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ples abound in New-England, more perhaps than in any other country, and cider is the common drink of the inhabitants of every class. Rye, barley, oats, potatoes, beans, peas, onions and other garden vegetables are also among the cultivated productions.
The noblest production of the forest is the white pine. It grows to six feet in diameter, and its height, in some instances, exceeds 260 feet. Its stem is often exactly straight, gently tapering, and without a limb to the height of more than 100 feet. This tree is of vast importance for building. The white oak of New-England, is a poble and most useful tree, but is less durable than the English oak. The chesnut is generally used for fence ing, and is very valuable for building. The maple is a noble tree, and the sugar made from its sap is of an excellent quality.
Education.] Common schools are universally established, and a person of mature age, who cannot both read and write, is rarely to be found. Academies are also numerous; and there are oine colleges in which the Greek and Latin languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, logic, rhetoric and all the higher
inches are taught by recitations and lectures. The term of study in all the colleges is four years.
Divisions.] New-England is divided into six states, viz. 1. Maine. 2. New-Hampshire. 3. Vermont. 4. Massachusetts. 3. Rhode Island. 6. Connecticut.
Situation ana Extent.] Maine is bounded N. W. and N. by Lower Canada ; E. by New-Brunswick; S. by the Atlantic ocean, and W by New-Hampshire. It extends from 43° 5' to 48° N. lat. and from 66° 49' to 70° 55' W. lon. The area is estimated at 31,750 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into pine counties and 246 towns.
Counties. Towns. Pop. in 1810. Pop. in 1820. 1. York, 23 41,877 46,283 2. Cumberland, 25 42,831 49,445 3. Lincoln, 34 42,992 53,189 4. Hancock, 31 30,031 31,290 5. Washington, 13 7,870 12,744 6. Oxford, 31 17,630 27,104 7. Kennebeck, 33 32,564 42,623 8. Somerset, 31 12,910 21,787 3. Penobscot, 25
* In 1810 Penobscot county was included in Hancock.
The Ave Arst named counties border on the sea coast from S. W to N. E.; the rest lie behind them in the interior in the same direction.
Bays.) The coast of this state is very bold, and indented by numerous spacious bays, the principal of which, beginning in the west, are, Casco bay, which sets up between cape Elizabeth and cape Small Point ; Penobscot bay, which receives the river of the same name, and contains numerous islands and many fine harbors; Frenchman's bay, full farther east; and Fassamaquoddy bay, which receives St. Croix river, and communicates with the bay of Fundy between West Quoddy head and the boast of New Brunswick.
Lakes.] Umbagog lake is principally in this state, but partly in New Hampshire. It is 18 miles long and in some places 10 broad. Moosehead lake, lying N. E. of the Umbagog, is the large est in New-England. It is said to be 60 miles long. Chesuncook lake, 10 or 15 miles N. E. of the Moosehead, is a large body of water. There are several other large lakes, still further north ; but very little is known about them, that part of the etate not having as yet been explorer. Sebago pond is a large body oi water, 18 miles N. W. of Portland. Smaller lakes and ponds abouod in every part of the state.
