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ing College, with the assistance of other teachers. They are intended to provide amusement at home as well as instruction in school. At the same time, they relieve both parents and teachers; for, with the games, means are supplied that enable the children to instruct themselves and to test any disputed points that may arise in playing. The games are played with cards called "doms," which are like dominoes in form, but in which the usual dots are replaced by various symbols such as colours, pictures, numbers, words, &c. Thus, there are colourmatching doms, nature study doms, arithmetical doms, wordbuilding doms, &c. They fall into two main classes. In the first, which are the simpler, the imprints to be matched are identical. In colour doms, for instance, the halves of the doms are of different colours (there are in all eight colours), and the same colours are to be matched. In the second and larger class, the imprints to be matched are related. The colour doms in this class are used for teaching the names of colours, the word "blue" on the half of one dom being matched with the half of another that is coloured blue. Some of the most useful doms of this class are those which form the arithmetical series. Of this series, which is carefully graded, the sets on addition and subtraction are now ready. In the first set, 4+3 is to be matched with 2+5; in the second, 7-4 with 5—2; and so on until in the tenth set, 9-6+5 would be matched with 7-2+3. In word-building, only one set is at present issued, dealing with words of three letters. One half consists of the following pairs of letters-ad, ed, id, od, ud, ag, eg, ig, og, ug; and the other half of the single letters-b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, p, r, s, t, w. In this case, of course, the imprints are matched so as to form words. In many sets, a key is provided, such as a list of words with the word-building doms, or a set of double doms, one half having, say, the word violet printed, while the other half

is coloured violet.

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The games are all very simple, and can be played by quite young children without supervision, those on colour and shapematching at the age of three or four, and the others at the age of five or more up to twelve or thirteen. They can be played by one child alone, but they also provide opportunities for the co-operation of small groups of children, and they are, therefore, a mode of social training. Besides the instruction which they give, they tend to make players alert, and give practice in concentration of a simple kind. It is important to notice that, before being published, each set of doms is thoroughly tested in the preparatory department of the Oswestry Grammar School as well as in elementary schools (infants) and under home conditions.


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BY THOMAS LLOYD HUMBERSTONE. HE word "educationist " finds no place in the "Dictionary of the English Language” by Samuel Johnson, LL.D. The earliest reference to the word recorded in the "New English Dictionary" is from Blackwood's Magazine of 1829. Educationalist," the alternative and apparently later form of the word is defined therein as one who makes a study of the science or methods of education; an advocate of education." Dr. Johnson could therefore have pleaded" pure ignorance" of the word as he did of the meaning of the word pastern" on a celebrated occasion; and he might possibly have denied the existence of a science of education and therefore of its students or exponents. One characteristic of a science is orderly growth and development, line upon line, precept upon precept. Education, Johnson declared, was as well known and had long been as well known as ever it could be. The definition of education" in his Dictionary is characteristic-" formation of manners in youth; the manner of breeding youth; nurture." For some of those who published prolegomena on the subject, he expressed contempt. English education, he said, was in danger of being hurt by two of its greatest sons, Milton and Locke. Milton's plan is impracticable and I suppose has never been tried. Locke's, I fancy, has been tried often enough, but it is imperfect, it gives too much to one side and too little to the other; it gives too little to literature." He advised Boswell not to refine in the education of his children. "Life will not bear refinement: you must do as other people do." Discouraging doctrine, it may be thought, for those who profess and call themselves educationists.

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If in education as in literature, to quote Hazlitt's estimate of his literary merits, Johnson opened no new vein of precious ore nor lighted upon any single pebble of uncommon size or unrivalled lustre, his views on education, as on every other mundane subject, are informed, acute, and witty and deserve respectful study for at least three personal reasons. First, Johnson was a true-born Englishman." We love him as a man, we seek the corner of the Cheshire Cheese" where he lived, rather than the tomb in Westminster Abbey where he lies buried among his compeers, "the philosophers, heroes, and kings of England." Education must always remain a great human interest, not an esoteric cult. Secondly, Johnson was a scholar without being a pedant. An Athenian blockhead, he maintained, was the worst of all blockheads. He was not perhaps a scholar pur sang, for he worked usually with an eye to what Carlyle calls solid pudding." Asked to write a sermon he replied, "I will write thee a sermon, but thou must pay for it." With the pension granted by his most gracious Majesty George III, he rested from his literary labours to seek "the throne of human felicity --a tavern chair. Thirdly and lastly, Johnson, unlike many other expounders of the science of education, had borne the heat and burden of the day as a humble schoolmaster and knew the difficulties and disappointments of the craft.

