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Portsmouth and Newburyport; for the country on the Merrimack, Boston ; for the country on the Connecticut, Hartford and Boston.
Curiosity.) Bellows falls, in Connecticut river, at Walpole, are regarded as a curiosity. The whole descent of the river in the space of 100 rods is 44 feet. There are several pitches, one above another, at the highest of which a large rock divides thè stream into two channels, each about 90 feet wide. When the water is low, the eastern channel is dry, being crossed by a bar of solid rock; and the whole streain falls into the western channel, where it is contracted to the breadth of 16 feet, and flows with astonishing force and rapidity. In 1792, at a time of severe drought, the water of the river, it is said, passed within a space 12 feet wide and 2; feet deep. A bridge is built over these falls, under which the highest floods pass without detriment.
Islands.) The isles of Shoals, 6 in number, lie 11 miles S. E. of Portsmouth. A part of them belong to Maine, and a part to New-Hampshire. They consist of barren rocks and are inhabited by about 100 souls, who subsist by fishing
Situation and Extent.] Vermont is bounded N. by Lower Canada; E. by New Hampshire; S. by Massachusetts, and w. by New-York, from which it is separated in part by lake Champlain. T'he northern boundary is the parallel of 45° N. lat. The state extends from 12° 44' to 45° N. lat. and from 71° 38' to 73° 26' W. lon. It is 157 miles long from N. to S. 90 miles broad on the northern boundary, and 40 on the southero. The area is estimated at 10,212 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 13 counties.
Counties. Pop, in 1810. lop. in 1820. Chief Towns. 1. Windham, 26,760 28,457 Brattleborough, Newfane. 2. Windsor,
38,233 Windsor, Woodstock. 3. Orange, 22,085 24,681 Chelsea, Newbury. 4. Caledonia, 14,966 16,669 Danville, Peacham. 5. Essex,
3,087 3,234 Guildhall. 6. Grand isle,
3,115 3,527 North Hero. 7. Franklin,
16,427 17,192 St. Albans. 8. Chittenden, 14,681 16,055 Burlington. 9. Addison, 19,993 20,469 Middlebury, Vergennes. 10. Rutland, 29,487 29,983 Rutland. 11. Bennington, 15,893 16,125 Bennington, Manchester 12. Washington, 10,372 14,113 MONTPELIER. 13. Orleans, 5,838 6,976 Irasburg
The five first named counties lie from S. to N. on Connecticut river, and the fire next from N. to S. on lake Champlain. Bennington is in the S. W. corner of the state, Washington in the centre, and Orleans on the northern boundary.
Lakes.] Lake Memphremagog, on the northern houndary, is parily in this state, but principally in Canada. It is 30 miles long and discharges itself through St. Francis river into the St. Lawrence. Luke Champlain, on the western boundary, is 128 miles long, from Whitehall, at its southern extre inity, to its termination 24 iniles north of the Canada line, and from half a mile to 16 miles broad. It discharges itself at its northern extremity through the river Sorelle into the St. Lawrence. There are several large islands in the northern part of the lake, the principal of which are North and South Hero. A battle was fought on this lake on the 11th of September 1814, in which the American fleet, under Commodore Macdonough, gained a complete victory over the British.
Rivers.) The Connecticut forms the eastern boundary. The principal tributaries of the Connecticut, beginning in the south, are, 1. West river, which joins it about 10 miles from the southera boundary; 2. Qrecchy, which discharges itself 10 miles above Windsor; 3. White river, which discharges itself 5 miles above the Queechy, and 4. The Pasumpsic, which rises a little S. E. of lake Memphremagog, and running south, discharges itself 15 or 20 miles above Newbury.
The principal rivers which fall into lake Champlain, beginning in the north, are, 1. Missisque river, which rises to the s. W. of lake Memphremagog, and runs into Missisque bay in the N. E. part of the lake. 2. La Moil, which rises to the south of lake Memphremagog, and running west falls into the lake 10 miles north of Burlington. 3. Onion river, which rises still farther south, and running nearly parallel with La Moil, passes by Montpelier, and discharges itself into the lake 4 miles N. W. of Burlington village. 4. Otter creek, which rises in the southwestern part of the state, and ruouing in a direction west of north, passes by Rutlanil, Mildlebury and Vergennes, and discharges itself about 20 miles south of Burlington.-None of the rivers of Vermont are navigable, except for a few miles from their mouths ; but they aliound with valuable mill seats, especially Oiter creek.
