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H E great number of friends miss this opportunity of seeing Paris,

and connections whom Linnæ. where he had previously made seveo, us had found in Holland, afforded ral acquaintances by his corresponbim fine prospects and secured his dence. subsequent welfare. The Dutch He reached the capital in the bewished to prevail on so valuable a ginning of May, where Anthony and man not to leave their country. It Bernard de Juffieu, two brothers, was proposed to him to make a bo. were the principal botanists. The. tanical

voyage at the expence of the former was the successor of Tournes republic to the Cape of Good Hope, fort, and died in 1758, and his bro. with the promise of giving him, on ther in 1777. They gave Linnæus his return, a profefforship of botany a most kind and flattering reception. in a Dutch university, But Linnæus though Anthony was a bigotted a allo flighted this offer, because he herent to Tournefort's system, and violently longed after his country, too old to begin to learn a new one: and after thofe bright hopes which he Through them he became acquainted flattered himself he would realize with the most eminent French literathere.

ti, and saw all the botanical and on The beginning of the year 1738 ther natural curiosities at Paris. He was the dullest time Linnæus pafled left, with some reluctance, a city, in Holland. Formerly he always was where he had enjoyed so much pleaof a serene, unruffled,, and cheerful sure and entertainment. After one temper; but now disquietude and me. month's residence in the French mea lancholy preyed upon him. The ce. tropolis he went on board a ship at lebrity which he had gained, the re. Rouen, in which, after a passage of monftrances of his friends, in short, five days, he reached Hellinburgh in nothing could raise his depreffed fpi- Scania, whence he set out to Stock, rits. The Herculean labours to which holm. he had devoted the elapsed year,could After an absence of three years not but act with malign influence np. and an half, Linnæus returned to his on his health. Towards the close country, and reached Stockholm. in of January he was seized with a vio. September 1738. The thought of lent fever, which latted upwards of his arrival made his heart vibrate fix weeks. In March he visited Har. with the utmost joy. He now expec. tecamp for the last time, to enjoy the ted to reap honours and respect, as sweets of the vernal year, and to ef- the reward of his long and noble ex, fect a complete reftoration of his de- ertions. But how foon did he expe. clining, health.

rience the truth of the adage, which "He intended to pay a visit to Hal- tells us that a prophet is no where ler at Goettingen, and to profeffor less.valued than in his own country! Ludwig at Leipzic, on his way back The winter of 1738 nipt the laurels to Sweden, and bad proposed to him. he had gathered in Holland. The self to pass through Upper and Low- rude climate of Sweden did not seem er Saxony, and the Danish dominions. propitious to their growth. For the Both, according to his promise, et sake of his daily support he now ber pected him with impatience. But he gan to follow the advice of his inaltered his resolution. Being so near tended father-in-law, by applying the confines of France, he would not himself to the practice of medicine. Ed. Mag. Jan. 1796 B



But Esculpaius, at his first setting tled income, which was farther id. out, proved as unkind as Flora. No- creased by his medical practice, he body would entrust a botanist with haftened to obtain his bride. Old the cure of patients.

Moræus was now very glad to give The following account of his refi. his consent without much intreaty, dence at Stockholm, and the happy and the hymeneal bond was fealed on alteration in his circumstances, is giv- the 26th of June 1739. en by bimself: “ I took up my re- The same year which favoured fidence at Stockholm. Every body him with the smiles of fortune, prov“ laughed at my botany. Not one ed equally propitious to his name,

could tell how many restless nights and to the state of the sciences in « and toilsome hours I had bestowed Sweden. A general scientific zeal

on it; but every corner resound- gave birth to the idea of raising å o ed with the humiliating leffon I learned corporation. The most ac“had received from Siegefbeck. I tive promoter of this plan was a young

began to set up for a practitioner, man of noble birth and great parts, " 'but my success was very slow. Count A. G. Hoepken, who held “ They would not even employ me afterwards the dignity of counsellor

in a fervant's cure. But in a short of state and chancellor of the Uni“ time, adversity ceased to perfecute, versity of Upfal. The fociety, which " and after many clouded days the in the beginning only confifted of fix * lucid sun broke through my obscu- members, held their first meeting on

rity. I 'rose.-- was called to the the second of June 1739—and Lingreat, --every thing turned out næus had the honour of being elec

prosperous; no patient could be ted president. None could have been " cured without me; from four worthier of that distinction than himo'clock in the morning till late at self; none of the members had so

night 'I visited the fick, spent well deserved of any one feience, and nights with them, and earned mo- gained such early celebrity as he. ney. Alas! faid I, Esculapius The fixed period for the duration of affords all that is good, but Flora the presidency was limited by the

yields but Siegesbecks. I renoun- statutes to three months only. Lin. o ced botany, and resolved a thou- næus refigned his charge on the third " fand times to destroy all my col- of October, and made on that occa" lections for ever. Soon after I was fion a speech in his mother tongue,

appointed first physician to the 'on the remarkables in insects. This as fleet, and after a short lapse of time speech contained excellent observato the States chose me botanist to the tions and the most beautiful sketch " King, and assigned me an annual of the economy and wisdom of na

salary to teach that science at ture. • The author of this speech,” “ Stockholm. I now grew fond a- says the Chevalier Bæck, " “ gain of plants, and married my "animated and sprightly painter, “ bride, who, after five long years," who captivated his readers, and

