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capes, besides

Bays and Capes.] Massachusetts bay is a large bay communicating with the Atlantic between cape Ann on the north and cape Cod on the south. It includes several smaller bays, among which are Boston bay, which sets up between Nahant point on the north, and point Alderton on the south ; Plymouth bay, and Barnstable bay. Buzzard's bay is on the S. W. side of the peninsula of cape Cod, and separated from Barnstable bay by a narrow isthmus. The most noted

cape

Ann and cape Cod, are cape Malabar, at the southeast extremity of the peninsula of cape Cod; Sandy point, at the northern extremity of the island of Nantucket; and Gayhead, the western point of Martha's Vineyard.

Face of the Country.] The surface is generally undulating, except in the southeastern counties, where it is level. The western part of the state is traversed from north to south by several ranges of mountains. The White mountain runge comes from New Hampshire, and running on the east side of Connecticut river, divides a little below Northampton into the Mount Tom range and Lyme range. The Green mountain range comes from Vermont, and occupies a large part of the county of Berkshire. The Taghkannuc range runs along the western boundary of the state. The highest summits in the Taghkannuc range are Saddle mountain, which rises near the N. W. corner of the state to the height of about 4,000 feet above the level of the sea ; and Taghkapnuc, which is near the S.W. corner of the state, on the borders of Connecticut and New-York,and is about 3,000 feet high. The principal summits in the Mount Tom range are Mount Tom and Mount Holyoke, both of which rise in the neighborhood of Northampton to the height of more tban 1,200 feet above the level of the sea. Wachuselt is a single mountain in Princeton, 15 miles north of Worcester. The height is variously estimated from 2,000 to 3,000 feet.

Soil and Productions. On the sea coast the land is poor, particularly in the southeastern counties which are sandy. The rest of the state bas generally a good soil, producing grass, Indian corn, rye, wheat,oats and potatoes, ia abundance. In no state in the Union have greater advances been made in agriculture than in Massachusetts. The towns around Boston are literally gardens from which the capital is supplied with the finest fruits and vegeables. Agricultural societies have recently been formed in various parts of the state, which promise to be of great benefit by encour, aging the importation of valuable breeds of animals, and promoting every species of agricultural improvement.

Minerols.] Iron ore is found in considerable quantities in Bristol and Plymouth counties. Quarries of marble have been opened in Stockbridge, and in other towns of Berkshire county, Great quantities of beautiful granite are found in Chelmsford and Tyngsborough, near the banks of the Middlesex canal; it is much used for building in Boston and other places.

Rivers.) Connecticut river traverses the western part of the state from north to south and passes joto Connecticut. The Merrimack comes from New-Hampshire, and running in a north

easterly direction about 50 miles, falls into the ocean below Newburyport. Ipswich river is a small stream, which falls into the ocean 9 miles south of the Merrimack. Charles river falls into Boston harbor between Boston and Charlestown, after a northeasterly course of 40 miles. It is pavigable to Watertown, 7 miles. Neponset river falls into Boston harbor on the south side of the town. It is navigable for vessels of 150 tons to Milton, 4 miles. Taunton river rises in Plymouth county, and after a S. W. course of 50 miles falls into Narragansett bay. It is navigable for small vessels to Taunton, 20 miles.

The principal tributaries of the Connecticut from this state are, Westfield river, which rises in the northern part of Berkshire county, and running in a S. E. direction joins it at West Springfield near the southern boundary; Deerfield river, which rises in Bennington county in Vermont, and running S. E. empties itself between Deerfield and Greenfield near the northern boundary; Millers river, which empties itself from the east side, ahore Deerfield river; and the Chickapee, which rises in Worcester county, and running S. W. empties itself at Springfield, above the mouth of Westfield river.

The principal tributaries of the Merrimack from this state are, the Nashua, which rises in Worcester county and running N. E. into New Hampsbire, empties itself near the southern boundary of that state ; and Concord river, which is formed by the union of two small rivers at Concord and runniog N. E. empties itself 15 or 20 miles below the Nashua.

The Hooestennuc rises in the northern part of Berkshire county and flows south into Connecticut, draining the waters of the valley included between the Green mountain range on the east and the Taghkapnuc range on the west.