Mountains.) The Green mountains, from wbich the state derives its name, come from Massachusetts, and run from south to north along the east side of Bennington, Rutland and Addison counties. lo Addison county they divide; the western and principal chain continues a northerly course, and terminates near the northern boundary of the siate in a succession of small hills ; while the height of land, as it is called, strikes off to the northeast, dividing the waters which fall into the Connecticut from those which fall into lake Memphremagog and lake Champlain. The western range presents much the lottiest summits, but has openings which alsori a passage for Onion and La Moil rivers.
The highest summits of the Green mountains are Killington peak, a fe:v miles east of Rutland; Camel's Rump, about half way between Montpelier and Burlington, and Mansfield nountain, a few miles farther norih, all of which are more than 3,500 feet above the level of the sea. Ascutney, a single mountain 5 miles S. S. W. of Windsor, is 3,329 feel above the sea.
Face of the Country, Soil, &c.] The country on each side of the Green mountains consists of hills, rallies and plaids. The plains are of moderate extent, the surface being almost everywhere undulating. The soil is generally rich, and yield- abone dantly wheat, barley, rye, grass, Indian corn, oats, peas, Qax, &c. Much of the land on the Green mountains in the northern part of the state is excellent for grazing.
Chief Towns.) MONTPELIER, the capital, is on Onion river, near the centre of the state, at the point of intersection of several principal roads. Population, in 1810, 1,877.--Newbury is a pleasant town on Connecticut river, opposite Haverhill in NewHampshire, and 34 miles E. S. E. of Montpelier.
Windsor is a beautiful town on Connecticut river, 60 miles sonth of Montpelier. It is a place of considerable business and contains the state prison. Population, in 1810, 2,757. Brattleborough is on Connecticut river, 43 miles below Windsor, near the southeast corner of the state. Bennington, near the S. W. corner of the state, is one of the oldest towns in Vermont, and is famous for the battle of August 1777, in which the American militia, under General Stark, defeated the British. Population, in 1810, 2,524. Rulland is on Otter creek, 57 miles north of Bennington, and 45 west of Windsor.
Middlebury, the seat of Middlebury college, is pleasantly situated on Otter creek, at the falls, 20 miles from the mouth of the river. In the vicinity of the falls there are numerous milis and manufacturing establishments. An extensive quarry of fine marble was discovered in 1804 on the bank of the creek, near the centre of the village. It is now wrought into tomb-stones, mantlepieces, side boards, &c. and transported to various parts of the country to the amount of 7,000 or 8,000 dollars annually. Population, in 1810, 2,138. Vergennes is at the head of navigation on Otter creek, 11 miles below Middlebury.
Burlington, the seat of the University of Vermont, is delightfully situated, on a bay of the same name in Lake Champlain, near the mouth of Onion river. The village occupies the side of a hill, ascending nearly a mile from the bay, and is one of the handsomest in the state. Within the limits of the township, a mile N. E. of the village, are the falls of Onion river, around which are several valuable mills and manufacturing establishments. About 20 vessels navigate lake Champlain, most of which are owned in this place. Population, in 1810, 1,690. St. Albans is a flourishing town on lake Champlain, near the northwest corper of the state.
Education. There are two colleges, one at Middlebury and the other at Burlington. Middlebury college was incorporated in
1800, and has been supported entirely by private bounty. To 1891 it had a president, 4 professors, 2 tutors, and 92 students. It has a library of more than 1,200 volumes and a valuable philocophical apparatus.-The University of Verinont, at Burlington, was incorporated in 1791, and has been liberally patronized by the state. The funds consist principally of lands, amounting to about 40,000 acres, and yield at present an income of about 1,200 dollars. The number of students in 1818 was 28.
The American literary, scientific and military academy, was es.. tablished jo 1820 at Norwich on Connecticut river, 21 miles north of Windsor. It is under the superintendance of Capt. Alden Partridge, and has 6 professors, and 117 students or cadets. The students are required to wear a uniform dress, and to go through a regolar system of military exercises, besides the usual course of studies pursued at other literary institutions.
