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1750, to see what he did to advance their number was augmented to 1 296. the above mentioned purposes. -A twelve-month after the publie:

He was not, nor did he wish to be cation of this Flora, followed a de. such an universalift as Haller; and scription of the Swedith animals, nature remained his sole study. His birds, amphibia, 'fishes, infects and application was entirely bestowed u- vermes; a work which he had al. pon her productions. He gave lec- ready begun to collect, while a ftutures on botany, natural history, the dent at Upsal in the year 1730. There medicinal virtues of plants, the Ma- had never appeared lo general and, teria Medica, and on the diætetic complete a zoology of any country, and knowledge of diseases. His de- The first edition contained 1350 arlivery was a pattern for a professor ticles. By his own discoveries, and än point of energy, instruction and en- the observations of his pupils, this tertainment.

number was increased, in a second The new-established academy of edition, fifteen years after, to 2266, Stockholm owed partly its existence This last edition presented the followto the zeal of Linnæus, and found in ing state and proportion of the animal him the most active promoter of its reign in Sweden: 1691 species of inflourilhing and respe&able state. From fects, 198 of vermes, 195 of birds, the year 1739 ro 1750 he caused 77 of fishes, 53 of mammalia and 25 twenty- -five treatises to be inserted in ef amphibia. its annals, relative to several remark- His merits were now honoured able animals, plants, and other Swe- and acknowledged, not only abroad, dilh natural curiosities. He was also but also at home. In 1743 he was a most a&ive co-operator in the roy; chosen member of the Academy of al fociety of Upfal, among all the Sciences of Montpellier, where he learned corporate bodies, which firit kept up his friendly correspondence admitted him a member, and made with profeffor de Sauvages; seven him its secretary for several years. years after he was elected member of During the same period he enriched the society of Thoulouse, and in 1747 its transactions with twelve theses. member of the Royal Academy of In the spring of 1746 he made a tour Berlin. In the fame year he caused to West Gothland. He travelled fimilar honours to be bestowed on more than

300 German leagues, and several of his learned friends in Swe. in the following year published the den: Haller, Jussieu, Sauvages, Gelresult of his observations. In the ner, Gmelin, Clayton, Collinfon, and summer of 1749, he visited Scania or Van Swieten were received members Schonen, the most southern of the of the Royal Academy at Stockholm, Swedish provinces. This

This was the an honour which had, for the first fixth and last tour which he made in time been conferred upon foreigners, his own country. Thus Linnæus be. Linnæus received a testimony of rescame the father of a beautiful and pect in his own country, which had most accurate natural statistic of his never yet been bestowed on any of own country. Before he fet out on his academical predecessors. Four his two laft tours, he published a de- patriotic grandees, Count Ekeblad, fcriptiou of the Swedish plants, with Hoepken, Palmstierna and Baron an index illustrating their medical Harleman, caused a gold medal to be and economical properties, the place ftruck in honour of him. of their growth, and their Swedish Linnæus was highly fond of the and provincial denominations. This portraits of great and celebrated men, first edition contained a description He had collected many of them in ef 1140 plants, and in the second, his travels abroad. In the apartments




of his house those of the most remark- fions of that prince. In a short time

а able botanists were exhibited to view. a great number of curiosities of the In 1746 a print of Haller was pub- animal reign, especially foreign birds, lished in copper plate. Linnæus re- amphibia, filhes, and insects were colquested a copy of this portrait of Hal- lected, and a cabinet built in the castle ler himself, and sent him one of his at Ulrichsdale, at the distance of half gold medals in return. At the inf- a league from Stockholm. Linnæus tance of Count Teslin, Linnæus ob- had the honour to arrange it, and to tained the title of Archiater, or Dean publish a defcription of its contentsia of the College of Physicians, on the, the year 1754. 19th of January 1747.

The laudable example ofthis prince His father,-who in his youth was followed by his excellent and had designed Linnæus for an appren- accomplished Queen Louisa Ulrica, tice to a shoe-maker! -now saw his sister to Frederick the Great. She son thus honoured by the great men had a cabinet of shells, insects and of the kingdom, railed to dignities, corals collected at her own expence his fame spread all over Europe, and in her palace at Drottningholm, the his name rendered immortal. The flow increase of which rendered its father of Linnæus died at Stenbrohult, treasures the more valuable. The May 12, 1748, aged 74. Long ago oriental collections of the unfortunwould his memory have perished but ate Hasselquist were preserved in the for his great fon, who was at first the same place. Linnæus also described torment, but afterwards the delight this museum. The two royal palaces of and boast of his life.

