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I of Mr. Alderman Manning,

T was fitting that Education Week should come at the

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Vice-Chairman of the City Education Committee, who, during his year of office, has visited every school in the city and addressed the pupils on the heritage which is theirs as the future citizens of no mean city." The teachers entered with enthusiasm into the project, and carried it through with excellent organization. The week was inaugurated by a special service, preached by Dr. Fry, Dean of Lincoln, on Sunday, October 21, at the Parish Church of St. Mary's, the Vicar of which, Canon Field, D.D., is a former headmaster of Radley. A procession took place from the Mayor's Parlour at the Exchange, in which officials, H.M. inspectors, heads of schools and departments, and head boys and girls took part.

On the Monday a public meeting was held, at which the speakers were Mrs. H. A. L. Fisher and Viscount Burnham. On the following day a splendid gathering of teachers listened to an inspiring utterance from Mr. J. Dover Wilson, who pleaded for the best work of the teacher in instructing in the mother-tongue, so that the ideals of truth, goodness, and beauty might be conveyed to the pupils in the medium most familiar to them.

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Mr. A. Burrell, principal of Borough Road Training College, who was described as an expert in telling stories,' gave some practical hints as to method and manner, and illustrated his topic by some enthralling narrations. At an evening meeting on the same day he held an audience of senior scholars spell-bound by more stories, and General Sir Ian Hamilton delighted them by anecdotes of his own school-days, urging them to seize all the golden opportunities that the modern system provides.

The importance to-day of health and physical training was emphasized by the fact that an evening was devoted to a lecture-demonstration, at which an address was given by Dr. Crowley, of the Board of Education. He commended the work of the teachers, who had responded to the lead given by the two local inspectors of physical training, and had in great numbers equipped themselves to teach the subject by attending special classes arranged by the local committee. The entertainment included drill, folk and country dancing, and vaulting by the secondary school pupils. Another evening was given to a concert which proved so popular that the tickets were sold out days before, the same thing happening the following week, when the concert was repeated. Part-songs, dramatic scenes, solos, vocal and pianoforte, were given, the conductor being Mr. J. S. Scott, H.M.I. Twice during the week open sessions were held, and many parents took the opportunity of visiting the schools, viewing the work, and consulting the teachers.

Perhaps the most attractive feature of the week's doings was an exhibition of work held at the Castle Museum. This included drawings, paintings, models, handwork of all kinds-even book-binding-and ranged from the simple efforts of infants towards artistic expression, to posters by students at the University College. This display was visited by 23,000 people in six days, and was a revelation even to many of the teachers themselves.

Nottingham is associated, through the honoured name of Mundella, with the development of elementary education, and evidence was given by this education week that the city will not be behind in providing her sons and daughters with the best that can be furnished for them in physical and mental equipment for the tasks which await the members of a great industrial community.

MR. W. A. KNIGHT, the president-elect of the Headmasters' Association, is a J.P. of Somerset and headmaster of Sexey's School, Bruton. He is a member of the Somerset Education Committee, and an active worker in the educational life of the West.


French in the Home; and a Hint.




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To improve the English spoken in America the Americans have special Speech Weeks, with results as uncertain as those of the Eleusinian mysteries celebrated at ancient Athens. In England there is more energy expended in deploring the talk of the young than in striving to amend it; and the teacher is in a difficulty, for if he speaks more correctly than his neighbours, he is set down as a pedant or a snob. Perhaps a writer in the Revue Universitaire (XXXII, 8) on La crise du français dans les familles" does right in finding the root of the evil in the home. It seems that in French families "du meilleur monde the elders addressing the young speak of their convocation as their collante, for compositions say compotes, turn le Luxembourg into le Luco, and "l'admiration même la plus émue ne peut s'exprimer autrement que par le mot épatant.' One suggestion that the French writer-it is Mme Hubert Bourgin, of the Lycée Fénelon-makes with a view to reform we venture to pass on. There should be a return to family reading -"la lecture en commun, tant recommandée par Michelet "; and the title of an excellent book that may be used by English families in this way will occur to many readers. It is a book prescribed by Burton as a cure for melancholy, it being "like an apothecary's shop, wherein are all remedies for all infirmities of mind, purgatives, cordials, alteratives, corroboratives, lenitives, &c." Nor will you find elsewhere so pure a well of English. As distinct from correspondence with foreign schools, France has made some progress with correspondance interscolaire, correspondence between French schools-primary schools, as it seems. Such

Correspondance Interscolaire.

