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The distance of most of the Western | vinced that old practices and maxims will States from the ocean, the exuberant riches not be abandoned to favour the United of the soil, and the variety of its products, States. The foreign manufacturers and forcibly impress the mind of the committee merchants will put in requisition all the with a belief, that all these causes conspire powers of ingenuity, will practise whatto encourage manufacturers, and to give ever art can devise, and capital can accoman impetus and direction to such a dispoplishi, to prevent the American manufacsition. Although the Western States may turing establishments from taking root, be said to be in the gristle. in contempla- and flourishing in their rich and sative tion of that destiny to which they are soil. By the allowance of bounties and hastening, yet the products of manufactures drawbacks, the foreign manufacturers and in these states are beyond every calculation merchants will be furnished with additional that could reasonably be made ; contrary means of carrying on the couflict, and of to the opinion of many enlightened and ensuring success. The American manuvirtuous men, who have supposed that the facturers have good reason for their appreinducements of agriculture, and the su. hensions ; they have much at stake. They perior advantages of that life, would sup- have a large capital employed, and are press any disposition to that sort of indus- feelingly alive for its fate. Should the natry. But theories, how ingeniously soever tioual government not afford them protecthey may be constructed, how much soever tion, the dangers which invest and threateu they may be made to conform to the laws them will destroy all their hopes, and will of symmetry and beauty, are no sooner close prospects of utility to their country. brought into conflict with facts than they A reasonable encouragement will sustain fall into ruins. In viewing their fragments, and keep them erect; but if they fall, they the mind is irresistibly led to render the fall never to rise again. homage due to the genius and taste of the The foreign manufacturers and merarchitects, but cannot refrain from regret. chants know this, and will double with ting the waste, to no purpose, of superior renovated zeal the stroke to prostrate them. intellects. The Western States prove the They also know, that should the American fallacy of such theories; they appear in manufacturing establishments fall, their their growth and expansion to be in ad-mouldering piles-the visible ruins of a vance of thought : while the political legislative breath - will warn all who economist is drawing their portraits, their tread in the same footsteps, of the doom, features change and enlarge with such ra the inevitable destiny, of their establishpidity, that his pencil in vain endeavours ments. to catch their expressions, and to fix their The national government, in viewing physiognomy.

the disastrous effects of a short-sighted It is to their advantage to manufacture ;policy, may relent; but what will releutbecause, by decreasing the bulk of the ar- ing avail ? Can it raise the dead to life? ticles, they at the same time increase their Can it give, for injuries inflicted, the repavalue by labour, bring them to market tion that is due ? Industry, in every ramiwith less expense, and with the certainty of fication of society, will feel the shock, and obtaining the best prices.

generations will, as they succeed each Those States, understanding their inte ober, feel the effects of its undulatious. rest, will not be diverted from its pursuit. Dissatisfaction will be visible every where, In the encouragement of manufactures, and the lost confidence and affections of they find a stimulus for agriculture. The the citizens will not be the least of the manufacturers of cottou, in making appli- evils the government will have to deplore. cation to the national government for en- But should the national government, purcouragement, have been induced to do so suing an enlightened and liberal policy, for many reasons. They know that their sustain and foster the manufacturing cs. establishments are new, and in their in- tablishments, a few years would place fancy; and they have to encounter a com them in a condition to bid defiance to fopetition with

foreigu establishments, reign competition, and wouid enable them that have arrived at maturity, that are to increase the industry, wealth, and prose. supported by a large capital, and that have perity of the nation; and to afford to go. from the government every protection that verament, in times of difficulty and dis.. can be required.

tress, whatever it may require to support The American manufacturers expect to the public credit, while maintaining the meet with all the embarrassments which a rights of the nation. zealous and monopolizing policy cao sug: Providence, in bountifully placing within gest. The committee are sensible of the our reach whatever can minister to happi.. force of such considerations, they are con ness and comfort, indicates plainly to us

our daty, and what we owe to ourselves. scribed to them by the peace and apparent Our resources are abundant and inexhausti- repose of Europe. ble.

Our apprehensions arise from causes that The stand that Archimedes wanted is cannot animale by their effects. Look given to the national and state govern- wheresoever the eye can glance, and what ments, and labour-saving machinery iends are the objects that strike the vision? On the levers the power of bringing their the coutinent of Europe, industry, deprived resources into use.

of its motive and incitemeni, is paralyzed; This power imparts incalculable advan- the accumulated wealth of ages, seized by tages to a nation whose population is not the haud of military despotisnı, is appro, fail. The United States require the use

priated to, and squandered on, objects of of this power, because they do not abound ambition; the order of things is vuseitled, in population. The diminution of manual and confidence between man aud man anlabour by means of machinery, in the cot

nihilated. Every moment is looked for ton manufacture of Great Britajı, was in

with tremulous, anxious, and increased sothe year 1810 as 200 to one.

licitude; hope languishies; and commercial Our manufacturers have already availed horizon appears to be calm, but many, of

enterprise stiffens with fear. The political themselves of this power, and have prefited by it. A little more experience in making signs portentous of a violent tempest, which

no ordiuary sagacity, think they behold machines, and in aranaging them with will again rage and desolate that devoted skill, will enable our manniacturers to sup- region. ply more fabrics than are necessary for the home demand.