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It was as usher at Market Bosworth that Johnson first qualified as Dominie, a title which he greatly disliked. His life there was unvaried as the note of a cuckoo. Vitam continet una dies he assured a friend; and he did not know whether it was more disagreeable for him to teach or the boys to learn the grammar rules. Boswell records that after suffering this misery for a few months, he relinquished a situation which all his life afterwards he recollected with the strongest aversion and even a degree of horror. A few years later we find him the master of a private academy. His advertisement in the Gentleman's Magazine, "At Edial, near Lichfield in Staffordshire, young gentlemen are boarded and taught the Latin and Greek languages by Samuel Johnson,' attracted only three pupils, one of whom, David Garrick, was destined to" eclipse the gaiety of nations." Here the young rogues used to listen at the door of his bed-chamber and peep through the key-hole to turn to ridicule his tumultuous and awkward fondness of Mrs. Johnson. Both Boswell and Lord Morley have favoured the world with apologies for Johnson's failure as a schoolmaster. He was too clever, Boswell suggests, and lacked the saving grace of blandness, to use Horace's word. Teaching requires a mind at once calm and clear," not a gloomy and impetuous mind like Johnson's, which could not be fixed in minute attentions and must be frequently irritated by unavoidable slowness and error in the advance of scholars. Lord Morley opines that Johnson was as little qualified for the management of parents as of pupils for by a single glance the rough Dominie Sampson might frighten them off the premises.

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Johnson's faith in education was much in advance of his day and generation. If he had children, would he have taught them anything? he was asked. "I hope," he replied, "that I would have willingly lived on bread and water to obtain instruction for them; but I would not set their future friendship at hazard for the sake of thrusting into their heads knowledge of things for which they might not perhaps have either taste or necessity "--such as the diameter of the planets. He was always for getting a boy forward in his learning for that was a sure good. I would let him at first read any English book which happens to engage his attention because you have done a great deal when you have brought him to have entertainment from a book. He'll get better books afterwards." He would not withhold education from the poorer classes and refuted the fallacy that if everybody were educated the work of the world would not get itself done. Ignorance has been tried," he said, and has not produced the result


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expected. Let knowledge therefore have its turn, and let the patrons of privation stand awhile aside and admit the operation of positive principles." A century later, this invitation was accepted: honour to those who had the good sense and courage to plead an unpopular cause.

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Whatever may have been Dr. Johnson's methods as a pedagogue, his views on the curriculum are bland enough, plain and unsophisticated. Make the children happy and truthful; avoid precocity as a deadly sin, the sin against the Holy Ghost, and let the good old fortifying curriculum lead to a habit of expression, without which knowledge is of little use." It matters no more what you teach the children first, than what leg you shall put into your breeches first. Sir, you may stand disputing which is best to put in first, but in the meantime your breech is bare. Sir, while you are considering which of two things you should teach your child first, another boy has learnt them both." He did not favour too great a concentration on literary studies. There was no need for every boy to be a scholar; no call that every one should square the circle. Our manner of teaching," he said, cramps and warps many a mind which if left more at liberty would have been respectable in some way." Let people learn necessary knowledge-to count their fingers and their money before studying the classics. Johnson's own tastes were catholic. He was fond of chymistry and when living with Mrs. Thrale at Streatham a sort of laboratory was constructed in which he diverted himself with drawing essences and colouring liquors. A serious explosion occurred however while he was demonstrating to the servants and Mrs. Thrale insisted that he should do no more towards finding the philosopher's stone. During his tour in Scotland, he gave a book to his landlord's daughter, a modest civil girl, very neatly drest," a book which he happened to have about him. The usual cross-examination elicited that the book was Cocker's Arithmetic. The company was amused. Why, sir," said Johnson, "if you are to have but one book with you upon a journey, let it be a book of science-a book of science is inexhaustible." He recommended that children should be accustomed constantly to a strict attention to truth, even in the most minute particulars. "You do not know where deviation from truth will end." He was very solicitous to preserve the happiness of children. Mrs. Piozzi records that when he had persuaded Dr. Sumner to remit the tasks usually given to fill up boys' time during the holidays, he rejoiced exceedingly. He said he had never ceased representing to all the eminent schoolmasters in England the absurd tyranny of poisoning the hour of permitted pleasure by keeping future misery before the children's eyes.