Population and Religion.] The population in 1790 was 85,589; in 1800, 154,465; in 1810, 217,895; and in 1820, 235,764; having nearly trebled in 30 years. About half the popolation in 1820 was in the four southern counties ; the northern part of the state is thinly settled. Vermont bas been settled entirely from the other stales of New England, and the inliabi. tants hare of course the New-England character. The Congregatiopalists and Baplists are the prevailing denominations of Christians.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a house of representatives, chosen annually by the different towns, each town being entitled to one representative. The executive power is vested in a governor, lieutenant governor and twelve counsellors, chosen annually by general ballot. The constitution provides also for the election of a council of censors, to consist of 13 persons, chosen by the people once in seven years. They hold their office for the space of one year, and it is their business to inquire whether the constitution has been preserved inviolate, during the seven years immediately preceding their appointment, and whether the legislative and executive branches of the government have performed their duty. Every person, of 21 years of age, having resided in the state one year, is entitled to vote at all elections of state officers.
Commerce. The principal exports are pot and pearl ashes, lumber, beef, pork, butter, cheese, fax, &c. The markets to which the people of this state principally resort are Queliec, Montreal, 'I'roy, Albany, New York, Hartford and Bostou. To Quebec they send large quantities of lumber by lake Champlain and the river Sorelle. With Montreal they trade for fors, peltry, and some foreign commodities. On the western side of the mountains they derive most of their foreign goods from Troy, Al. bany and New York. Fatted cattle they drive to New-York and Boston Horses they sell at New-Haven and Hartford for the West-Jodian market. On Connecticut river, lumber and other produce is transported to Hartford ; and foreign commodities of various kinds are taken in return. Most parts of the state, also, carry on considerable trade with Boston.
Situation and Extent.] Massachusetts is bounded N. by Vermont and New-Hampshire ; E. by the Atlantic; S. by Rhode Island and Connecticut ; and W. by New-York. Its length on the northern line is 130 miles ; its breadth at the western extremity is 50 miles. It extends from 41° 23' to 43° 52' N. lat. and from 69° 50' to 73° 10' W. lon. The area is estimated at 7,250 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 14 counties and 300 towns.
Counties. Touns. Pop.in 1810. Pop. in 1820. Chief towns, 1. Essex, 26 71,888 74,695 Salem, Newburyport. 2. Middlesex, 44 52,789 61.472 Charlestown, Cambridge. 3. Suffolk, 2 34,381 43,940 Bostos. 4. Norfolk, 22 31,245 36,471 Dedham. 5. Plymouth, 18 35,169 38,136 Plymouth. 6. Barnstable, 14 22,211 21,026 Barnstable. 7. Bristol, 19 37,168 40,908 Taunton. 8. Worcester, 54 64,910 73,625 Worcester. 9. Franklin, 25 27,301 29,268 Greenfield. 10. Hampshire, 22 24,553 26,487 Northampton. 11. Hampden, 18 24,421 28,021 Springfield. 12. Berkshire, 32 35,907 35,720 Lenox. 13. Duke's, 3 3,290 3.292 Edgarton. 14. Nantucket, 1 6,807 7,266 Nantucket.
300 472,010 523,287
The seven first named counties horder on the sea-coast. Worcester county is in the centre of the state and extende through its whole breadth from Rhode Island to New-Hampshire. Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden are on Connecticut river. Berkshire is the most western county, and borders on Vermont, New-York and Connecticut. Duke's county embraces Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth islands. Nantucket consists of the island of Nanlucket.
Peninsela.) The county of Barnstable is a peninsula, commonly called the peninsula of cope Cod. Its shape is that of a man's arın bent in arus, both at the ellow and wrist. A great part of this peninsula is sandy and barren, and in many places, wholly destitute of vegetation ; yet it is populous. The inhabitanis obtain their support almost entirely from the ocean ; the men being constantly employed at sea ; and the boys, at a very early age, are post on board the fishing boats.
In consequence of the violent east win:ls, it is supposed that the cape is gradually wearing away.