" “ ftill thought me worthy of her “ excited in them a kind of ecstatic “ love. My father-in-law, however, “ rapture.” a is dearly fond of money, he does This fociety, however small in the

not like to part with it. For my beginning, foon rose to the most ho

own part I can do without, and nourable public greatness. The num" thus leave it to my offspring.' ber of its members kept pace with

Having received the diploma of its fame; and through the patriotic physician to the Navy, and botanist exertion of Count Tessin, it was rais. to the King, and thus acquired a set. ed to the honourable title of Royal


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Academy of Sciences at Stockholm Meanwhile Linnæus did not want on the 31st of March 1741. This protection. The diet which allemexample set by Sweden foon excited bled in the beginning of the year the emulation of Denmark. The roy- 1741, extended also their deliberaal Danish academy was consequently tions to a mode of lessening the foinstituted in 1742 at Copenhagen, reign productions of art, and of prounder the direction of the beneficent moting the progress of the domestic Count of Holstein, then minister of manufactures of Sweden. They restate. The learned society of Stock- solved, that travels be undertaken holm was not gifted with any parti- through those Swedish provinces, cular funds on the part of the crown, which were the least explored. The nor did its members receive annual choice fell on Linnæns, who acceptsalaries. The only ftipends allowed ed the offer. His first tour was to were those assigned to the professor the islands of Orland and Gothland, of natural philosophy, and to the two He set out on this expedition, in the secretaries. These, beîdes the prizes spring of 1741, accompanied by lix and prize-nedals, were drawn from naturalists. He had particular inthe fund arising from presents or le- ftructions to examine all the plants gacies. The members had already and productions which might be usepublished their transactions, which at ful in dying, oeconomy, and medicine, the expiration of 1779 amounted to and to see if there was not a kind of forty volumes, and have been translạ- earth in those islands fit for the fabrited into German, French, and other cation of porcelain-ware. The zeal languages, and are continued down of Linnæus even exceeded the bounds to the present time. These transac- of his charge, he discovered many tions contain the richest store of use- new plants, collected a great variety ful knowledge and discoveries. This of observations, on the antiquities of advancement of the sciences in that those islands, their mechanical arts, country is originally due to Linnæ- the manners of the natives, their filha

eries, and many other objects; but he Having enjoyed the utmost popu- was not able to accomplish the chief larity in the capital of Sweden, and end of his voyage. He could find no being blest with the resources of a porcelain earth, as the soil of both plentiful income, Linnæus was not islands consists of a calcareous earth quite so well pleased with his situa- and cryftal rocks. His tour was howtion as might have been expected. ever of great utility; the ftates gave His wishes had long been directed him a public teftimony of their satistowards that university of his country faction, and, four years after, he pub, where he had laid the foundation of lished the narrative of this tour. his greatness, and suffered so many The infirmities and advanced age viciđitudes in the smiles and frowns of a man finally realised those hopes of of fortune. On the 3d of June 1740, Linnæus, which had been frustrated bis former protector, Olaus Rudbeck in the preceding year. Soon after junior, departed this life in that city, Rudbeck's death, M. Roberg, senior by which demise the professorship of of the Univerfity of Upsal, and probotany became vacant. It was this fessor of physic and anatomy, requeloffice which Linnæus desired in pre- ted his dismission. His request was ference to all others. He offered him- granted with the appendage of his felf a candidate, made interest, but whole falary, as he had exercised his was disappointed. Nicholas Rofen, academical functions longer than the his former antagonist, attained this a. fixed term of thirty years. Linnæus cademical charge.

put up for this vacancy,—and through


the interest of Count Teslin, obtain- ed the best part of Upfal into a heap ed the profefforship of physic and a- of ruins in 1702, destroyed it entirenatomy, 1741, being then in the 34th ly. year of his

age. Though this office During the unfortunate reign of was not what he absolutely wished Charles XII there were no hopes of for, yet it put him in a better fitua- its establishment. There was, indeed, tion of exerting himself to obtain no money to purchase plants. "Rudwhat he really wanted. His lady beck grew old, and none remained presented him with a young heir, on after him to take care of it. In fhort, the 20th of January 1741, who was the garden had decayed into a tract baptized after his own name, and re- of pasture ground to graze sheep and mained the only male offspring that cows. It did not even contain fifty survived him. Having become a fa- foreign plants. ther, he now fet off in September Linnæus now became its second with his family to Upsal, the theatre creator. In a few years he raised of his fame and his constant residence, such a temple to Flora as had never Rosen was to teach botany, aud Lin- before graced that northern tract. It næus anatomy,