Ulrichsdale and Drottningholm till His disciples became the priests contain to this day the monuments and teachers of nature in all parts of of his labours and arrangements. The the world; through him the love of late King Guftavus III. left those her productions animated the great, treasures of nature, which will ever and penetrated even to the throne of shine as an ornament in those edifices, his country. Count Tessin, his ele. in the same order as Linnæus had delvated patron, loved him and his fci- cribed them according to his own ence, especially the knowledge of the system. mineral reign. He had collected a Linnæus chose the academical reconliderable cabinet of minerals, the cess as the time for arranging the roydescription and arrangement of which al cabinets. There are two vacations he left to the care of Linnæus. The every year at the University of Upsal, description appeared in 1753 in Latin the summer vacation lafts three and Swedish, and to the honour of months, and the winter vacation fix the author, Count Tessin himself pre- weeks. On those days of leisure, he fixed a preface to the work, dedica- used to go to Ulrichsdale and Drottted it to Linnæus, and caused a cop- ningholm, situate at the distance of per-plate to be put in front of it, re- about eight Swedish miles from Upfal. presenting the medal which he bad But a fell disorder threatened to preordered to be struck in honour of our vent Linnæus from repairing thither, luminary.

had not he fortunately discovered an Under Linnæus the first royal mu- efficacious remedy against it. In the feums were established in Sweden. summer of 1750, he was attacked We have already mentioned the pre- with the gout. His fits were fo viosent which King Frederick Adolphus lent as to deprive him of sleep for made to the academy of Upfal, while seven days and seven nights, nor could he was prince royal., The love of he ever 'keep his feet quiet for an nature was one of the favourite paf hour together. The gouty matter





circulated from one foot into the ed to the compound creatures, or to
ather, and thus gradually spread its the animal plants; that each of its :
poison to his hands and other limbs. limbs had a mouth and an anus.
Those who attended him began to In the same year, he found out the
despair of his recovery. All his ap- art of making pearls. 66 I am at last
petite being gone, he one day took it “ acquainted,” says be in the fame
into his head to refresh bimself with letter to Haller, 56 with the manner:
itrawberries; he ate them, fell asleep, “in which pearls are generated in
defired more of that fruit to be given " their fhells. I can now bring it
him, and two days after rose from his “ about, that each pearl shell, (the
bed entirely restored to health and “Mya margaritifera, so abundantly
vigor. In the course of the follow- " found in the North sea,) which
ing summer he was again troubled “can be encompassed in one's band,
with a relapse. He came to the “ will, after a lapse of between five
palace, with a pale and distorted and fix years, produce a pearl of
countenance. The Queen Dowager “ the size of a pea.''-He kept bis
asked him if he wanted any thing~ fecret to himself for a long time. In
• A pottle of strawberries"-anf- the diet of 1762, it became a subject
wered he. The strawberries were of public discussion, and the states of
brought him ;-and the next day her Sweden induced him, by the offer
Majesty faw him full of spirits and of a considerable reward, to communis
perfectly recovered in her museum cate it to one of their representa-
of natural curiosities. Three years tives, a merchant and director of the
afterwards Linnæus had again several Swedish Eaft India Company at Go-
fts of the gout, but they were much thenburgh. " It does not however ap-
weaker than formerly, and he always pear


considerable benefit was conquered their virulence with straw. ever derived from this discovery. berries. He ate them every summer; Doctor J. E. Smith of London, the they purified his blood, rendered his present proprietor of the Linnaean complexion more florid, and banish- collections, is also in possession of ed the gout for ever from his frame, the manuscript which Linnæus wrote

Exclufive of this pew cure of the upon the generation of pearls. This gout which casual experience had curious work is written in the Swe: taught him, bis penetrating genius dish language, and from its high va. found the way to many other disco: lue, it may probably never appear in veries. He first observed in the year public. 3748, that the worm Tænia belong




ELIZABETH, a Jewish convert, the their own privileges as to menial fer

daughter of Rabbi Mofes, was vants, &c. with great fpirit, fhould, allowed two-pence per day as a con. with wondrous inconfiftence, petition fideration, in 1403, for being deserted the crown that it would direct the by her family on account of her change Lords to examine into a false return as to religion.-Rym. Fad.

for Rutland, and punish the offenders. It seems fingular that, in 1404, the -Rot. Subsid. Commons, after having vindicated In 1406, Richard Clithero, knight


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of the shire for Kent, being ordered the English kings convinced of the
to fea as Admiral of the south and truths which Horace spuke.
weft,' the Kentishmen petitioned par-
liament that Robert Clifford, the other Nulla placere diu, nec vivere carmina por-

knight, might appear in both their Quæ fcribuntur aquæ potoribus.

as if both were actually pre-
fent.? And this odd request was It was in or about 1410, that a lord
granted Rot. Parli. apud Carte. Beachamp travelling through the eart,

In 1408, archbishop Arundel de- was hofpitably received at Jerusalem clared in a preface to his canons that by the Soldan's lieutenant; who, • The pope was vicegerent of heaven.hearing that he was descended froni • Extraordinary language,' (fays Ds the famous Guy earl of Warwick, Henry) 'to be used just at a time whose fiory they had read in books when the two existing popes were con- written in their own language, invit. figning each other to Satan, and were ed him to his palace; and royally both declared by the council of Pisa feasting bim, presented him with three contumacious heretics.

precious stones of great value, beside In the same year, we find, to the divers cloths of silk and gold given credit of English sculptors, that Tho- to his servants.'-Rous, apud Dugdale. mas Colyn, Thomas Holewell, and In 1412, an act paffed giving the Thomas Poppe, carried over to Bre- certificate of a justice of the peace, in tagne an alabafter monument (which case of riots, the same force as the they had executed for duke John IV.) presentment. The first instance of and erected it in the cathedral of extraordinary power granted to this Nantes, Rym. Fad.

