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History of Jews in England.

273 This Manasseh, on his arrival in was pending, the Rabbee Jacob Ben England, presented an Address to Azahel professed to entertain suspithe Lord Protector, recognizing his cions that Cromwell was the expectauthority, and foliciting his protec- ed Messiah ; an opinion propagated, tion : “ For our people, (says he,) no doubt, for the purpose of attracts “ did in their own minds presage, ing a vast concourse of the lower " that the kingly government being claffes of Jews into England, in case

now changed into that of a com- the political equality, for which Ma" monwealth, the ancient hatred to- nassah petitioned, could have been “ ward them, would also be changed obtained. Some few muft, from this ", into good-will: that those rigour- period, have settled in London by

ous laws, if any there be yet extant connivance, fince, in 1663, their re.

made under the kings, againft fo gifter of births contained twelve 6 innocent a people, would happily names : and during the whole reign “ be repealed.” He also presented, of Charles II. who introduced the printed, and dispersed, a declaration sale of patents of denization, their to the commonwealth, and a treatise numbers increased. containing several arguments for to In 1684, James the Second, (who leration, addressed to the justice of lost the affections of the bigotted, the principled, to the prudence of people, as much by his disposition to the reflecting, and to the prejudices tolerate both Catholics and Diffenof the multitude *. On the 4th of ters, as by his political intolerance December, 1655, Cromwell summon- to the adherents of Monmouth,) reed a convention, meeting, or privy mitted the alien duty upon all goods council, confifting of two lawyers, exported, in favour of the Jews. seven citizens, and fourteen noted This was universally resented by the preachers, to consult upon this re- English merchants, who were appre, quest of the Jews. Among the lat. henlive, that the same duties would ter, Mr Goodwin and Mr Peters, also be remitted upon all imported (whose works were burned along goods. Petitions from the Hamwith those of Milton at the Resto- burgh company, from the East-land ration) and Mr Nye, (of celebrated company, from fifty-seven of the lead. beard,) particularly exerted them. ing merchants in the city, from the felves in favour of putting the Jews west

, and from the north, were offerupon the like footing with other ed to the king against this equitable seas. So many symptoms of preju. regulation. These illiberal beings dice and intolerance escaped from os were glad, under any pretext, to de, thers, that, after a conference of four fraud some of their neighbours of days, Cromwell began to think the the privilege to trade upon the same measure would not be introduced to terms with themselves : remember, the people from the pulpits, in a ing the homely proverb,“ the fewer manner to assist its popularity ; and “ the better cheer," they were natherefore dismissed the meeting, say. turally very glad to see the number ing, they had rendered the matter of candidates lesened for the advan. more doubtful to him than it was be. tanges they were themselves friving fore. On the ift of April, he took to obtain. After the revolution, this leave of Manaffeh, by a polite, but order was fuperfeded, to the great evasive answer. Whilst this affair joy of the Christian merchants.

In

* The notorious pamphlet in favour of fabbatizing, declared by the votes of the house, in March 1649, to be erroneous, scandalous, and profane, does not appear to have had the flighted connection with the views of Mansafich and his employers.

In the first year of Queen Anne, a pression of Jew-brokers. No pub. detestable statute was passed, to en- lic proceeding, however, ensued : es courage the conversion of young quity for once overpowered selffhJews, by emancipating such converts nefs : it seemed the dawn of rising lifrom all dependence upon their pa berality ; but, like the twilight of a vents. And in the sixth year of Geo, winter's morn with the aretic-circle, II. Reafons were offered to the Lord was to be succeeded by no effectual Mayor and court of Aldermen, for fun-fhine. applying to Parliament for the sup [To be concluded in our next. ]

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ACCOUNT OF THE NEW ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIEN. CES, AND OF SOME OTHER RECENT NATIONAL INSTI: TUTIONS IN FRANCE, FOR THE PROMOTION OF KNOWLEDGE.

TI

HE great exertions of France perfection of which they are capable'

in military preparations, have It is to notice every new attempt, excited' apprehenfions, that, as, ac. and all new discoveries, and to keep cording to Mr Burke, the country up a correspondence with all foreign had been blotted out of the map of literary societies. And by the par.. Europe,” it had also no longer any ticular orders of the executive direcplace in the Republic of letters. But tory, its first studies are to be direc. the cruelties of the reign of terror ted to those subjects, which more are over: all the men of science and immediately tend to the reputation genius are not destroyed'; and those and advantage of the French repubwho have survived the wreck, seem lie." to be inspired with tenfold ardour, The Academy is to consift of 288 to supply the losses their country has members, half of whom are to retide fustained. The executive govern- in Paris, the other half in the department co-operates with them, and ments; and to them is to be added a from the united efforts of genius and certain number of foreigners, as hoe power, whatever may be the politi- norary members, confined at present cal results of the present state of Eu- to twenty-four. rope, literature and science seem like The Academy is divided into Iy to be more foftered in France, in three claffes, each class into sections, this, than in any former period. each section to contain twelve mem