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a correspondence is carried on between the school at Lamoura (Jura) and that at Passage-d'Agens (Lot-et-Garonne). Each school has its programme of subjects-local features and characteristics—and on these subjects the children write essays, the two best being sent to the corresponding school. In this way the children of Lamoura learn, for example, about the vinyards and vines of Passage-d'Agens; whilst the children of Passage-d'Agens delight to hear of winter and ski-ing in the Jura. A teacher writes: It is a precious means of culture for our children. It obliges them to make their geographical notions clear and definite, to reflect in order to discern in what they know the details likely to interest other school children, and to keep for their letters what is characteristic, what distinguishes their country and district from all others." It is another hint from France which we venture to pass on. How little of the scribbling now offered to examiners as English essays would survive if boys and girls were trained from the outset to seek always what is distinctive in the thing that they observe, and to select from their reflections those most likely to interest the person addressed!



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For all her distractions Germany was able to recall, on September 11, the two-hundredth anniversary Basedow. of Basedow's birth. The books set Basedow, along with Herder, Lenz, Klinger, and the young Goethe, among the first lights of the "Storm and Stress period in German literature. In pedagogy a disciple of Rousseau, Elementarwerk' he is notable as the compiler of the (1774Four vols., 100 plates) and as the founder of the Philanthropin, the famous model school at Dessau; notable too for a pushfulness and self-advertisement which earned him the title of the educational commis voyageur. Nothing, however, would have kept memory of him alive had not Goethe given him a conspicuous place in the Fourteenth Book of Wahrheit und Dichtung," and the historic dinner at Koblenz, when Goethe sat-" das Weltkind in der Mitten"-between Lavater expounding the Apocalypse to a country clergyman and Basedow proving to a dancing master that baptism was an obsolete institution, links Basedow the pedagogue with the poet for all time to come. died at Magdeburg in 1790. Thüringen is in Germany what Glasgow is in Great Britain: it goes so far to the Left as almost to fall How the Good over. Now, on August 4 last the Landtag of News was hailed. Thüringen met to consider the second reading of a Bill for the Abolition of Corporal Punishment. It is a curious fact that Communists object to be flogged much more than do peers; and the Communistic majority in the Thüringen Landtag carried the day in opposition to the Right and even to milder (Continued on page 18.)

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Democrats, tolerant of weals and woe. Henceforth every form of corporal punishment is forbidden in the schools of Thüringen; the Law comes into force without further notification; all ordinances to the contrary are revoked. In vain had the teachers urged that they could not be held responsible for the maintenance of order if their hands were tied, and that the Elternbeiräte, or parents' councils, should be consulted as well as the politicians of the market-place. The news of the Act was hailed by the young with not inexplicable enthusiasm. Armed with stinkbombs a box of two cost 5,000 Mk.-boys marched through the streets of Rudolstadt, pulled open the shop doors, threw their missiles into the shops, and rejoiced exceedingly over the rage of the occupants. The vendor of the stink-bombs himself received a consignment of his own goods; whereupon, to express disapproval of such offences, he judiciously raised the price of a box from 5,000 Mk. to 7,000 Mk. In our authority, the Landeszeitung für Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, it is not stated how this increase of cost affected the accidents and insolencies of the night.



The disciplinary value of mathematics has been challenged in America; it is now being repudiated in Of Mathematics. Italy. We report objectively, expressing no opinion of our own. In the Rivista Pedagogica (XVI, 9) appears an article by Mario Govi on Inutilità della Matematica per la formazione e l'educazione intellettuale e limiti dell' insegnamento di essa nelle Scuole Medie." Mathematics, it is argued, cannot have, as history, literature, and ethics have, a value in the education and formation of the sentiments. Nor can they have value in themselves as immediately satisfying, like physics, astronomy, botany, and psychology, a natural desire to know the real world: their object is wholly abstract and ideal. Their importance is as an instrumental science-a means of acquiring real or practical quantitative cognitions. Thus they have instrumental value for certain sciences and are a necessary propaedeutic to them; to others they are unserviceable. They are necessary as a preparation and basis for those who are to study physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, or geography; they are quite useless as a propaedeutic to those who are taking up philosophy, psychology, history, literature, or ethics. Why then impose the study of them so long in secondary schools on pupils for whom they can have no utility?

This year, 1924, will be celebrated the seventh centenary of the Royal University of Naples, an academy The University of high fame, and notable especially to-day of Naples. because its laboratories provide unequalled facilities for the study of marine biology. The Rettore Magnifico, Prof. Miranda, in co-operation with the poet, Salvatore Di Giacomo, is compiling a history of the University to be published in connexion with the centenary celebrations, at which English universities will doubtless be represented.

The Study of French.