As to precocity in children, too much was expected and too little performed. Suppose a child has more knowledge at five or six years old than other children, what use can be made of it? It will be lost before it is wanted, and the waste of so much time and labour of the teacher can never be repaid. One precocious young lady of his acquaintance ended by marrying a little Presbyterian parson who kept an infant boarding school. All her employment was "to suckle fools and chronicle small beer." If I had bestowed such an education on a daughter,” said Johnson, " and had discovered that she thought of marrying such a fellow, I should have sent her to Congress.' He admitted some original difference in minds, but it was nothing to what was formed by education, and he instanced the science of numbers.

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A good deal of Latin had been " whipped into " Johnson as a boy. One of his teachers, Mr. Hunter, headmaster of Lichfield School, was very severe and wrong-headedly severe." He would ask a boy a question, such as the Latin for candlestick, and if he did not answer it, he would beat him. Notwithstanding the abuse of the rod from which Johnson suffered as a boy, he was always a believer in corporal punishment. A child who is flogged, he said, gets his task and there is an end of it,' "whereas by exciting emulation and comparison of superiority you lay


"There is now less

the foundation of lasting mischief. flogging in our great schools," he observed in 1775, "but less is learned there, so that what the boys get at one end they lose at the other." He assisted Boswell in the defence of the schoolmaster Hastie in the House of Lords, who was accused of undue severity in inflicting punishment. "No severity is cruel which obstinacy makes necessary,” Johnson said, “for the greatest cruelty would be to desist, and leave the scholar too careless for instruction, and too much hardened for reproof." Correction must be proportioned to occasions, but must not produce lasting evil. Boswell lost his case. His opposing counsel, Lord Mansfield, asserted that severity was not the way to govern either boys or men. Johnson aptly observed that it was the way to govern them, "I know not whether it be the way to mend them."

Johnson believed in educating boys in public schools. More was learned from emulation; there was the collision of mind with mind and the radiation of many minds to one centre. If few boys made their own exercises, one good exercise if given up out of a great number was made by somebody. Public school education was specially advantageous to the boy of parts. After whipping had been tried, the dull and idle boys were left at the end of a class, having the appearance of going through the course but learning nothing at all. Such boys would do better at a private school. The question of public and private education was therefore not properly a general one but "whether one or the other is best for my son.' He advised the parent of a son with an extreme degree of timidity that his resolution to send him to a public school was preposterous. Placing him at a public school is forcing an owl upon day."


Comparatively little is recorded of Johnson's views on university education. Owing to domestic reasons, Johnson left Oxford without taking a degree and the length of his stay at Pembroke College remains one of the mysteries of his life, along with the question of his political activities during the year 1745 and his reasons for collecting orange peel. Research into buttery books has failed to supply the crucial evidence and the world awaits the further investigations of some American scholar. He approved of the expulsion from Oxford of six methodists who would not desist from publicly praying and exhorting. Somebody who laughed at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge for sending forth verses in a large number of dead languages was rebuked by Johnson. I would have the world to be thus told," he said, here is a school where everything may be learnt.' He denied that the universities of England were too rich; the very reverse was the truth. Gresham College was intended as a place of instruction for London; able professors were to read lecture gratis, they contrived to have no scholars; whereas if they had been allowed to receive but sixpence a lecture from each scholar they would have been emulous to have scholars. In the foreign universities a professorship was a high thing, but here the universities were impoverished of learning by the penury of their provisions. "I wish there were many places of a thousand-a-year at Oxford, to keep first-rate men of learning from quitting the University." Johnson believed in Oxford and expatiated at times on its advantages for learning. Admitting that some members of a university might for a season be unmindful of their duty, he argued nevertheless for the excellency of the institution. If eighteenth-century Oxford was a castle of indolence, a fortress of sinecurism, as no less partial an authority than the Royal Commission on Oxford and Cambridge Universities would have us believe, we cannot withhold" the meed of some melodious tear from the Alma Mater which nursed Samuel Johnson, moulded his character, and quickened his love of learning. The writer of epitaphs is not on oath, but it was written with truth, "Johnson is dead, let us go to the next best there is nobody. No man can be said to put you in mind of Johnson."