Should this prediction fail, no change for

the better, under existing circumstances, Competition will make the prices of the can take place. Where despotism-miliarticles low, and the extension of the cot- tary despotism-reigns, silence and fearful ton manufactories will produce that com stillness must prevail. petition.

Such is the prospect which continental One striking and important advantage, Europe exhibits to the enterprise of Amewhich labour-saving machines bestow, is rican merchants. this that in all their operations they re Can it be possible for them to find in quire few men, as a reference to another that region sources which will supply them' part of this Report will show. No appre with more than seventeen millions of dolhensions can then be seriously entertained lars, the balance due for British manufacthat agriculture will be in danger of hav- tures imported; this balance being over ing its efficient labours withdrawn from its and above the value of all the exports to’ service.

foreign countries from the United States ? On the contrary, the manufacturing es. This view, which is given of the dreary tablishments, increasing the demand for raw prospect of commercial advantages ac. materials, will give to agriculture new life cruing to the United States by an interand expansion.

course with continental Europe, is believed The committee, after having with great to be just. The statement made of the deference and respect presented to the great balance in favour of Great Britain house this important subject in various due from the United States, is founded on points of view, feel themselves constrained, matter of fact. before concluding this Report, to offer a In the hands of Great Britain are gatherfew more observations, which they consider ed together, and held, many powers that as not less so, with regard to the present they have not been accustomed hitherto to and future prosperity of this nation. feel and to exercise.

The prospects of a large commerce are No inproper motives are intended to be pot flattering.

imputed to that government; but does not Every nation in times of peace will sup-experience teach a lesson that should never ply its own wants, from its own resources, be forgotten-that governments, like indi. or from those of other nations.

viduals, are apt“ to feel power, and forget When supplies are drawn from foreign right?" It is not inconsistent with national countries, the intercourse which will ensue decorum to become circumspect and pruwill furnish employment to the navigation dent. May not the government of Great only of the countries connected by their Britain be inclined, in analysing the basis reciprocal wants.

of her political power, to consider and reOur concern does not arise from, nor can gard the United States as her rival, and to it be increased by, the limitation which indulge an improper jealousy, the enemy of our navigation and trade will have pre peace and repose ? Yol. IV. No. 21. Lit. Pun. N. S. June 1.


Can it be politic, in any point of view, | now free may be advantageously charged to make the United States dependent on with a duty, io what annount, and in what any vation for supplies absolately necessary manner? 4. What articles, classed under for defence, for comfort, and for accommo- general descriptions, admit of a more dedation ?

finite and specific arrangement? 5. What Will not the strength, the political ener- articles, now charged with duties ad valorem, gies of this nation be materially impaired may be advantageously charged with speat any time, but fatally so in those of diffi. cific duties, to what amount, and in what culty and distress, by such defence?

manner? 6. What non-enumerated are Do not the suggestions of wisdom plainly ticles of importation may be advantashow, that the security, the peace, and the geously specified, and charged with a spehappiness of this nation depend on opening cific duty: in what manner, and to what and enlarging all our resources, and draw. amount ing from them whatever shall be required

Treasury Notes. for public use or private accommodation ? The committee, from the views which has this beginning—“ You will perceive

Mr. Dallas's circular to the Collectors they have taken, consider the situation of that funds have been assigned for the paymanufacturing establishments to be pe ment of certaip Treasury Notes, and that rilaus. Some have decreased, and others have suspended business. A liberal en

consequently, the interest on those Notes couragement will put them again in opera; of the 3d of March last, cease on the days,"

will, pursuant to the 7th section of the act tion with increased powers; but should it &c. &c. The following is the section al. be withheld they will be prostrated. Thousands will be reduced to want and luded to: “That it shall be lawful for the wretcheduess.