respectable class of magistrates. About this period died Geoffrey Barrington. Chaucer, whom we call the first Eng. In 1413, Dr Fuller remarks that: lish poet. The rank of his parents is John Golope was the first person who not known. In 1359, he became assumed the title of an esquire; and page to Edward III, married Philippa that until the end of Henry the fixth?s. the fifter of Catherine Swynford (the reign fuch distinctions were not used, future wife of John of Gaunt) and is except in law proceedings. Yet said to have had a very large income. Ordericus Vitalis, as early as A. D... As, however, he took a warm part 1124, speaks of the earl of Mellent: on the side of the reformer Wickliff, who, endeavouring to efcape from he suffered when the Lollards were the troops of Henry Beauclerc, and persecuted ; and in, or about 1382, being seized by a country man, bribed. he was obliged to retire to the conti- him to set him free and to fhave him, nent, whence, venturing back to Enge in the guise of an esquire,' inftar? land to raise money, he was seized and armigeri, by which means he eluded imprisoned. The end of his life how- his pursuers. ever was spent in ease and plenty, at It appears from Rymer's Federa, Donnington Calle, Berks; where he that Henry, in 1417, authorised" John compofed (as tradition says) fome of Morstede, to press as many surgeons his finest poems. John of Gaunt was he thought necessary for the French then in power. Chaucer, as we find expedition, together with perfons to in Rymer's Fædera, received a pitcher make their instruments.' 'It is also of wine every day from the cellars of true, and appears in the same book of Edward III. He had likewise from records, that with the army which Richard II. a grant of a hoghead of won the day at Agincourt, there had wine every year, and this was con- landed only one furgeon, the fame tinued by Henry IV. So well were John Morftede, who indeed, did enEd. Mag. 7. Jan. 1796. С



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gage to find fifteen more for the army, men by birth, and qualified to be
three of which, however, were to act made knights, but no yeoman, or per-
as archers!!! With such a professional fon of inferior rank.' Henry from Sta.
scarcity, what must have been the tutes.
state of the wounded on the day of In 1431, Holingshed relates a me.

lancholy tale of an ungrateful Breton, In the fame year, the king observ. who murdered his kind hoftels near ing that Holbourn, Alta 'via regia Aldgäte. Falling however into the in Holbourn,' was a deep and peri. hands of the women in the neighbour. lous road, ordered two ships to be hood, they so beth wacked him with laden with stones at his own coft, each stones, ftaves, kennel, doong and other twenty tons in burden, in order to re. things, says our chronicler, that pair it. This seems the first paving they laid him aftretching, and rid him in London.-Rym. Fed.

of life.' In 1418, iron balls were not used Nearly about this time flourished for cannon, since we find an order for John Lydgate, The Monk of Bury.' making at Maidstone in Kent, 7000 He was avowedly a scholar and imi. ftone bullets for the king's ordnance. tátor of Chaucer, for whom he always Ibid.

expressed a most awful reverence. He In 1421, loud complaints having spent his life in the profession of a tubeen made by the inferior clergy as t3 tor, travelled to France and Italy with the inequality of their stipends, it was improvement, and was much esteemed ordained by the superior convocation, as a scholar and poet. If he had not that each bishop's family-barber the fire of Chaucer, he exceeded him should shave each priest who had his in smoothness of language. And the orders from that bilhop, without pay extreme humility of the following ment.-Wilkens' Consilia.

lines must speak in favour of the mo. Cows, in 1425, were valued at about deft poet. fixteen modern shillings each.-Ma- Lam a monk, by my profession,

. dox. Form. Angl.


** Of Bury, called John Lydgate by my In 1426, the assembly which met in February was called the parlia. And wear a habit of perfection, ment of bats,' fince the senators being Altho’my life agree not with the same; ordered to wear no swords, attended That meddle fuld with things fpiritual,

As I muft needs confess unto you all. armed with clubs or bats. Their meeting too was beld at Leicester, to but seeing that I did in this proceed avoid the tumult of a London mob.

Atliis commands, whom I could not

refuse In 1429, an important change was l humbly do beseech all those that read made as to the qualifications of voters Or leisure' have this fory to peruse; for knights of thires. These were If any fault tberein they find to be, now obliged to prove themselves or error that committed is by mc ; worth 40s. per annum. Before this, That they will, of their gentleness, take every freeholder might vote, and the pain, vaft concourse of elections brought The rather to correct, and mend the on riots and murders. Twenty pounds Than rafhly to condemn it, with disdain ;

same, would in modern days be barely an

For well I'wot it is not without blame, equivalent' for our ancestors 40s. The Because I know the verse therein is wrong, freeholders were at the same time di- Ås being fome too fhort, and some too rected to chuse two of the "fittest long. and most discreet knights resident in Mr Warton writes favourably of their county. Or if none such could Lydgate. "No poet,' he says, ' seems be found, notable esquires, gentle. to have poffeffed a greater versatility


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