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HE Commission appointed by the Government of the Union of South Africa to inquire into the expenditure of the several provinces of the Union and to report as to the directions in which economies can be effected has produced a report which is characterized as a devastating document." Inquiry was made more particularly into the expenditure of the four provinces in relation to the four heads (1) General administration, (2) Education, (3) Hospitals, &c., (4) Roads, &c. With respect to education the Commission finds that the cost per pupil in South Africa is much higher than in any other part of the Empire," and it recommends reductions in the cost of teachers' salariés, &c., amounting to a sum approximating twothirds of a million sterling per annum, at the same time adding that "the savings specified in this regard do not by any means exhaust the economies which should be effected."


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The increase in expenditure on education is out of proportion to the increase in the population and school enrolment.

The expenditure per pupil is alarming, especially if it is compared with expenditure in other Dominions.

South Africa spends a much larger proportion of its revenue on education than Great Britain, Australia, or New Zealand, and the cost per pupil is much higher than in those countries.

The expenditure on training of teachers is generally excessive.

The expenditure on teachers' salaries is too high. The scales should be reviewed and in many cases reduced. The number of pupils per teacher should be increased. The expenditure upon technical and industrial education is in general too high.


It is recommended that the Union Government should lay down uniform scales of teachers' salaries and local allowances applicable to the four provinces. In the determination of the new scales:

(1) the existing minima and rates of increments should be revised;

(2) the principle of payment by qualifications should be modified by the grading of posts;

(3) the range of incremental scales should in some cases be shortened;

(4) the grades of principals' posts should be increased in number;

(5) salaries of uncertificated teachers should be revised and in some cases materially reduced.

In the judgment of the Commission the maximum salaries attainable by the holders of the higher posts are on the whole not excessive.

The Report of the Commission bristles with figures, but only a few statistics can be set out here.

In the four provinces the percentage increases in the cost of education, comparing 1921-2 with 1913-14, are: Cape Province, 124.01; Natal, 244.87; Transvaal, 270.01; Orange Free State, 200.20.

The cost per pupil is given as: Australia, £8.25; New Zealand, 10.16; Canada, 11.56; South Africa, £19.46.

In South Africa the Commission finds that the number of pupils per teacher is considerably less than in England and Wales or New Zealand, while the cost per pupil (in teachers' salaries) works out at about double.

For 1921-2 teachers' salaries amounted to £4,432,903 -i.e., nearly 70 per cent of the total cost of education, and it is upon this figure of £4,432,903 that the Commission recommends savings amounting to £635,000.

The report states "the salaries paid to women are for the most part indefensible on grounds of economy." Concerning uncertificated teachers, too, the judgment is expressed that" all these salaries require review, and there is ample room for considerable savings." It is pointed out that the cost per student teacher is much higher than the cost per university student. In the Cape Province the cost per student is £75; in Natal, 148; in the Transvaal, £193; and in the Orange Free State, £208. As to senior pupils, the Commission is satisfied that there are many pupils at present in school who are gaining no advantage from the schooling which they are receiving and who are attempting to reach a stage of literary attainment which is beyond them.

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With regard to medical inspection, the opinion is expressed that this service can hardly be described as having been undertaken seriously in any province except the Transvaal." Concerning the education of native children, the amount hitherto expended is regarded as having been most inadequate. There is a grave shortage of schools; the accommodation in existing schools is insufficient; in many instances the number of pupils per teacher is unduly high, while the salaries paid to native teachers are extremely low. As to the education of coloured children, the expenditure in the Cape Province (where these pupils chiefly dwell) is considered to be entirely inadequate. The salaries of the teachers are much too low, while the general provision of educational facilities leaves much to be desired. It is felt that there is an overwhelming case for the increase of coloured teachers' salaries, and it is suggested that an increase of 50 per cent. would not be unreasonable.


University Elections.