Canals.) Middlesex canal is wbolly within the county of Mid dlesex. It connects Boston harbor with Merrimack river. It is supplied with water by Concord river which it crosses on its surface. From tbat river, southward, it descends 107 feet by 13 locks, to the tide water of Boston harbor; and from that river, northward, it descends 21 feet hy 3 locks, to the level of Merrimack river. The canal is 31 miles long, 24 feet wide on the surface, and 4 feet deep. It was commenced in 1793 and completed in 1804 at an expense of more than $700,000. By this canal and Merrimack river an easy communication is opened between Boston and the interior of New-Hampshire.

There is a canal arouod the falls in Connecticut river at South Hadley. In one place it is cut through the solid rock more than 40 feet deep and 300 feet in length. There are other falls in the Connecticut above and below South Hadley, which have been overcome by canals, dams and other improvements, so that the river is now navigable for boats through the whole of its course in this state, and as high as Bath in New-Hampshire.

A canal for sloops from Buzzard's bay to Barnstable bay through the isthmus of cape Cod has long been in contemplation, and in 1818 a .company was incorporated to carry the plan into

erecution. The great object is to shorten the voyage between Boston and the southern ports, and to avoid the dangerous pavi. gation around cape Cod, which has heretofore occasioned the destruction of much property and many lives.

Chief Towns.] Boston, the capital of the state, and the largest town in New-England, is pleasantly situated at the bottom of Massachusetts bay, on a peninsula of an uneven surface, 2 miles long, and in the widest part about one mile wide. The harbor is one of the best in the United States. It has sufficient depth of water for the largest vessels at all times of ride, and is accessible at all seasons of the year. It is safe from every wind, and so capacious that it will allow 500 vessels to ride at anchor, wbile the entraoce is so Darrow as scarcely to admit two ships abreast. The entrance is well defended by Fort Independence and Fort Warren,

There are four bridges connecting Boston with the adjacent towns. Charles river bridge, which connects it with Charlestown on the porth, is 1503 feet long, 42 broad, and stands on 75 piers. West Boston bridge, connecting it with Cambridgeport on the west, is 3,483 feet long, and stands on 180 piers. Cragie's bridge is between these two, and connects it with Cambridge. A mill-dam, nearly two miles long and 50 feet wide was completed in 1821 across the bay on the S. W. side of the ciiy, at an expense of about $500,000. The object of it is to open a new avenie, and also to create a water power sufficient to put in operation extensive tide mills and other water works.

Tbe houses in the older part of the city are plain, and the streets generally narrow and crooked, but in West Boston and in several streets recently laid out, the private buildings are more splendid than in any other city in the United States. In 1817 there was erected on each side of Market street, a block of brick stores more than 400 feet in length, and 4 stories high ; and on Central wharf, another immense pile of buildings was completed the same year, 1,240 feet long and containing 54 stores 4 siories high..

Among the public buildings are the State house, which is bailt on elevated ground, and commands a line view of the surrounding country; the new court house, built of stone, at an expense of $92,000; Fapeuil hall, where all town meetings are held; a theatre; an almshouse; a custom-house; and 28 places for public worship, 11 of which are for Congregationalists, 4 for Episcopalians, 4 for Baptists, 2 for Methodists, 3 for l'niversalists, I for Roman Catholics, 1 for Friends a new Jerusalem eburch, and the seamen's chapel.

Among the literary institutions are the Boston Athenau:n, which contains about 18,000 volumes; the Boston library, which has 5 or 6,000, and several other libraries belonging to literary societies. Among the benevolent institutions are the Geneal llospital founded in 1818, which has been richly endowed by the lib. erality of the state and of individuals ; aud a Hospital for the 19sane, tbe buildings of which are situated in Charlestown.

Boston is very extensively engaged in com' ce. There are probably few cities in the world where there is so much walth

Here may

in proportion to the population. The amount of shipping owned here in 1815 was 143, 120 tons; a greater amount than belonged to any other port in the United States, except New-York. The country in the immediate vicinity is fertile and populous, and connected with the capital by fine roads, while the Middlesex canal opens a water communication with the interior of NewHampshire. The population of Boston in 1800 was 24,937; in 1810, 33,250; and in 1820, 43,298. The inhabitants have long been celebrated for their enterprise and intelligence, and for the liberality with which they support religious, literary and humane institutions.

The country around Boston is the admiration of every traveller of taste. The view from the dome of the State house surpasses any thing of the kind in this country, and is not excelied by that from the castle hill of Edinburgh, or that of the bay of Naples from the castle of St. Elmo. be seen at one view, the shipping, the harbor variegated with islands and alive with business: Charles river and its beautiful country ornamented with elegant country sets ; and more than 20 flourishing towns. The hills are finely cultivated, aud rounded by the hand of nature with singular felicity.