Secretary of the Treasury to cause to be A capital of near sixty millions of dollars will become inactive, paid, the interest on Treasury Notes that the greater part of which will be a dead have become due, and remain unpaid, as Joss to the manufacturers. Our improvi

well with respect to the time elapsed bedence may lead to fatal consequences; the

fore they become due, as with respect to powers, jealous of our growth and prospe due; and until funds shall be assigned for

the time that shall elapse after they become rity, will acquire the resources andstrength the payment of the Treasury Notes, and which this government neglects to improve. It requires no prophet to foretel the notice shall be given thereof by the Secreuse that foreign powers will make of them. tary of the Treasury." These funds the The committee, from the consideration Secretary states to be bills of Baltimore and which they have given to this subject, are and a species of funds utterly unknown to

other Southern Banks : a mode of payment deeply impressed with a conviction that the manufacturing establishments of cotton the laws of the country, and at the time he wool are of real utility to the agricultural provides them at a discount of from 15 to interest, and that they contribute much to 20 per cent. in Boston !!!-(Boston Paper.) the prosperity of the Union. Under the RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION : PAUCITY OF. influence of this conviction, the committee beg leave to tender, respectfully, with this The following statements are from an Report, the following resolution:

Address by the Rev. Mr. Beecher to a SoResolved— That from and after the 30th ciety, formed in Connecticut, for the purday of June next, in lieu of the duties now authorised by law, there be laid, levied, pose of endeavouring to remedy this most and collected on cotton goods, imported lamentable evil, this disease that preys on Into the United States and territories the vitals of individuals, and of society at thereof, from any foreign country what- large. The population of the Union is-s0 ever, per ceptum ad valorem, being Rot less than - cents per square yard. scattered, that seldom can a Public Instruc

tor embody under his charge so many as System of Duties.

five hundred persons; but, to avoid cavil, Several merchants in Boston have received circulars from the Secretary of the

the Speaker accepts the calculation of one Treasury, requesting from them information thousand, to each Minister. He then proon the following inquiries:

1. What ar

ceeds ticles of importation into the United States Take this rule, then, and the 8,000,000 admit of being charged with higher duty, of inhabitants in the United States need and to what annount? 2. What articles 8,000 ministers. The number of our edurequire a reduction iu the duty now charged, cated ministers is not more than 3,000; of and to what amount ? S. What articles course 5,000 are at present peeded, and

5,000,000 people are destitute of competent | the United States: that of course one third religious instruction. There may be, per of the population, or nearly three millions haps, 1,500 besides, who are nominally of people, look to them for religious ministers. These Mr. B. strikes off the list. teachers. To supply this population, as His reasons for so doing are, that they are New-England was supplied for more than extremely illiterate, despising learning, and 130 years after its settlement, (that is, till utterly incapable of exerting that religious, within the memory of many now upon and moral, and literary influence which the stage,) would require 4,250 ministers. belongs to the ministry.

Yet it is a fact, that there are now living “ Illiterate pastors," Mr. B. justly ob- only 760 ministers, graduates of Harvard serves, “cannot be the patrons of schools, and Yale, leaving an arrearage of 8,490. academies, and colleges. They cannot, and To speak more particularly of Yaleif they can they will not, exalt society | College. . Probably one sixth of all who abore their own level. Education, reli- receive a collegiate education in the gious and literary, will be neglected in United States are graduates of this semitheir hands; civilization will decline, and nary.--Allotting then to Yale-College une immoralities multiply. If the influence of sixth of the population of the United States, such men be better than nothing, if it do as her portion, to supply, if this portion not help on the decline caused by human were now fully supplied, with one minister depravity, it is totally incompetent to ar for every 1,000 souls; yet, barely to fill the rest it."

vacancies by death, and to meet the unnual “ Illiterate men have nerer been the increase of population, the College would chosen instruments of God to build up his be called on to furnish EigitY ministers cause. The disciples of our Lord, to sup- annually; and this number to be increased ply the deficiency of an education, were

in future, in proportion as the population instructed by himself for three years; and should increase. Yet it is a fact, that for then, were miraculously taught languages, the last forty years, there has not been an and clothed with the power of miracles, average of nine ministers annually from and were guided beside by the immediate this institution." suggestion of the Holy Spirit.

We are brought then to this conclusion, The question tilen arises whether these that, "an immediate, universal, vigorous 5,000,000 will ever receive competent re

effort must be made to provide religious ligious instructors. A short calculation instruction for the nation. will shew, that without extraordinary ex

It is indispensable, to prevent the great ertious, they never will. The population body of the nation from sinking dowu to a of the country in past years has far outrun state of absolute heathenism. Let the tide the increase of ministers. “ From the year

of population roll on for seventy years as it * 1700 to 1753, there were 1999 students has done for the seventy that are past, and graduated at Harvard and Yale Colleges, let no extraordinary exertion be made to (at that time the only Colleges in New meet the vastly increasing demand for minEngland.) of this number, 804 were isters, but let them increase only in the slow ministers of the Gospel. Of these 804, proportion that they have done, and what there were living in 1753, according to the will be the result? There will be within best estimate, 621. The population of the United States SEVENTY MILLION Souls New-England, in 1753, was 990,000. Of —and there will be only six thousand comcourse there was, at that time, on an petent religious teachers; that is, sixtyaverage, one

EDUCATED mi FOUR MILLION, out of the sevENTY, will nister for every 628 souls in New-England. be wholly destitute of proper religious