On the 7th of last December, The bers. New Academy of Arts and Sciences, Ist class.Mathematics and na, founded on a decree of the new con- tural philosophy. This class is divided Ritution, was opened with proper ce. into ten sections. 1. Mathematics. 2. remonies. Benezech, the minister Mechanical arts. 3. Astronomy, .4. for the home department, attended Experimental philosophy. 5. Che. the meeting. The decrees were read, miftry. 6. Natural history, 7. Bo. and preliminary speeches made. tany. 8. Anatomy and animal hil

The decree was to the following tory. 9. Medicine and surgery. 10. purport :

Animal economy, and the veterinary “ The Academy of Arts and Sci. fcience. ences belongs to the whole republic, 2d class.-Morality and politics. and Paris is its place of residence. This class consists of six fections. Its employment is to aim at bringing Analysis of sensations and ideas. all arts and sciences to the utmoft Morals. 3. Legislature.

tical

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4. Poli.

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Le Gen- ly.

deccunt of the New French Academy's &c. 275 tical economy. 5. History. 6. Geo- res. , Merlin de Douay. Paftoret. graphy

Garun, de Coulon. Baudin, 3d class.--Literature and the fine d. Political Economy.--Sieyes. Creuze. arts. This class consists of eight sec- Latouche. Dupont. Lacuée. Taley, tions. 1. Universal grammar. 2. An- rand. Roederer. cient languages. 3. Poetry. 4. An e. History.--L'Eyeque. De Sal. tiquities. 5. Painting. 6. Sculpture. le. Raynal. Anquetil. Gaillard. 7. Architecture. 8. Music,

Dacier. The residentiary members are al f. Geography.—Buache. Mentelle. ready appointed, and of many, the Reinhard. Fleurieu. Gofrelin. Bou, reputation has been long established. gainville.

Third Class.
First Class.

a. Grammar --Sicard. Andrieux, a. Mathematics.--Lagrange. La Villars. Louvet. Domergue. WailPlace. Borda. Boffut. dre. Delambre,

b. Ancient Languages.-Dusalt. Bi. b. Mechanics.-Monge. Prony. taubé. Silvestre de Sacy. Dutheil. Le Roy. Perrier. Vandermonde. Langlés. Selis. J. Berthout.

c. Poetry.---Le Brun. Chenier. Dec. Aftronomy.--Lalande. Mechain. lille. Colin d'Harleville. Fontanés. Lemonier. Pingré. Meflier. Cal- Ducis. fini.

d. Antiquities.-Dupuy. Monges. d. Experimental Philosophy. Charles. Leblond. D. Le Roy. Ameilhon. Coulin. Briffon. Coulon, Rochoin. Camus. Le Fevre.

e. Painting.-David. Spaendonk. e. Chemistry.-Guyton Morveau. Vien. Vincent. Renard. Tau, Berthollet. Fourcroy. Bayen. Pelle- nay. tier. Vauquelin.

f. Sculpture.-Houdon. Pajon. Juf. Natural History.--Darcet. Hauy. lien. Monette. Dejoux. Desmarets. Dolomieu. Duhamel. g. Architecture.-De Wailly. GonLeliévre.

doin. Paris. Boulée. Peyre. Reg.Botany.--Lamark. Desfontaines. mond. Adanson. Juffieu. L'Heritier. Ven h. Music.-Mehul. Goffec. Gre. tenat,

try. Molé. Preville. Monvel, h. Anatomy. - Daubenton. Lace The names in Italic are those of pede. Tenon. Cuvier. Broullonet. members of the council, either of five Richard.

hundred or of the ancients. La Re. i. Medicine. -Defeffart. Saba. veillere is one of the members of the tbier. Portal. Hallé. Peletan. executive directory. Laffus.

For each class a particular room k. Veterinary science. Thouin. in the Louvre is appropriated. No Gilbert. Tellier. Cels. Parmen- one can be a member of two classes tier. Huzard.

at the same time, but a member of Second Class.

one class may be present at the

meetings of any other. Each class a. Analysis of Sensations.-Volney. is to print, yearly, an account of its Garat. Ginguene. Le Breton. De transactions. Leyre. Cabanis.

Four times a year, there are to be b. Morals.-Ber de St Pierre. Mere public meetings. On these occasions, cier. Gregoire. La Reveillere. La the three classes meet together. At Kanal, Negeon.

the end of each year they are to give c. Legiluture.Daunou, Cambace- a circumstantial account to the legiEd. Mag. April 1796.

gillative

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lative body, of the progress made in ed many places in Homer, which he that year in the arts and sciences. esteemed as Hebraisins.

Cavísin, The prizes given yearly by each . Profeffor of Arabic, read a translaclass are to be publicly notified at tion of a little Arabic poem, of the certain times. The fums requisite fixth century; and several other Profor the support of the institution are feflors read their essays on the parts to be decreed yearly by the legisla- of knowledge or literature in their tive body, upon a requisition made by respective branches. the executive directory.