became at last one of the most beau. Both were sensible of the impro- tiful and most valuable in Europe. priety of their respective Aations, and The Swedish Government resolved to by a friendly agreement, with the spare no expence for the total ima consent of the Chancellor of the Uni. provement of the botanical garden. versity, the two profeffor ships, whofe Baron Charles Harlemann, the king's emoluments were equal, were mutu, architect furnished the plan. The lat. ally exchanged in the beginning of ter was also a professed friend of Lin. 1742

næus, aud by the interceflion of feve, Thys Linnæus was raised to that ral great men, it was further resolved fphere of operation wbich he con- to build a dwelling-house for the fidered as the happiness of his life, profeffor df botany adjoining to the and which was so adequate to his zeal garden.. Thus Lionæus, having the and endowments. He directed his family of nature so near him, he could first efforts towards the improvement give them much better attendance, of the botanical garden at Upfal, ftudy'their peculiarities, and commuwhich had been established after the nicate the knowledge of them to his middle of the last century by the pupils. The execution of the propo celebrated Swedish naturalist Olans fed plan was begun in 1742, and comRudbeck senior. The novelty of pleated in the course of the following the enterprise afforded to the latter year. On the 18th of July, 1943, great applause and support. Through Linnæus took poffeffion of his new the liberality of King Charles Gusta- and beautiful premises. vus, and the zeal of the Chancellor - In the year 1745 he gave a deof the University, the garden was fcription of the new garden, with all foon put in a good state. It still re- its dispositions, and establishments, mained in an improved condition in mentioning in the moft grateful terms the reign of Charles XI. . The two all those who had contributed to its Rudbecks, both father and son, en restoration and embellishment. The riched it with the plants they had garden was not laid cut on a very excollected in their travels. But at the tenlive scale, but arra ed in a talty beginning of the present century it manner. We shall here communicate ceased to be one of the most flourilh. a concise description of it, given by ing botanical gardens of Europe. The a learned traveller, who vifted Upfal dreadful conflagration, which converts in the year.1771.



The academical garden of Upsal valuable botanical treasures. The has been arranged by Linnæus. An embellishment and enriching of the iron gate of excellent workmanship botanical garden at Upsal, was the fa. leads to it from the high road. At vourite ftudy of his life. His anxious the top of the

gate the Swedish arms, and tender care triumphed over the and those of Count Gyllenborg, who rigour and inclemency of the frigid has so zealoully promoted its restora. climate of Sweden. The plants which tion, are displayed. From within a grow even in the most southern counspacious yard presents itself to view; tries were now cultivated in the garon the right ftands the dwelling of den at Upfal, which presented trcaLinnæus, who is the director of the fures from every quarter of the garden, on the left appear some other globe. buildings. A streight avenue leads Six years after the re-establishment by another gate to the garden, which of this garden, Linnæus in 1748 pubis parted from the yard by an ele. lished its description. The number gant wooden inclosure. The garden of the foreign species of plants to itself is laid out in a superb style. Its mounted to one thousand one hun most considerable part confils of two dred. large tracts of ground. One of them The hall in which Linnæus de. contains the perennial plants; the livered bis lectures overflowed with other those from which the seeds are a crouded audience. The usual numa annually gathered. Each of these ber of students was 500, which protracts is divided into forty-four beds portion continued also after his death. surrounded with a low hedge and But during the septennial war in 1759, little doors. The plant-house is fituate while Linnæus was rector for fix caftward. It is divided into the plant. months, the number of students and hall (frigidarium,) which lies in the mounted to one thousand five huncentre; into the thriving house (cal. dred. darium,) and the hot house tepida. To profit by his knowledge pu rium,) which form the north wing, pils came from Ruffia, Norway, Den. and the gardener's cot forms the fouth-mark, Great Britain, Holland, Ger, erny wing To the west lies the thri- many, Switzerland, nay, even from ving-bank (vaporarium,) and to the America. Thus he deserved well of fouth the glass-bank; the fun-house foreigners, and became the beneface (folarium,) lies facing the ponds, tor of the muses at Upsal. He made into which fresh water is conveyed fummer excursions at the head of his by pipes. The southern apartments pupils, who frequently attended him of this edifice contain the large cabi. to the number of upwards of two net of natural curiosities belonging hundred. They then went in small to the royal academy of sciences, parties to explore different districts which are very considerable. of the country. Whenever some rare

Linnæus had thus obtained the or remarkable plant, or some other finest repcfitory that could be wished natural curiosity, was discovered, a for, but he only wanted plants. His fignal was given with a born or zeal, and the connections which he trumpet, upon which the whole corps had with the greateft botanins in Eur joined their chief, to hear his demonrope, foon remedied this defect, and strations and remarks. rendered the garden one of the rich- Linnæus now divided his labours eft in Europe. In 1742 he introdu- into the occupations for his pupils, ced more than two hundred indige. for his country, and for the learned nous plants into it, and sent a student world at large. We will compress to Norway to collect there the.moft the sphere of his exploits to the year



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