Salem, the second town in New-England in commerce, wealth, and population, is built on a low peninsula, formed by two small inlets of the sea, called North and South rivers ; over the former

of which is a bridge 1,500 feet long, connecting the town with Beverly : the other separates it from Marblehead, and forms the principal harbor. The harbor is so shallow that ressels drawing more than 12 feet water must load and uuload at a distance from the wharves.

The streets are crooked, and the houses are generally built of wood, but many of those recently erected are handsome edifices of brick. Among the public buildings are a court house, almshouse, market house, 3 banks, a museum belonging to the EastIndia Marine society, an athenæum containing more than 5,000 volumes, an orphan asylum, and 11 houses of public worship, 6 for Congregationalists, 2 for Baptists, 1 for Episcopalians, 1 for Friends, and i for Universalists.

The commerce of Salem is extensive. In 1816, it was the sixth town in the United States in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 34,454, of which nearly one half was employed in the India trade. This trade has been prosecuted with great spirit and success for many years, and has been a source of much wealth to the town. A society composed of masters and supercargoes of vessels wharbave sailed round the cape of Good Hope or cape Horn, was incorporated in 1801, an.I now consists of abont 160 members. ' A museum belongs to the society, composed of curiosities from all parts of the world, and is visited by strang. ers without expense. The inhabitants of Salein are celebrated for enterprise, industry and true republican economy. It is the oldest town in Masenchusetts, except Plymouth. having been settled in 1626. The population in 1820 was 12,731.

Newburyport, the third town in the state in population and commerce, is situated on the south bank of Merrimack river, 3 miles from its mouth, and 24 miles north of Salem. It is one of the handsomest towns in the United States, the site being a beautiful declivity, the houses neatly built, and the streets wide and intersecting each other nearly at right angles. Among the public buildings are 2 banks; and 7 houses for public worship, 3 for Congregationalists, 2 for Presbyterians, i for Episcopalians and 1 for Baptists.

In 1815 Newburyport was the 10th town in the United States in amount of shipping. The number of tons was 24,922, employed partly in the coasting trade and fieheries and partly in the trade to the West Indies, Europe and the East Indies. The town is well situated for ship building, having the advantage of receiving lumber from the interior by Merrimack river. The harbor is deep, safe and capacions, but difficult to eoter. The towo suffered severely by the restrictions on commerce previous to the late war, and by fire in 1811. It has not yet fully recovers ed from these misfortunes. Population in 1810, 7,634; in 1820, 6852.

Gloucester is situated on the peninsula of Cape Ann, at the northern extremity of Massachusetts bay, 16 miles N. E. of Sa-l lem. It is one of the most considerable fishing towns in the Com. monwealth. The amount of shipping owned here in 1815 was 11,080 tons. Population in 1820, 6,384. On the S. E. side of the town is Thatcher's island, on which are two ligbt-houses.

Beverly lies directly north of Salem, and is connected with it by a bridge 1,500 feet in length. It has considerable trade, and the inhabitants are extensively engaged in the fisheries. Population, in 1820, 4,283.

Marblehead is on a peninsula, 18 miles N E. of Boston and 4, S. E. of Salem. It is more extensively engaged in the bank fisheries than any other town in the Voited States. In 1818 there were 80 vessels employed from this port in the fishery of the Grand Bank, mapned by 760 men. The whole amount of shipping, in 1815, was 16,655 tons. Population in 1820, 5,630.

Lynn lies on the coast, 6 miles S. W. of Salem and 9'N. E. of Boston. It is famous for the manufacture of ladies' shoes. No less than a million pair were made here in 1811. They are sent in large quantities to the southern states and the West Indies. Population, in 1820, 4,515. Lynn Beach is regarded as a curiosity. It connects the peninsuļa of Nahant with the main land, and is a favorite place of resort for parties of pleasure from Boston, Salem and Marblebead.

Charlestown is beautifully situated on a peninsula formed by Mystic and Charles rivers, which unite immediately below in Boston harbor. A bridge across Charles river connects the town with Boston, and two others across Mystic river connect it with Maldeo, and with Chelsea. There is also a bridge across a bay of Charles river, on the west side of the town, connecting it with Cambridge. Among the public buildings are the state #prisor,

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