The first forty-eight members were Two great national institutions chosen by the executive directory, to The Museum of Paintings, or Conwhom the choice of the remaining servatory of the Arts, and The Libmembers was confided. To the mem- rary, promise to be eminently benefi. bers, relidentiary in Paris, is reserv. cial to the world. Each of them ed the choice both of the department has been greatly enriched by the acand the foreign members. On a va- quisitions of the republic. The first, cancy in any class, three candidates by a vast collection of paintings from are named by the class for tlıe choice Holland and the 'Low Countries, and of the body at large,

continual contributions, promises to Each cláss is to have, at its place draw to Paris (as Italy formerly did) of meeting, a collection of the pro. the artists of all nations. Several ducts, both of nature and art, and a changes have been made in the nalibrary, according to its particular tional library. It is now under the

direction of a committee of fix per. The regulations of the institution, fons, with equal powers. De Praet with respect to the times of meeting, has the care of the printed books, and its employments, are to be drawn Langles the eastern manuscripts. Duup by the body at large, and laid be. theil, the Greek and Latin manulfore the legislative afsembly. cripts. Le Grand d'Auffy, the ma

nuscripts in modern languages. Bar. On the first of December, the Col. thelemy, the medals and antiques ; lege Royal was again opened, under and Joly the copper plates. the name of the College of France, As many of the former professors From the decree of the legifative have disappeared, the remaining mem- body, and the preparations in confebers are to fill up their places, with quence of it, the French begin to the approbation of the executive di- fiatter themselves, that they shall rectory. At the opening of the col. soon make a considerable progress in lege, Bouchaud, formerly member of the eastern languages. According the Academy of Inscriprions, read, to this decree, a Public School is to as Profeffor of the law of nations, be erected in the national library, the plan of his future lectures, Portal for the learning of Eastern Languagave an account of the epidemic fe- ges, particularly of those which ver in the Vendée, and of the open. may be useful in political or coming of the body of Lalande’s nephew, mercial speculations. This school is who lost his life by this disease. La- to have the following masters: one lande

gave his history of Astronomy, for the ancient and modern Arabić; for the year 1795, the plan of the one for the Turkish and -Tartarian; new board of longitude, and a sketch and another for Perfian and Malayan. of the plan to measure a meridional The teachers are to instruct their line from Dunkirk to Barcelona. Ri. scholars, not only in the languages, viere, Profeffor of Hebrew, explain- but in the political and commereial

rela.

Minutes from Agricultural Reports.

277 relations of the nations speaking those quiries of the committee for public languages, to the French. Their in. instruction, to which are committed ftructions muft be given in the French the erecting and fuperintendance of language, and be open to the. in- this school.

MINUTES OF AGRICULTURE, FROM THE REPORTS OF

THE AGRICULTURAL BOARD.

[CONTINUED FROM PAGE 168.] BRECKNOCKS HIR E. nature is composed, that if he is his Mr John Clark.

friend, he will be apt to calculate, not

the value of the damage done to his of

to Meadows. flooding of land is no where better land below him will reap from the understood, nor the operation more proposed cut, and make his charge acjudiciously performed, than in this cordingly. diftrict. Nature has been so uncom Sand being the prevailing genus monly bouotiful in this respect, that of the soil, this land is wonderful well. she has left little more for man to adapted to receive great benefit from do, than gratefully to accept of her being looded with any water, that is proffered gifts. From the sides of not charged with metallic particles furrounding hills, the water rulhes hoftile to vegetation. They generally forth in innumerable springs, as if feed their beeves upon the lattermath placed there by Him, who formed the grass of their meadows, without samountains, for the husbandman's im- crificing this grass ; therefore, they mediate use.

are prevented from turning the water Round most of this district, (the on the land so early in autumn as hundred of Talgarth, and the vale of they could wish. Uk as high as Daveynog) the brooks An intelligent farmer observed, are formed by springs, issuing from that notwithstanding he valued his the hills, at different degrees of ele- lattermath crop at fifteen shillings an .vation, from 1 to 1 200 feet above the acre, yet he found, that the cheapest beds of the two main rivers ; except- manure he could dress his meadows ing therefore, the detached hills, in- with, was to facrifice this crop once terspersed through the middle of the in ten or twelve years, by turning on district, most of it might be watered. the water in August, or whenever a But man, born to prey upon man, flood happened after a long drought, sometimes steps forth to disappoint To catch the first water of a flood the beneficent intention. From the after a long drought, is of very great intermixed manner, in which the importance, more especially if the land is poffefsed in this county, it very water be collected from common frequently happens, that a man can- hills, or other pasture grounds that not raise water on his own land, but are hanging, or fide lands, where is obliged to obtain leave of his neigh- theep and cattle have depaftured for bour immediately above him, to bring some time; for their dung, as well as it thro' some part of his land. This the particles of eartb, which the heat neighbour is either his foe or his of the fun had pulverized, are all friend. If he is his foe he will not swept off by the first autumnal floods, give bim leave on any condition. And and' in general loft from the above such are the materials of which human circumdance. Mm2

The

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