“ From a cursory examination of the instruction. They may not become the necessary documents, it is presumed, that worshippers of idols ; but there is a brutaprevious to this period, back to the first lity and ignorance, and profligacy always settlement of the country, the supply was prevalent where the Gospel does not even greater than this proportion.

enlighten and restrain, as decisively ruinous “ Compare this result with the present to the soul as Idolatry itself. supply of ministers from these colleges. “ If knowledge and virtue be the basis Let it be first remembered, however, that of republican institutions, our foundations since 1755 the population of New England will soon rest upon the sand, unless a has increased nearly tenfold, and has spread more effectual and all-pervading system itself over the whole western country, and of religious and moral instruction can though Colleges have multiplied, yet Har. be provided. The right of suffrage in vard and Yale still educate ONE THIRD of the hands of an ignorant and vicious "all who receive a collegiate education in population, such as will always exist in a


land where the Gospel does not restrain' and instructed, as to be able to read with a civilize, will be a sword in the hand of a good degree of facility in the English maniac; to make desolate around him, and Bible; were proportionably advanced in finally to destroy himself. It is no party in spelling, writing, and arithmetic; aud at politics that can save this nation from the same time were taught the principles political death, by political wisdom merely. of the Christian religion. Many Bibles and

religious Tracts were distributed, and seThe expense of crimes and of their veral individuals, some young, and some of punishment, beside all the woes of wicked mature age, became hopeful and exemness, is four tiines as great, as the expense plary Christians. The Cherokee tribe is of their prevention, by a comprehensive estimated at twelve thousand souls. If we system of religious instruction."

suppose fuur thousand of them to be of an NUMBER OF INDIANS UNDER THE Do- age, suitable for attending schools; and MINION OF AMERICA.

four or five hundred of these, nearly as

eighth part, were brought forward to the If the population in Connecticut be no state of improvement now described, in the better provided with Teachers than we short period of five years, by the exertions have already seen, there can be little won of one man : what might not be effected, der that their Brethren, the red men, the with the blessing of God, by a combined, Aborigines of the country, should be almost

well supported, and well conducted effort? forgotten. We have heretofore mentioned

Important Law Decision: Slace.

Providence, Noo. 4. Tuesday last, upon several Societies active in their favour, in

a writ of Habeas Corpus, issued by Judge some parts; but, we presume, that they Brayton, of the Supreme Court, at the in. have either failed in their efforts, or have stance of the Abolition Society, directed to directed them elsewhere. The real state

a Southern Gentleman, who was about to of the Back Settlements in reference to whom he had purchased many years since,

convey to Charlestou S. C. a domestic slave Religion, is much worse than can be con and who has served in his family in this ceived of in Britain.

town for about five years last past, the Within the United States and their Judge decided that, under a law of this Territories, there are about two hundred State, which permits the citizens of other and forty thousand Indians, divided and States to retain slaves in their service, the subdivided into about seventy tribes and said slave should continue in the custody of clavs. Nearly one hundred thousand of his master as bis property. The ground of these Indians are on this side the Missi- the decision, we understand, was, that the sippi; and of these the four Southern owner, although his family resided here, tribes, the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickesaws, was in fact, a citizen of South Carolina, and Cherokees, comprise about seventy being in that state on commercial business thousand; more than one fourth part of the upwards of nine months in each year. number of Aborigines within the juris Bingrampton (Chenango County) Oct. 24. diction of the United States. These four A salt spring has recently been discotribes seem to claim very particular atten- vered on the farm of a Mr. Beardslee, sition, on account not only of their compa.tuated on the west branch of the Wyarative numerical importance; but also of Jusing Creek, in the state of Pennsylvania, their geographical situation, in a fine about 20 miles from this village. Satisfaccountry and climate, aud in the neigh- tory experiments have been made on the bourhood of a rapidly increasing white water of this spring, which, we understand, population; and moreover of their disposi- prove conclusively, that ninety gallons of tion and habits, especially of the Che- the water will make fifty-six pounds, or one rokees, Chickesaws, and Choctaws, ten- bushel of salt. A puinp has been conding towards a state of civilization, and structed, which throws a stream of water favourable to the reception among them of four inches in diameter, and this pump is missiovaries and other instructors. In 1804 incapable of diminishing the quantity of the Rey. Gideon Blackburn, whose praise water in the well. We understand that ar. should be in all the churches, iostituted, rangements are making to set one hundred umder the auspices of the General As. kettles this fall. seinbly of the Presbyterian Church, a mis

Sugar. sion among the Cherokees, which he con From the successful cultivation of the ducted in person, and with very inade. cane in Georgia, S. Carolina, the Missis. quale assistance and support; and within sippi Territory and Louisiana, Sugar proabout five years, between four or five hun mises to rival or excel the cotton and tedred young persons of both sexes were so bacco plants in importance.

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