The University elections have provided more excitement than was at first anticipated. At Oxford and London, the position is unaltered as regards representation, the old members being reelected. At Cambridge, Sir Geoffrey Butler, who entered the field as a Conservative candidate at the last moment, defeated one of the sitting members, Mr. J. R. M. Butler. Some dust and heat were caused at this election by the action of the heads of the women's colleges in urging women graduates by circular to vote for the candidate (Mr. J. R. M. Butler) most sympathetic to the woman's cause. Several letters were published in The Times on this subject. Mr. G. G. Coulton, as beau sabreur, pointed out that university representation was created with the express object of enabling His Majesty to learn at first-hand how things were going at Oxford and Cambridge; in reply, Mr. T. LI. Humberstone agreed as to the original object of university representation, but quoted Anthony à Wood, the Oxford historian, to prove that in practice it worked out otherwise. Sir Geoffrey Butler, one of the candidates, thought the action ill-judged, but only an error in tactics, and a lady correspondent reported that she had put the peccant circular in the fire. In their own defence, Dr. Bertha Philpotts and Miss Strachey justified their action on the ground that it was right for the university elector to pay special attention to university questions-otherwise why two votes? They were able also to use the tu quoque argument. In the result, as already stated, Sir Geoffrey Butler supplanted Mr. J. R. M. Butler, and the women have lost their Parliamentary champion. It is perhaps of small import for the fight as to the status of women at Cambridge has now been transferred from St. Stephen's to the curtilage of the Royal Commission's quarters. At London, the election caused little excitement, the candidates being the same as at last year's election and the voting also much the same.

Sir Sydney Russell-Wells retained his seat with a reduced majority, Prof. Pollard, the Liberal candidate, increasing his poll substantially. Mr. H. G. Wells, the Labour candidate, according to an evening newspaper, has finished his career as an active politician. Two elections in one year are a severe test for the most enthusiastic candidate. If any system of election with a transferable vote were adopted, however, the outlook would be different, as it would if London obtained the two seats to which it appears to be entitled. For the combined English Universities, the sitting members, Sir Martin Conway and Mr. Fisher, were re-elected. The Labour candidate, Prof. Findlay, of Manchester University, is well known in the educational world. His poll of 850 showed a great improvement on that of the Labour candidate at the last election and was slightly better than that of Prof. Strong (813), standing as an Independent candidate at the same election.

Several events have recently been recorded in this column indicating the growing importance of Graduate Work. "graduate" work-or, as it is more frequently called, post-graduate " workin English universities, and of the resulting interchange of students Sir Geoffrey Butler, the newly-elected member for Cambridge University, has contributed a letter to The Times pointing out the number and diversity of graduate students coming to Cambridge. He prophesies that in fifty years' time the "handling" of graduate students will be one of the foremost functions of the universities. There is a pressing need, he suggests, for the foundation of a number of new professorships for the supervision of graduate students. The work of encouraging selected graduates to migrate to and from oversea and foreign universities is also receiving attention. Mr. Clarence Graff, an American domiciled in London, has founded a fellowship of £250 for one year, plus tuition fees, open to Oxford and Cambridge graduates and tenable at an American university located between the Allegheny Mountains and the Rocky Mountains-otherwise the Middle West. The founder's object is "to foster a better understanding in Great Britain of social conditions and currents of opinion in the United States of America." The Imperial College at South Kensington has established, through the generosity of anonymous benefactors, two graduate scholarships of £300 a year open to graduates from each of the Dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India for the session 1924-5.

Mr. W. Edwards, of Bradford Grammar School, in a letter published in The Times Educational SuppleExternal Examinations. ment raises an interesting question as to the possibility of establishing external examinations for degrees in universities other than London, which at present enjoys a virtual monopoly. He takes strong exception to the rigid requirements of London University as to matriculation. The principle of interchangeability with other universities has not been accepted by London and this places many students who aspire to external degrees in a serious difficulty. To these students Mr. Edwards extends his sympathy though he appears to over-estimate their numbers. Unless interchangeability can be secured, he says, other universities should either obtain powers to grant external degrees or should affiliate technical and other colleges at which the students in question pursue their studies. This question of affiliation should certainly be considered without delay. It implies a delimitation of university areas and a willingness on the part of universities to assist in every practicable way the teaching work of their affiliated institutions. London can be trusted to maintain a high standard for its external degrees; whether the system is good or bad, it would be less efficient if the number of universities enjoying the privilege were indefinitely increased.

