roads to mency of the weather, &c.

the coal-hills-14. A gentle thaw La Pique French frigate of 38 commences, the thermometer from guns, taken, in the West Indies, by 34 to 40 deg. this however is foon the Blanche, Capt. Faulknor, who again succeeded by froft. is killed in the action.

The boats,

20. An embargo laid on the shipbeing staved, Mr Milne the second ping, till the different quotas of men Lieutenant gallantly swims on board (required by the new bill for manto take poffeffion of the prize. ning the navy) are furnished.

18. The Exchange and Council 23. Mr Pitt opens the Budget. room at Liverpool destroyed by fire. The loan 18 niillions, 6 of which are

19. The Stadtholder, the princess for the Emperor. The new taxes of Orange, and their family, landed on wine, fpirits, tea, coffee, insuranat Yarmouth. Apartments provided ces, hair powder, and limitation of for them at Hampton-Court palace. franking. Their treasure and baggage were 26. Observed as a day of humiiibrought to town in fourteen wag- ation and prayer in Scotland, in congons.

fequence of his Majesty's proclama22. The snow which had been fal- tion. ling for several days preceding, so March. 3. A complete thaw com. deep as to interrupt travelling, and mences, the frost having lafted 51 days. in many places to stop all communi. 4. Richard Brothers, a pretended .cation.

political prophet, taken into cuftody, 25. An embargo laid on all Dutch and sent to a mad house. fhipping in British ports.

16. Admiral Hotbam defeats the 29. Liberal subscriptions made in French fleet in the Mediterranean, every part to relieve the indigent and captures the Ca Ira of 80, and At no period were the benevolence Censeur of 74 guns. and humanity of the inhabitants of 31. Earl fitzwilliam having been Edinburgh more conspicuous.-The fuperfeded in the Viceroyalty of Ire. thermometer, this day, at.13 deg. land, Lord Camden, his lucceilos, arLord Howe fails from Spithçad rives in Dublin.

April

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April. 7. Princess Caroline of 27, Mr Wilberforce brings for Brunswick landed at Greenwich, and ward a motion respecting peace, proceeded to St James's palace, where which is negatived, 201 to 86. on the evening of the next day, she June 1. Admiral Cornwallis, with was married to the Prince of Wales, five fail of the line and two frigates, with every poflible fplendour. fell in with the French fleet off U.

9. The King of Prussia concludes fnant, of 13 fail of the line and 12 a peace with the French Republic. frigates, which, after maintaining a

14. The trial of Mr Hastings con- running fight, he outfailed by supericluded. The Lords severally gave or seamanthip; the enemy, notwiththeir solemn decision, and he was ac- standing their great fuperiority, shewquitted of all the charges of impeach. ing little inclination to engage. ment brought againit him by the Com 5. A dreadful fire broke out at Coo mons.--This trial commenced Feb. penhagen, which consumed about 57 12. 1988, and from that period to its ftreets, and 1200 or 1500 houses. close fat 149 days.

24. The new Conftitution of France 18. Two French frigates of 40 presented by the Committee of Elc. guns each (La Gentille and La ven to the Convention. Gloire) taken by Admiral Colpoy's Lord Bridport attacks the French squadron.

squadron off L'Orient, and captures 23. The trial of the Rev, Mr Jack- the Alexander, Formidable, and Ti. fon for high treason came on at Dub- gre, ships of the line, lin. He was found guilty, but re 27. Parliament rises-The royal commended to mercy.

On being affent is given to the bills arranging brought up a week afterwards, to re the Prince of Wale's debts--and for ceive sentence, he dropped down, the establishment of their Royal and almoft instantly expired, in con- Highneffes the Prince and Princess's fequence, it is supposed, of poison.

Household, 30. The fleet of transports of 140

The Senate of the United fail, with the British infantry from States of America ratifies the treaty the continent on board, arrive off the of amity, commerce, and navigation, coast of Northumberland.

with Great Britain. May. 1. The campaign between July 3. A body of French emi. the Auftrians and French opened by grants, àbout 7000 in number, hava a bloody action before Mentz, in ing been formed into regiments upon which the former were completely British pay, were landed on the victorious.

French coast, and took poffeffion of The Boyne man of war, of 98 guns, the peninsula of Quiberon and Fort burot by accident at Spithead. Penthievre; but on the night of the

15. The court martial held at 21st, in confequence of treachery aPortsmouth on Captain Molloy, for mong themselves, they were surprised not having used his utmost endea- by the Republican army. About 900 vours, in the engagement of May 29. of thị troops, and 1500 Royaliils and June 1. 1794, closed, after fitting who bad 'joined them, escaped on fixteen days. His sentence was, that board the feet; the rest were either he be disinified from his Majesty's killed or taken prisoners. mip the Cæser.

14. An engagement takes place 19. An insurrection takes place between Admiral Hotham's and the at Paris, excited principally by the French Heet in the Mediterranean, in fcarcity of bread, and by the intrigues which the Alcide a French 74 ftruck; of the Jacobins, in which Ferrand, but was afterwards accidentally blown one of the Deputies, is maffacred.

up.

17. The

Principal Events in 1795.

7 - Fuly 17. The Ville de Paris of diterranean fleet unfortunately fell in 120 guns, the finest thip ever built in with a French squadron of superior England, launched at Chatham. force to their convoy, when the Cen-,

22. Twenty-four sail of East-In- seur, of 74 guns, and a number of diamen arrive safe at Portsmouth. the merchantmen, were captured.