There are indications in the United States of a desire to extend and intensify the study of French. The Educational Review (LXVI, 4) publishes an article with this aim headed, Why study French in the High School?" and another article in the School Review (XXXI, 9) recommends "French as a Business Proposition for American Students." In the latter are shown some steps in the right direction. It seems that before the war the American Government employed foreigners in its offices abroad to act as interpreters between Americans and the natives. A new Federal Law makes it imperative for consular officers to employ Americans, and so a demand for French-speaking Americans has been created. Similarly the American Shipping Board has been discharging from its offices abroad all foreigners, replacing them with Americans. The adventure, the opportunity, and the interest connected with this type of patriotic work in a foreign land need not be described. The American boy with a spirit set for worthy deeds will realize what an opportunity he has over the wide world to serve his country. In whatever land he may be stationed, he will find French one of his greatest assets." The example of America should be followed by Britain. In the past we allowed foreigners to interpret between us and their own nationals; henceforth we must be our own linguists.

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co-operate with the civic and religious bodies to secure its mcst general and helpful observance, for the purpose of more liberally supporting and more effectively improving the educational facilities of our country." It is believed that President Coolidge, like President Harding, is in favour of the Towner-Sterling Bill, creating a Federal Department of Education, with a Secretary in the President's Cabinet. But a great national demand is needed to carry the Bill, which was to come before Congress in December. Education Week should have helped to create such a demand.


In the October number of School Life Dr. J. J. Tigert, United States Commissioner of Education, discusses The Passing of the Home? the change in the American home and the educational problems it creates. 'A man of my age," he writes, "can remember a very different kind of home from that which is common in America to-day. In the old American home it was unusual when the family did not all sit down together at meal-time, and the absence of any one was always keenly felt. In the evening, father, mother, and children gathered about the fireside, where much old-fashioned dogma was dispensed and children were generally anchored in the security of parental influence. To-day, in the average American home, it is seldom that a family of any size is found seated simultaneously either at the table or in the evening by the fireside. The glory of the great white way, the lights of the café, the lure of the motion picture, the speed of modern living have all conspired to disrupt this old-fashioned American home. So far as the home is concerned, I have said before and repeat here, I do not believe that the old American home will ever come back. The world will not stand still. The automobile, the motion picture, and other evidences of progress will remain with us. In the readjustment, our problem of the future will be to make the community as safe as was the home,', For our part, we should regret the passing of the English home which has been a mighty influence in the making of the English people.

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The Education Caring for the Natives.


Gazette (XXII, 34) prints the Sections of the Retrenchment Ordinance (Ordinance 14 of Wherever 1923) which relate to Education. retrenchment begins, education is sure to be the first victim. More pleasant to read is further news of how the natives are cared for. The Health Magazine, of which we wrote last month, explains that scurvy, a disease common among them, is not caused by germs, but by lack of vitamins. Then the schools grow, and teach how to grow, the foods that contain the vitamines necessary for those who live chiefly on maize or kafir-corn-namely, cabbages, tomatoes, potatoes, sweet potatoes (batata), and fruits like the orange, the lemon, and the naartje. Thus with training in gardening goes the upbuilding of a new generation.


MR. G. H. GATER will be warmly welcomed by all London teachers and members of the administrative staff when he takes up office in succession to Sir Robert Blair in March next. Born at Southampton thirty-seven years ago, he was educated at Winchester College and New College, Oxford, taking honours in modern history and the diploma in education. Later he gained experience in teaching in primary, secondary, and technical schools, and was for a time an officer of the Oxfordshire Education Committee, later taking up appointment as Assistant Director of Education for Nottinghamshire, where he rendered valuable organization services in connexion with the development of evening continuation schools. He joined the army in August, 1914, with the rank of second lieutenant, and, although without previous military experience, he gained rapid promotion and distinction for service in Gallipoli, (Continued on page 20.)

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Egypt, and France. At the age of thirty-two, and after only three and a half years with the colours, he was in command of an infantry brigade, he had won the D.S.O. and bar, had conferred upon him the Legion of Honour and the Croix de Guerre, and had been recommended for a divisional command. On demobilization he returned to the administration of education, and succeeded Dr. Snape as Director of Education to the Lancashire County Council in December, 1918. During the difficult years which have since passed Mr. Gater has shown notable gifts of organization, and his achievements bear tribute to his fitness for the high position in the educational world which he is about to take up. With never-failing tact and a wonderful power of inspiring enthusiasm for education, he has gained a great reputation among teachers in Lancashire, and his early transfer is deeply regretted in that county.