Pivers.] The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the west. 1. The Saco rises among the White mountains in New Hampshire, and running 3. E. into Maine, falls into the sea at Saco. It has falls 6 miles from its mouth, which completely obstruct the navigation. 2. The Androscoggin forms the outlet of Umbagog lake. The first part o! ils course is in New-Hampshire. After entering Maioe it runs at first in an easterly and afterwards in a southerly direction, and joins the Kennebeck, after a course of about 150 miles. It has fälls near its mouth. 3. The Kennebeck is formed by the union of two principal branches. The eastern branch is the outlet of Moosehead lake; the western, called Dead river, rises in the bigblands which separate Maine from Canada, and unites with the eastern branch about 20 miles below Moosehead lake. Alier the junction, the river flows south to the Atlantic. It is navigable for ships 12 miles, to Bath; for sloops 45 miles, to Augusta, at the head of the tide ; and for boats 60 miles, to Waterville. At Waterville the navigation is interrupted by Teconic falls, which afford pumerous sites for mills. 4. The Penobscot, the largest river in Maine, is formed by two principal branches. The western and longest branch rises west of Moosehead lake, in the highlands which separate Maine from Canada, and flowing east through Chesuncook lake, unites with the eastero branch about 60 miles north of Bangor. After the junction, the river flows south, and falls into the head of Penobscot bay. It is navigable for sea vessels to Bangor, 50 miles from the entrance of the bay. 5. The St. Croix river, called also the Schoodic, forms the boundary between the Voitent States and New Brunswick from its mouth to ils source. It falls into Passamaquoddy bay and is navigable for sea vessels to the falls,
at Calais, 30 miles from its mouth. 6. The St. John river rises à little north of Chesuncook lake, and after passing through three great lakes, runs in a northeasterly course for some distance, and then, turning to the southeast, enters New-Brunswick, and discharges itself into the bay of Fundy. With the exception of two places, wbere there are short portages, it is navigable for boats from its mouth to its source, a distance of more than 300 miles.
Face of the Country.) An extensive dist ict in the northwestern and central parts of the state lying around the head waters of the Kennebeck, Penobscot and St. John is mountainous, and some of the summits are very lofty, particularly Katahdin, situated 80 miles north of Bangor, and supposed by some to be the highest land in the United States. The rest of the state is generally hilly, and the hills diminish in height on every side as you recede from the mountains. In the southwestern parts are extensive plains.
Climate.) In all parts of Maine the air is pure and salobrious. The summers in most parts of the state are favorable to the growth of all the vegetable productions of the northern states. In some parts, however, Indian corn, and the plants of a more tender kind, which require a great and uniform degree of heat, are frequently injured, and sometimes destroyed by untimely frosts. In the winter the snow covers the ground to a considerable depth and continues, in some parts, two months, and in others four and ered five. In the interior, the temperature, both in summer and winter, is much more uniform than on the sea coast.
Soil and Productions.] The southwestern part of the state, and the tract of country along the sea coast from 10 to 20 miles wide, is generally poor, though in some places tolerably fertile. The land on the Kennebeck and between that river and the Penobscot is excellent. East of the Penobscot it is less productive. The mountainous tract in the northwest has a poor soil. The lands on St. John's river and its numerous branches are said to be very fertile, but this part of the state is not yet settled. The principal productions are grass, Indian corn, wheat, barley, rye, flax, &c.
Chief Towns.) Portland, the capital, is situated on a peningola in Casco bay 118 miles N. N. E. of Boston. The harbor is safe, easy of access, and seldom frozen over, but is not large, and requires considerable fortifications for its protection. The town is by far the most considerable in the state in population, wealth and commerce, and is connected with an extensive and growing back country. In 1815, it was the eighth town in the United states in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 50,417. The population, in 1820, was 8,581.
Brunswick, the seat of Bowdoin college, is 30 miles north-east of Portland, on the Androscoggin, at the falls, which furnish here many valuable seats for mills and manufactories. The population of the town in 1820 was 2,931.
Bath is on the western side of Kennebeck river, at the head of iFinter navigation, 12 miles from the sea, and 35 miles N. E. of
Portland. More shipping is owned here than in any other towo in Maine except Portland; the number of tons in 1815 being 20,627. Population, in 1820, 3,026. Wiscasset is 14 miles N. E. of Bath. The barbor is safe, capacious, easy of access, and open at all seasons of the year. A large amount of shipping is owned here. The number of tons, in 1815, was 18,429. Popplation, in 1820, 2,131. Waldoborough, 22 miles east of Wiscasset, has a large amount of shipping, employed principally in the coasting trade. Population, in 1820, 9,448.
Castine is important principally as a military position. It is situated on a promontory, nearly at the head of the east side of Penobscot bay. The harbor is excellent for any number of ships of the largest size, and is aocessible at all seasons of the year. The town has great strength from its natural situation. From the narrowness of the isthmus which connects it with the main, it could be insulated without much labor or expense ; and this mode of defence, in addition to strong batteries, would enable it to resist any force which would probably be brought against it. An enemy in possession of Castine and having the control on the water, commands the whole country between the Penobscot and the St. Croix. This place was taken by the British during the late war, but was restored on the return of peace. Population, io 1820, 975.