Adult Education.

Adult education in a wide sense is becoming recognized as an important part of university work. A successful meeting was held in London on November 23 for purposes of propaganda, Lord Haldane presided and the principal speaker was Lord Grey of Falloden. Democratic representative government, he said, was not safe unless the people themselves were fit to govern. Primary and secondary education were valuable as an equipment for work but were not, in the true and highest sense of the word, education. Adult education was not equipment for any special subject but was knowledge and training for life and living. It would tend to break down class barriers and was needed as much by the rich as by the poor. Further State assistance----not control was urged. A sum of £500,000 was suggested and a resolution was adopted, without dissent, calling for the cooperation of the Government, the local education authorities, and the universities. Mr. C. T. Cramp, of the National Union of Railwaymen, made a clear and able speech in support of the

University Bulletin.


resolution in which he stressed the difficulties induced by city life in the way of independent thought. There is no doubt as to the goodwill of the universities towards the movement and further developments may be expected if funds are forthcoming. The University Bulletin issued by the Association of University Teachers has been given improved format, and its scope has been widened by the inclusion of articles on subjects connected with University education. Lord Gorell, the Chairman of the Teachers Registration Council, who contributes the first article to the November number, discusses three topics, first, the registration of teachers as leading to a unified teaching profession, secondly, the finance of the universities as related to propaganda, a department in which Lord Gorell is himself doing useful work, and finally, the need for an Imperial Education Bureau of extended scope. Prof. Harrison Moore, of Melbourne, pleads for the better organization of university opinion, guided at present by the "fitful light" of occasional articles and conferences. Oversea universities especially feel the danger of isolation from the academic world at large. Notes on the work and progress of English universities and a record of new appointments complete a useful publication.


There are four University Colleges in England-Reading, Southampton, Nottingham, and the SouthUniversity West (at Exeter). It is refreshing to learn that all these Colleges have agreed, after a few years, to restrict admission to full-time courses to matriculated students, or to students possessing an equivalent qualification. This bold policy has not yet been found practicable in several important London colleges, but its essential soundness cannot be disputed, notwithstanding the threatened reduction in numbers which may at first result. Secondary school boys will refuse to take their school work seriously so long as they can obtain admission to academic and professional colleges without producing evidence of general education. The first annual report of the Exeter College, the youngest but not least virile of the four, announces the decision of the Council to remove the College to the new Streatham Hall site as soon as possible; for this purpose, an appeal is to be launched next year. A department of Law has been established with the financial assistance of the Law Society.

The Central

Welsh Board.


At the half-yearly meeting held at Shrewsbury on a motion by Principal Sir Harry Reichel, the critical financial condition of the Central Welsh Board was discussed. There is a permanent deficiency of £1,500 in a total expenditure of something like £12,000, which is of course a very high percentage, though this is not the fault of the Board itself. It was really assigned an impossible task, for it not only carried on the work it did before the war, but increased work at heavily increased charges. The remedy suggested by the Board of Education that it should curtail its work by allowing the Welsh Department to perform the work of inspection is open to the very grave objection that thereby Wales would give up its hardly earned privilege of autonomy in education. This solution of the difficulty is therefore not likely to commend itself to the Welsh authority. A mere examining board would not really be performing a very useful function for there is in existence a sufficient variety of such bodies at present, and there is also no doubt that the prestige of the Central Welsh Board Certificate is largely due to the fact that the Board has a complete and intimate knowledge of the schools it examines through its inspectors.

There remains the other alternative, namely the discovery of some means of increasing the total annual How to Increase income of the Board, either from the Treasury the Income. or in some other way. One method suggested was that the whole of the £2 examination fee should be paid over to the Central Welsh Board as is done in the case of other examining bodies. The chairman, however, pointed out that they could not claim the whole of this sum as they were levying a rate on the counties, but he maintained that the present rate of 7s. 6d. was absurdly low. After some further suggestions had been made the whole matter was referred to the Executive Committee who will at the proper time summon a special meeting of the Board to discuss it.

The various reports submitted to the Board contained much valuable information as to the progress of School the Intermediate Schools. The total number Attendances. of pupils in attendance during the year 1922-23 was 24,287 as compared with 24,489 in the preceding (Continued on page 36.)

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