MR. JOHN MONTGOMERY, who died on November 22, will be remembered by many of the older generation of assistant masters as the founder of the Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools. It was in the summer of 1891 that Mr. Montgomery-then on the teaching staff at Parmiter's School-circularized all assistant masters in London secondary schools with a view to forming an association in the interests of assistant masters generally. At an informal meeting which followed and at which the Association was born, he was elected hon. secretary, and Mr. Blair (now Sir Robert) chairman. Mr. Montgomery remained in office until his appointment as headmaster of Uckfield Grammar School in 1898. During this period the Association was his great joy and solace, and his invincible determination and never-failing zeal and tact rendered possible its present success and widespread influence. Ably assisted by an active committee, he fought strenuously and unceasingly on behalf of those who, at that time, were referred to continually, in the Press, as "Educational Helots." In those days the work was purely voluntary, the subscription to the Association being merely half-a-crown, and done laboriously at the homes of the officers. Contrasting the infancy of the Association with its present powerful organization, assistant masters will gratefully remember Mr. Montgomery, who worked so successfully and ungrudgingly with the view to establishing on a firm basis the future of assistant masters in secondary schools.

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THE Rev. Griffith Thomas, Vicar of Morriston, and formerly Vicar of St. David's, Carmarthen, who was recently installed Canon of Brecon Cathedral, started work at a carpenter's bench when he was twelve years of age. Working as an ordinary carpenter, he studied for matriculation in the evenings, and being successful, he entered Lampeter College as a divinity student. Two years later he took his licentiate at the top of his class. He sent in the best Greek paper in the final examination that had been written at Lampeter for years, and was complimented by the Oxford examiners.

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MR. J. H. DEVONSHIRE whose death in his eighty-eighth year was recently announced in the press, was formerly a well-known Wesleyan schoolmaster. He was trained at Westminster College and appointed in 1856 to the headship of the Mintern Street Higher Grade School, London— a position which he held for over forty-six years. Throughout his term of office the school was held in great esteem, and Matthew Arnold in one of his reports paid it great tribute:" This is one of the few schools to which I have been accustomed to send educationalists desirous of seeing the best that we accomplish in our inspected schools." Mr. Devonshire was an active member of professional associations and in 1875 he was elected president of the National Union of Teachers. He took a prominent part in benevolent work also, and helped largely in founding the Teachers' Orphanage at Peckham Rye, the Girls' Orphanage at Sheffield, and the Boys' Orphanage at Sydenham.




In September last the General Committee of the British Association appointed a committee "to consider the educational training of boys and girls in secondary schools for life overseas." It has been represented to this committee that there are to be found in most schools a percentage of boys and girls whose capacities offer them little incentive to work at any literary, mathematical, or purely scientific studies, and that if such boys were given the opportunity of working on the land, of dealing with stock, or even if they were merely introduced to agricultural problems in the science laboratory, their interest would be at once awakened, and their activities stimulated. Such an opportunity, it is believed, would lead to better work in the subjects originally distasteful to them, and, moreover, would bring home to their minds the possibility of a career in one of the overseas dominions more suited to their temperament and ability than any which the restricted opportunities in the Home Country could possibly offer. Acting on this suggestion the committee have issued a questionnaire to a large number of headmasters and headmistresses in order to obtain : (1) Information on the facilities that already exist in various schools for such special training.

(2) Expressions of opinion on the practicability of introducing a scheme in which work on the land, or in a manual school, forms a definite part of the school curriculum for a section of the school.

The committee would be glad to have the considered views of those who have had experience in providing occupations for such boys and girls from the age of fifteen upwards, on the advantage of allotting part of the school hours to a plan of work in which, though the outlook is vocational, the training is really educational in order to meet the needs of these special cases. Especially would the committee be glad of any observations made where a scheme of this kind has been tried: (1) as to the number of boys dealt with,

(2) as to how far it has enabled boys to take up farming, or any career associated with the land,

(3) as to the effect of such practical work on the character of the individual, and on his attitude towards his other studies.

Many of your readers may be interested in the subject, and could give the committee valuable information. May I ask the courtesy of publication of this letter in your columns, in order to reach these, and to invite them to place at the disposal of the committee any experience they may have had that will further the object of this inquiry. Copies of the questionnaire would be sent on application.

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'My son is just thirteen. He must pass the Entrance to the Public Schools in November. But the headmaster of the preparatory school where he has spent the past four years while we have been in India, says that he is so backward that he will never get through it. I wish you would see him, at least, and give me your advice about him.”

This was in July, and all through August I taught that unfortunate boy daily for an hour or two-and myself learnt much.

As I had thought possible beforehand, the boy had never been taught to read. He could not spell; he did not know the multiplication table. Most of his time at school was given to Latin and mathematics; needless to say, he knew nothing of either. His ignorance of geography was amazing. Asked to name any British possession overseas, he had never heard of any but India, where he was born. He had a few hazy notions of history. English grammar and composition were a sealed

(Continued on page 22.)

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