Bangor is a fourishing town, 35 miles north of Castine, on the west side of the Penobscot, at the head of navigation. Population, in 1820, 1,221. Machias, situated on a bay of the same Dame, 40 miles W. S. W. of Eastport, is a thriving town, and carries on considerable trade, principally in lumber. There are 26 saw-mills within the town, which cut on an average, upwards of 10,000,000, feet of boards in a year. Lubec is situated at the S. E. extremity of the state, on a peninsula, on the west side of Passamaquoddy bay, at the entrance. It is a new town, commenced in 1815, and is well situated for commerce. It has an excellent barbor and considerable. trade. Population, in 1820, 1430. Eastport, on Moose island in Passamaquoddy bay, 4 miles N. N. W. of Lubec, is favorably situated for commerce. Population, in 1820, 1,937.
York is an ancient town, on the coa near the southwest ex. tremity of the state. Population, in 1820, 3,224. Saco at the inouth of the river of the same name, is well situated for trade and manufactures. The principal village is at the falls, which furnish numerous sites for mills and manufacturing establishments. Population, in 1820, 2,532.
Hallowell is a flourishing town on Kennebeck river, 40 miles from its month, at the head of the tide, in the midst of a fertile country. The river is navigable to this place for vessels of 150 tous. Within a few years the town has increased very rapidlv, and is now one of the most waelthy and flourishing places in Maine. Population, in 1820, 2,919. Augusta, on the Kennebeck, 2 miles abore Hallowell, has 2,457 inhabitants. Vessels of 100 tors,
ascend to this place. The most fionrishing towns on the Kennebeck above Augusta, are Vassalborough, Wateruille and Norrigewock.
Population.] The population in 1790 was 96,540 ; in 1800, 151,719; in 1810, 228,705 ; and in 1820, 293,335, having more than trebled in 30 years. The most populous parts of the state are on the sea-coast and the Kennebeck river. The northern half of the state is as yet uninhabited, and alunost unexplored. There is so much vacant, fertile land that the population will. probably increase rapidly for many years.
Education.) Bowdoin college, in Brunswick, was incorporated in 1794. In 1822 it had a President and 4 professors, including 2 medical professors ; 2 tutors ; 167 students, including 49 ivedical students; a complete philosophical apparatus, and a library of about 5,000 volumes. The buildings are pleasantly situated on an elevated plain, commanding a view of the Androscoggin and the adjacent country. The college was endowed by the legislature of Massachusetts with five townships of land, and the sum of 3,000 dollars appually, in money. Since the separation of Maine from Massachusetts the legislature of the new state has continued the annual grant. The principal private benefactor of the college was the late Hon. James Bowdoin, whose donations, amounted to 10,000 dollars.
The Maine charity school at Bangor was incorporated in 1814. Its object is to educate young men for the ministry in a shorter time than is usual at other seminaries. The course of study is completed in four years. The qualifications for admission are a knowledge of the English and Latin grammar, and some acquaintance with the Latin classics. The founders of the insti. tution propose by an abridgement of the term of study to furnish religious instructors, at a moderate expense, sufficiently qualified for the services required in new seitlements. The school is under the direction of two professors and a preceptor, and in 1819 had 19 students.
A Literary and Theological institution, under the direction of members of the Baptist denomination, has been establisbed at Waterville, on the Keonebeck. It was opened in 1818. with 12 or 15, theological students. Common schools are supported by law in every town in the state.
Religion.) The Congregationalists and Baptists are the prevailing denominations. They have each more than 100 churches.
Government.] Maine was formerly united with Massachusetts under the same government, but in 1820, by a mutual agreement, the union was amicably, dissolved, and Maine, after adopting a republican constitution, was erected into an independent state and admitted into the Union..
Commerce.] A large portion of the state is yet covered with forests, and hence lumber at present is the great article of export. It is brought down all the principal rivers in large quantities. The other articles of export: are fish, potash, beef and