23. Mr York, alias Redhead, con 27. After a violent oppolition from victed at York aflizes of a confpira- the sections of Paris, during which a cy and uttering feditious words. He number of lives were loft, the Conwas afterwards sentenced to be im- vention succeeded in establishing the prisoned two years.

new conftitution, and this day the Aug. 4. The French Convention New Legislature met for the first time, ratified a treaty of peace with Spain. the Council of Five Hundred at the,

13. A severe storm of thunder and Thuilleries, that of the Elders, con-, lightning, the effects of which were fitting of 250, at the Palais Bours, almost general in England and Scot. bon, land. In Perthshire, considerable 29. Parliament meets A most da. damage was done by the swelling of ring outrage was committed on his the rivers.

Majesty in his pairage through St Sept. 6. The French army of the James's Park to the House of Lords. Sambre and Meule crossed the Rhine A pebble, or bullet, thrown with at Dusseldorff.

great force, broke one of the win14. Letters of marque issued au. dows in the carriage, but providenthorising the capture of Dutch vel. tially his Majesty received no hurt. fels.

When his Majesty had delivered his 17. The church of St Paul, Co- speech, the Lords deferred the convent-Garden, built by Inigo Jones, fideration of it till next day, and proand highly admired for its simple e. ceeded to examine several persons legance, consumed by fire.

who had been apprehended as acces20. Manheim furrenders to the fory to the above attempt. Their French army, without making any Lordhips concluded an address of defence,

congratulation to his Majesty on his 23. The Scipio man of war, with fortunate escape. transports under convoy, containing In the Commons, an address on 3000 troops, arrived at Martinique, the speech was moved as usual, and

The Maroon negroes in Jamaica an amendment propofed by Mr Fox, having evinced a rebellious spirit, negatived 240 to $9.-An address and committed a variety of depreda- on his Majesty's escape was also untions, are reduced to subjection by animously voted. the spirited and judicious measures of 30. The address on the speech palthe Governor, Lord Balcarras. fes, in the House of Lords, without

27, The New Bridewell in Edin- a division. burgh, an important improvement in On the 17th of this month, the the police of that city, receives its French army in the neighbourhood first inhabitants.

of Manheim were defeated by the 28. Rear-Admiral Pringle's squa- Austrian General Wurmfer, with dron arrived in Leith roads where it great loss; in confequence of which continued zill Nov. 15.

they retreat across the Rline, pursu. A gold mine (or rather detached ed in every direction by the Austri. pieces of that metal) discovered in ans. the county of Wicklow mountains in On the 29th, Marshal Clairfait atIreland.

tacked the French in their entrenchThe homeward-bound Mc- ed camp before Mentz, and gained

02.7

2 com.

a complete victory. The fiege of body of the fleet, however, confifting Meatz is of confequence raised, and of 183 transports, proceeds on its the French retreat with precipita. voyage. tion.

18. An incessant and heavy rain Nov.

3. A select committee ap- takes place, by which the rivers are pointed by the House of Commons fo greatly swelled as to do very great to enquire into the fearcity and high damage to mills, bridges, &c. The price of corn -The distilleries are new bridge over the Clyde at GlasAtopt till Feb. 1797.

gow was swept away. 2. The Lord Provost and Magi. The shock of an earthquake felt at Atrates of Edinburgh vote an address York, Sheffield, &c. of congratulation to his Majesty on 21. Manheim surrendered to the his escape from the daring attempt Austrian army. on his person.

25. The King of Poland figned Similar addresses were presented the treaty of partition of Poland. from every county, city, and public 26. Intelligence received of the body, in the kingdom, all expressing important capture of the Cape of their abhorrence at the outrage, and Good Hope by his Majesty's forces most of them recommending a law to commanded by Admiral Elphinstone, to prevent such daring attempts in and Generals Clarke and Craig. future.

Dec. 1. Another engagement be. 6--10. Two bills were brought tween the Austrians and French at into Parliament, one for the prefer- Kreutzenach, in which the latter have vation of his Majesty's perfon, the the advantage. other for fupprefsing seditious meet. 7. Mr Pitt opens the Budgetings. During the pendency of these The loan 18 millions. Taxes on colo bills, the public mind was greatly agi- lateral succession--tobacco-printed tated; petitions for and against them cottons_horses-10 per cent. on al being presented from almost every fefied taxes-diminution of draw. quarter.-In their different stages backs on sugar and salt. through Parliament, notwithstanding 8. Mr Pitt brings down a message a moft ftrenuous opposition, they were from his Majesty, intimating that the carried by very great majorities. order of things in France at present After being confiderably modified was such as to induce his Majesty ta, and altered, they received the royal meet any difpofition to negociation affent on the 18th December. on the part of the enemy.

15. The powerful armament def. 10. The French Executive Direce tined for the Weft Indies, which for tory having openly announced the a confiderable time before had been ruined state of the finances, the Legi. in preparation, under the command flature decrees a forced loan of 600 of Sir Ralph Abercromby, and es. millions of livres. corted by a squadron, commanded by 11. An agreement respecting the Admiral Christian, fails from Portl- quality and consumption of bread mouth, but before they clear the acceded to by the House of Com, Channel are encountered by a violent mons. ftorm, which disperses the feet, and 23. The Count D'Artois fails from compells them to return, with the loss Portsmouth in the Jafon frigate for of several transports. Having repai- Leith, Apartments are prepared at red the damage, they again fail on the palace of Holyroodhouse, where December 9. and again unfortunately the Prince is to relide. fuffer in a gale of wind which drives 24. Parliament adjourned to Feb, about 35 transports back; the main 2. 1796.

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